Abstract

We demonstrate a long-term operation with reduced phase noise in the carrier-envelope-phase (CEP) stabilization process by employing a double feedback loop and an improved signal detection in the direct locking technique [Opt. Express 13, 2969 (2005)]. A homodyne balanced detection method is employed for efficiently suppressing the dc noise in the f-2f beat signal, which is converted into the CEP noise in the direct locking loop working at around zero carrier-envelope offset frequency (f ceo). In order to enhance the long-term stability, we have used the double feedback scheme that modulates both the oscillator pump power for a fast control and the intracavity-prism insertion depth for a slow and high-dynamic-range control. As a result, the in-loop phase jitter is reduced from 50 mrad of the previous result to 29 mrad, corresponding to 13 as in time scale, and the long-term stable operation is achieved for more than 12 hours.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  23. M. Kreb, T. Loffler, M. D. Thomson, R. Dorner, H. Gimpel, K. Zrost, T. Ergler, R. Moshammer, U. Morgner, J. Ullrich, and H. G. Roskos, "Determination of the carrier-envelope phase of few-cycle laser pulses with terahertz-emission spectroscopy," Nature Physics 2, 327-331 (2006).
    [CrossRef]

2007

2006

M. Kreb, T. Loffler, M. D. Thomson, R. Dorner, H. Gimpel, K. Zrost, T. Ergler, R. Moshammer, U. Morgner, J. Ullrich, and H. G. Roskos, "Determination of the carrier-envelope phase of few-cycle laser pulses with terahertz-emission spectroscopy," Nature Physics 2, 327-331 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K.-H. Hong, J. Lee, B. Hou, J. A. Nees, E. Power, and G. A. Mourou, "Carrier-envelope phase stabilization of high-contrast femtosecond laser pulses with a relativistic intensity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 031113 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. Gagnon, I. Thomann, A. Paul, A. Lytle, S. Backus, M. Murnane, H. Kapteyn, and A. Sandhu, "Long-term carrier-envelope phase stability from a grating-based, chirped pulse amplifier," Opt. Lett. 31, 1866-1868 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Li, E. Moon, and Z. Chang, Opt. "carrier-envelope phase shift caused by variation of grating separation, Opt. Lett. 31, 3113-3115 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. L. Hall, "Nobel Lecture: Defining and measuring optical frequencies," Rev. Mod. Phys. 78, 1279-1295 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. W. Hansch, "Nobel Lecture: Passion for precision," Rev. Mod. Phys. 78, 1297-1309 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

2004

2003

F. Grasbon, G. G. Paulus, H. Walter, P. Villoresi, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, M. Nisoli, and S. De Silvestri, "Above-threshold ionization at the few-cycle limit," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 173003 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Baltuska, M. Uiberacker, E. Goulielmakis, R. Kienberger, V. S. Yakovlev, Th. Udem, T. W. Hansch, and F. Krausz, "Phase-controlled amplification of few-cycle laser pulses," IEEE Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 972-989 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. T. Cundiff and J. Ye, "Colloquium: femtosecond optical frequency combs," Rev. Mod. Phys. 75, 325-342 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Baltuska, Th. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hansch, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields," Nature 421, 611-615 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K.-H. Hong, T. J. Yu, Y. S. Lee, C. H. Nam, and R. S. Windeler, "Measurement of the shot-to-shot carrier-envelope phase slip of femtosecond laser pulses," J. Kor. Phys. Soc. 42, 101-105 (2003).

2002

M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, M. Uiberacker, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, and F. Krausz, "Time-resolved atomic inner-shell spectroscopy," Nature 419, 803-807 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, C. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond metrology," Nature 414, 509-513 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, "Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis," Science 288, 635-639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999

H. R. Telle, G. Steinmeyer, A. E. Dunlop, J. Stenger, D. H. Sutter, and U. Keller, "Carrier-envelope offset phase control: A novel concept for absolute optical frequency measurement and ultrashort pulse generation," Appl. Phys. B 69, 327-332 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. Udem, J. Reichert, R. Holzwarth and T. W. Hansch, "Absolute optical frequency measurement of the Cesium D1 line with a mode-locked laser," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3568-3571 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1996

1985

D. Strickland and G. Mourou, "Compression of amplified chirped optical pulses," Opt. Commun. 56, 219- 221 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B

H. R. Telle, G. Steinmeyer, A. E. Dunlop, J. Stenger, D. H. Sutter, and U. Keller, "Carrier-envelope offset phase control: A novel concept for absolute optical frequency measurement and ultrashort pulse generation," Appl. Phys. B 69, 327-332 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

K.-H. Hong, J. Lee, B. Hou, J. A. Nees, E. Power, and G. A. Mourou, "Carrier-envelope phase stabilization of high-contrast femtosecond laser pulses with a relativistic intensity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 031113 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

A. Baltuska, M. Uiberacker, E. Goulielmakis, R. Kienberger, V. S. Yakovlev, Th. Udem, T. W. Hansch, and F. Krausz, "Phase-controlled amplification of few-cycle laser pulses," IEEE Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 972-989 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Kor. Phys. Soc.

K.-H. Hong, T. J. Yu, Y. S. Lee, C. H. Nam, and R. S. Windeler, "Measurement of the shot-to-shot carrier-envelope phase slip of femtosecond laser pulses," J. Kor. Phys. Soc. 42, 101-105 (2003).

Nature

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, C. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond metrology," Nature 414, 509-513 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Baltuska, Th. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hansch, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields," Nature 421, 611-615 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, M. Uiberacker, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, and F. Krausz, "Time-resolved atomic inner-shell spectroscopy," Nature 419, 803-807 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature Physics

M. Kreb, T. Loffler, M. D. Thomson, R. Dorner, H. Gimpel, K. Zrost, T. Ergler, R. Moshammer, U. Morgner, J. Ullrich, and H. G. Roskos, "Determination of the carrier-envelope phase of few-cycle laser pulses with terahertz-emission spectroscopy," Nature Physics 2, 327-331 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

D. Strickland and G. Mourou, "Compression of amplified chirped optical pulses," Opt. Commun. 56, 219- 221 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. Lett.

T. Udem, J. Reichert, R. Holzwarth and T. W. Hansch, "Absolute optical frequency measurement of the Cesium D1 line with a mode-locked laser," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3568-3571 (1999).
[CrossRef]

F. Grasbon, G. G. Paulus, H. Walter, P. Villoresi, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, M. Nisoli, and S. De Silvestri, "Above-threshold ionization at the few-cycle limit," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 173003 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rev. Mod. Phys.

J. L. Hall, "Nobel Lecture: Defining and measuring optical frequencies," Rev. Mod. Phys. 78, 1279-1295 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. W. Hansch, "Nobel Lecture: Passion for precision," Rev. Mod. Phys. 78, 1297-1309 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. T. Cundiff and J. Ye, "Colloquium: femtosecond optical frequency combs," Rev. Mod. Phys. 75, 325-342 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Science

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, "Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis," Science 288, 635-639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Layout of the direct locking technique for CEP stabilization. (OC: output coupler, BS: beam splitter, MSF: micro-structured fiber, HS: harmonic separating mirror, KTP: potassium titanium oxide phosphate (KTiOPO4), BPF: 532 nm bandpass filter, HWP: halfwave(1/2) plate, Pol:polarizer, APD1 & APD2: avalanche photodiode, AOM: acousto optic modulator, the blue box(a): homodyne balanced detection, and the red box(b): double feedback loop).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Comparison of relative phase variation measured with (a) simple Balanced Detection (BD) and (b) Homodyne Balanced Detection (HBD).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

CEP stabilization using the direct locking method (blue line) Pure beat signal extracted from the Homodyne Balanced Detection and (red line) the stabilized CEP signal. Histograms of the phase noise signal before(blue) and after(red) stabilization

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Phase spectral density (red) and accumulated phase jitter (blue) under CEP stabilization. The scale of observation time (upper) is related to the inverse scale of frequency (bottom)

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Comparison of operating characteristics between (a) the fast feedback loop only and (b) the double feedback loop (CEP: stabilized carrier-envelope phase, Power: laser output power, AOM: the feedback signal to AOM (fast feedback), and PZT: the feedback signal to PZT (slow feedback)). With only the fast feedback loop of AOM, mode-locking is broken after 4.2 min. but with the double feedback with PZT, the CEP stabilization is maintained without changing the average power and drifting the signal of AOM.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Long term operation of the carrier-envelope phase stabilized femtosecond oscillator by using the double feedback loop.

Equations (5)

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V 1 ( t ) = G 1 × ( V f 2 n S ( t ) + V 2 f n P ( t ) + 2 V f 2 n S ( t ) V 2 f n P ( t ) sin φ cep ( t ) ) × cos 2 π 4 ,
V 2 ( t ) = G 2 × ( V f 2 n P ( t ) + V 2 f n S ( t ) ) ,
V 1 ( t ) = V f 2 n S ( t ) + V 2 f n P ( t ) + 2 V f 2 n S ( t ) V 2 f n P ( t ) sin φ cep ( t ) ,
V 2 ( t ) = V f 2 n P ( t ) + V 2 f n S ( t ) + 2 V f 2 n P ( t ) V 2 f n S ( t ) sin φ cep ( t ) ,
V err ( t ) = V 1 ( t ) V 2 ( t ) = 4 V f 2 n ( t ) V 2 f n ( t ) sin φ cep ( t ) 4 V f 2 n ( t ) V 2 f n ( t ) φ cep ( t )

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