Abstract

GaAs spacer thicknesses are varied to tune the coupling between InGaAs surface quantum dots (QDs) and multilayers of buried QDs. Temperature and excitation intensity dependence of the photoluminescence together with time resolved photoluminescence reveal that coupling between layers of QDs and consequently the optical properties of both the surface and the buried QDs significantly depend on the GaAs spacer. This work provides an experimental method to tune and control the optical performance of surface QDs.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. D. Bimberg, M. Grundmann, and N. N. Ledentsov, Quantum Dot Heterostructures, (John Wiley & Sons, New York/Chichester, 1998).
  2. M. Bayer, P. Hawrylak, K. Hinzer, S. Fafard, M. Korkusinski, Z. R. Wasilewski, O. Stern, and A. Forchel, "Coupling and Entangling of Quantum States in QuantumDot Molecules," Science 291, 451 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. S. S. Li, J. B. Xia, J. L. Liu, F. H. Yang, Z. C. Niu, S. L. Feng, and H. Z. Zheng, "InAs/GaAs single-electron quantum dot qubit," J. Appl. Phys. 90, 6151 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  4. P. Bhattacharya, S. Ghosh, and A. D. Stiff-Roberts, "Quantum dot opto-electronic devices," Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 34, 1-40 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  5. N. T. Yeh, T. E. Nee, J. I. Chyi, T. M. Hsu, and C. C. Huang, "Matrix dependence of strain-induced wavelength shift in self-assembled InAs quantum-dot heterostructures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1567 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  6. F. Ferdos, S. M. Wang, Y. Q. Wei, A. Larsson, M. Sadeghi, and Q. X. Zhao, "Influence of a thin GaAs cap layer on structural and optical properties of InAs quantum dots," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1195 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  7. Y. Nabetani, T. Matsumoto, G. Sasikala, and I. Suemune, "Theory of strain states in InAs quantum dots and dependence on their capping layers," J. Appl. Phys. 98, 063502, 2005.
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  9. J. Z. Wang, Z. Yang, C. L. Yang, and Z. G. Wang, "Photoluminescence of InAs quantum dots grown on GaAs surface," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 2837 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  10. Z. F. Wei, S. J. Xu, R. F. Duan, Q. Li, J. Wang, Y. P. Zheng, and H. C. Liu, "Thermal quenching of luminescence from buried and surface InGaAs self-assembled quantum dots with high sheet density," J. Appl. Phys. 98, 084305 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  11. Z. L. Miao, Y. W. Zhang, S. J. Chua, Y. H. Chy, P. Chen, and S. Tripathy, "Optical properties of InAs/GaAs surface quantum dots," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 031914 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  12. C. Y. Zhang, H. C. Yeh, M. T. Kuroki, and T. H. Wang, "Single-quantum-dot-based DNA nanosensor," Nat. Mater. 4, 826 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. W. Cai, D. W. Shin, K. Chen, O. CHeysens, Q. Z. Cao, S. X. Wang, S. S. Gambhir, and X. Y. Chen, "Peptide-labeled near-infrared quantum dots for Imaging tumor vasculature in living subjects," Nano Lett. 6, 669 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. K. Adlkofer, E. F. Duijs, F. Findeis, M. Bichler, A. Zrenner, E. Sackmann, G. Abstreiter, and M. Tanaka, "Enhancement of photoluminescence from near-surface quantum dots by suppression of surface state density," Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 4, 785 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  17. B. L. Liang, Zh. M. Wang, Yu. I. Mazur, G. J. Salamo, "Photoluminescence of surface InAs quantum dots stacking on multilayer buried quantum dots," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 243124 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  18. Zh. M. Wang, Yu. I. Mazur, Sh. Seydmohamadi, G. J. Salamo, and H. Kissel, "Photoluminescence linewidths from multiple layers of laterally self-ordered InGaAs quantum dots," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 213105 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  19. P. Hove, B. Abbey, E. C. Le Ru, R. Murray, and T. S. Jones, "Strain-interactions between InAs/GaAs quantum dots layers," Thin Solid Films 464-465, 225 (2004).
  20. V. Talalaev, J. Tomm, N. Zakharov, P. Werner, B. Novikov, and A. Tonkikh, "Transient spectroscopy of InAs quantum dot molecules," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 284 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  21. Yu. I. Mazur, Z. M. Wang, G. G. Tarasov, M. Xiao, G. J. Salamo, J. W. Tomm, V. Talalaev, and H. Kissel, "Interdot carrier transfer in asymmetric bilayer InAs/GaAs quantum dot structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 063102 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  22. R. Heitz, I. Mukhametzhanov, P. Chen, and A. Madhukar, "Excitation transfer in self-organized asymmetric quantum dot pair," Phys. Rev. B. 58, R10151 (1998).
    [CrossRef]

2006 (3)

W. Cai, D. W. Shin, K. Chen, O. CHeysens, Q. Z. Cao, S. X. Wang, S. S. Gambhir, and X. Y. Chen, "Peptide-labeled near-infrared quantum dots for Imaging tumor vasculature in living subjects," Nano Lett. 6, 669 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. L. Liang, Zh. M. Wang, Yu. I. Mazur, G. J. Salamo, E. A. DecuirJr., and M. O. Manasreh, "Correlation between surface and buried InAs quantum dots," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 043125 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. L. Liang, Zh. M. Wang, Yu. I. Mazur, G. J. Salamo, "Photoluminescence of surface InAs quantum dots stacking on multilayer buried quantum dots," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 243124 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (6)

Zh. M. Wang, Yu. I. Mazur, Sh. Seydmohamadi, G. J. Salamo, and H. Kissel, "Photoluminescence linewidths from multiple layers of laterally self-ordered InGaAs quantum dots," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 213105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Z. F. Wei, S. J. Xu, R. F. Duan, Q. Li, J. Wang, Y. P. Zheng, and H. C. Liu, "Thermal quenching of luminescence from buried and surface InGaAs self-assembled quantum dots with high sheet density," J. Appl. Phys. 98, 084305 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Z. L. Miao, Y. W. Zhang, S. J. Chua, Y. H. Chy, P. Chen, and S. Tripathy, "Optical properties of InAs/GaAs surface quantum dots," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 031914 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Y. Zhang, H. C. Yeh, M. T. Kuroki, and T. H. Wang, "Single-quantum-dot-based DNA nanosensor," Nat. Mater. 4, 826 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Nabetani, T. Matsumoto, G. Sasikala, and I. Suemune, "Theory of strain states in InAs quantum dots and dependence on their capping layers," J. Appl. Phys. 98, 063502, 2005.
[CrossRef]

Yu. I. Mazur, Z. M. Wang, G. G. Tarasov, M. Xiao, G. J. Salamo, J. W. Tomm, V. Talalaev, and H. Kissel, "Interdot carrier transfer in asymmetric bilayer InAs/GaAs quantum dot structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 063102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (3)

P. Bhattacharya, S. Ghosh, and A. D. Stiff-Roberts, "Quantum dot opto-electronic devices," Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 34, 1-40 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. Hove, B. Abbey, E. C. Le Ru, R. Murray, and T. S. Jones, "Strain-interactions between InAs/GaAs quantum dots layers," Thin Solid Films 464-465, 225 (2004).

V. Talalaev, J. Tomm, N. Zakharov, P. Werner, B. Novikov, and A. Tonkikh, "Transient spectroscopy of InAs quantum dot molecules," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 284 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

K. Adlkofer, E. F. Duijs, F. Findeis, M. Bichler, A. Zrenner, E. Sackmann, G. Abstreiter, and M. Tanaka, "Enhancement of photoluminescence from near-surface quantum dots by suppression of surface state density," Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 4, 785 (2002).
[CrossRef]

F. Ferdos, S. M. Wang, Y. Q. Wei, A. Larsson, M. Sadeghi, and Q. X. Zhao, "Influence of a thin GaAs cap layer on structural and optical properties of InAs quantum dots," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1195 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (3)

M. Bayer, P. Hawrylak, K. Hinzer, S. Fafard, M. Korkusinski, Z. R. Wasilewski, O. Stern, and A. Forchel, "Coupling and Entangling of Quantum States in QuantumDot Molecules," Science 291, 451 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. S. Li, J. B. Xia, J. L. Liu, F. H. Yang, Z. C. Niu, S. L. Feng, and H. Z. Zheng, "InAs/GaAs single-electron quantum dot qubit," J. Appl. Phys. 90, 6151 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. F. Duijs, F. Findeis, R. A. Deutschmann, M. Bichler, A. Zrenner, G. Abstreiter, K. Adlkofer, M. Tanaka, and E. Sackmann, "Influence of Thiol coupling on photoluminescence of near surface InAs quantum dots," Phys. Stat. Sol.(b) 224, 871 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

N. T. Yeh, T. E. Nee, J. I. Chyi, T. M. Hsu, and C. C. Huang, "Matrix dependence of strain-induced wavelength shift in self-assembled InAs quantum-dot heterostructures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1567 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Z. Wang, Z. Yang, C. L. Yang, and Z. G. Wang, "Photoluminescence of InAs quantum dots grown on GaAs surface," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 2837 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

H. Saito, K. Nishi, and S. Sugou, "Influence of GaAs capping on the optical properties of InGaAs/GaAs surface quantum dots with 1.5 μm emission," Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2742 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. Heitz, I. Mukhametzhanov, P. Chen, and A. Madhukar, "Excitation transfer in self-organized asymmetric quantum dot pair," Phys. Rev. B. 58, R10151 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. (1)

P. Bhattacharya, S. Ghosh, and A. D. Stiff-Roberts, "Quantum dot opto-electronic devices," Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 34, 1-40 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (10)

N. T. Yeh, T. E. Nee, J. I. Chyi, T. M. Hsu, and C. C. Huang, "Matrix dependence of strain-induced wavelength shift in self-assembled InAs quantum-dot heterostructures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1567 (2000).
[CrossRef]

F. Ferdos, S. M. Wang, Y. Q. Wei, A. Larsson, M. Sadeghi, and Q. X. Zhao, "Influence of a thin GaAs cap layer on structural and optical properties of InAs quantum dots," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1195 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. Saito, K. Nishi, and S. Sugou, "Influence of GaAs capping on the optical properties of InGaAs/GaAs surface quantum dots with 1.5 μm emission," Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2742 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Z. Wang, Z. Yang, C. L. Yang, and Z. G. Wang, "Photoluminescence of InAs quantum dots grown on GaAs surface," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 2837 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Z. L. Miao, Y. W. Zhang, S. J. Chua, Y. H. Chy, P. Chen, and S. Tripathy, "Optical properties of InAs/GaAs surface quantum dots," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 031914 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. L. Liang, Zh. M. Wang, Yu. I. Mazur, G. J. Salamo, E. A. DecuirJr., and M. O. Manasreh, "Correlation between surface and buried InAs quantum dots," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 043125 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. L. Liang, Zh. M. Wang, Yu. I. Mazur, G. J. Salamo, "Photoluminescence of surface InAs quantum dots stacking on multilayer buried quantum dots," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 243124 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zh. M. Wang, Yu. I. Mazur, Sh. Seydmohamadi, G. J. Salamo, and H. Kissel, "Photoluminescence linewidths from multiple layers of laterally self-ordered InGaAs quantum dots," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 213105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

V. Talalaev, J. Tomm, N. Zakharov, P. Werner, B. Novikov, and A. Tonkikh, "Transient spectroscopy of InAs quantum dot molecules," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 284 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yu. I. Mazur, Z. M. Wang, G. G. Tarasov, M. Xiao, G. J. Salamo, J. W. Tomm, V. Talalaev, and H. Kissel, "Interdot carrier transfer in asymmetric bilayer InAs/GaAs quantum dot structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 063102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (3)

S. S. Li, J. B. Xia, J. L. Liu, F. H. Yang, Z. C. Niu, S. L. Feng, and H. Z. Zheng, "InAs/GaAs single-electron quantum dot qubit," J. Appl. Phys. 90, 6151 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Z. F. Wei, S. J. Xu, R. F. Duan, Q. Li, J. Wang, Y. P. Zheng, and H. C. Liu, "Thermal quenching of luminescence from buried and surface InGaAs self-assembled quantum dots with high sheet density," J. Appl. Phys. 98, 084305 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Nabetani, T. Matsumoto, G. Sasikala, and I. Suemune, "Theory of strain states in InAs quantum dots and dependence on their capping layers," J. Appl. Phys. 98, 063502, 2005.
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (1)

W. Cai, D. W. Shin, K. Chen, O. CHeysens, Q. Z. Cao, S. X. Wang, S. S. Gambhir, and X. Y. Chen, "Peptide-labeled near-infrared quantum dots for Imaging tumor vasculature in living subjects," Nano Lett. 6, 669 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Mater. (1)

C. Y. Zhang, H. C. Yeh, M. T. Kuroki, and T. H. Wang, "Single-quantum-dot-based DNA nanosensor," Nat. Mater. 4, 826 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. (1)

K. Adlkofer, E. F. Duijs, F. Findeis, M. Bichler, A. Zrenner, E. Sackmann, G. Abstreiter, and M. Tanaka, "Enhancement of photoluminescence from near-surface quantum dots by suppression of surface state density," Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 4, 785 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B. (1)

R. Heitz, I. Mukhametzhanov, P. Chen, and A. Madhukar, "Excitation transfer in self-organized asymmetric quantum dot pair," Phys. Rev. B. 58, R10151 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Stat. Sol. (1)

E. F. Duijs, F. Findeis, R. A. Deutschmann, M. Bichler, A. Zrenner, G. Abstreiter, K. Adlkofer, M. Tanaka, and E. Sackmann, "Influence of Thiol coupling on photoluminescence of near surface InAs quantum dots," Phys. Stat. Sol.(b) 224, 871 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

M. Bayer, P. Hawrylak, K. Hinzer, S. Fafard, M. Korkusinski, Z. R. Wasilewski, O. Stern, and A. Forchel, "Coupling and Entangling of Quantum States in QuantumDot Molecules," Science 291, 451 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thin Solid Films (1)

P. Hove, B. Abbey, E. C. Le Ru, R. Murray, and T. S. Jones, "Strain-interactions between InAs/GaAs quantum dots layers," Thin Solid Films 464-465, 225 (2004).

Other (1)

D. Bimberg, M. Grundmann, and N. N. Ledentsov, Quantum Dot Heterostructures, (John Wiley & Sons, New York/Chichester, 1998).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

1μm×1μm AFM image of the SQDs for the sample with (a) 30 ML spacer, (b) 60 ML spacer, and (c) 120 ML spacer.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Low temperature (10K) PL spectrum of the sample with (a) 30 ML spacer, (b) 60 ML spacer, and (c) 120 ML spacer.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Integrated PL intensities as a function of the excitation intensity

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Integrated PL intensities as a function of the temperature

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Time-resolved PL of BQDs measured at ground state transition

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