Abstract

An integrated total internal reflection prism is demonstrated that generates a transversely localized evanescent wave along the boundary between a photonic crystal and an etched out trench. The reflection can be described by either the odd symmetry of the Bloch wave or a tangential momentum matching condition. In addition, the Bloch wave propagates through the photonic crystal in a negative refraction regime, which manages diffraction within the prism. A device with three input channels has been fabricated and tested that illuminates different regions of the reflection interface. The reflected wave is then sampled by a photonic wire array, where the individual channels are resolved. Heterodyne near field scanning optical microscopy is used to characterize the spatial phase variation of the evanescent wave and its decay constant.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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  6. D. K. Armani, T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, "Ultra-high-Q toroid microcavity on a chip," Nature 421, 925-929 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  7. K. Sakoda, Optical Properties of Photonic Crystals, (Springer Series, Berlin, 2001).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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  23. E. Schonbrun, Q. Wu, W. Park, T. Yamashita, C. J. Summers, M. Abashin and Y. Fainman, "Wave front evolution of negatively refracted waves in a photonic crystal" Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 041113 (2007).
    [CrossRef]

2007

E. Schonbrun, Q. Wu, W. Park, T. Yamashita, C. J. Summers, M. Abashin and Y. Fainman, "Wave front evolution of negatively refracted waves in a photonic crystal" Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 041113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

2005

T. Yamashita and C. J. Summers, "Evaluation of self-collimated beams in photonic crystals for optical interconnect" J. Select. Areas. Commun. 23, 1341 (2005).

Z. Ruan, M. Qiu, S. Xiao, S. He, and L. Thylen, "Coupling between plane waves and Bloch waves in photonic crystals with negative refraction," Phys. Rev. B. 71, 045111 (2005).
[CrossRef]

I. De Leon and F. S. Roux, "Fourier analysis of reflection and refraction in two-dimensional photonic crystals" Phys. Rev. B 71, 235105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. Lombardet, L. A. Dunbar, R. Ferrini, and R. Houdre, "Fourier analysis of Bloch wave propagation in photonic crystals" J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22, 1179-1190 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. Tortora, M. Abashin, I. Märki, W. Nakagawa, L. Vaccaro, M. Salt, H. P. Herzig, U. Levy, and Y. Fainman "Observation of amplitude and phase in ridge and photonic crystal waveguides operating at 1.55 μm by use of Heterodyne Scanning Near-Field Optical Microscopy," Opt. Lett. 30, 2885 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

A. Berrier, M. Mulot, M. Swillo, M. Qiu, L. Thylen, A. Talneau, and S. Anand, "Negative refraction at infrared wavelengths in a two-dimensional photonic crystal," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 073902 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

D. K. Armani, T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, "Ultra-high-Q toroid microcavity on a chip," Nature 421, 925-929 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2000

M. L. M. Balisteri, J. P. Korterik, L. Kuipers and N. F. van Hulst, "Local observations of phase singularities in optical fields in waveguide structures" Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 294 (2000).

1999

Y. Ohtera, T. Sato, T. Kawashima, T. Tamamura, and S. Kawakami, "Photonic crystal polarization splitter," Electron. Lett. 35, 1271-1272 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. Kosaka, T. Kawashima, A. Tomita, M. Notomi, T. Tamamura, T. Sato, and S. Kawakami, "Self-collimating phenomena in photonic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1212-1214 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1991

W. M. Robertson, G. Arjavalingam, R. D. Meade, K. D. Brommer, A. M. Rappe, and J. D. Joannopoulos, "Measurement of photonic band Structure in a two-dimensional periodic dielectric array," Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2023 (1991).

1990

R. C. Reddick, R. J. Warmack, T. R. Ferrel, "New form of scanning optical microscopy," Phys. Rev. B 39, 767-770 (1990).

1981

D. Axelrod, "Cell-substrate contacts illuminated with total internal reflection fluorescence," J. Cell. Biol. 89, 141-145 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

H. Kosaka, T. Kawashima, A. Tomita, M. Notomi, T. Tamamura, T. Sato, and S. Kawakami, "Self-collimating phenomena in photonic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1212-1214 (1999).
[CrossRef]

E. Schonbrun, Q. Wu, W. Park, T. Yamashita, C. J. Summers, M. Abashin and Y. Fainman, "Wave front evolution of negatively refracted waves in a photonic crystal" Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 041113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett.

Y. Ohtera, T. Sato, T. Kawashima, T. Tamamura, and S. Kawakami, "Photonic crystal polarization splitter," Electron. Lett. 35, 1271-1272 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Cell. Biol.

D. Axelrod, "Cell-substrate contacts illuminated with total internal reflection fluorescence," J. Cell. Biol. 89, 141-145 (1981).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

J. Select. Areas. Commun.

T. Yamashita and C. J. Summers, "Evaluation of self-collimated beams in photonic crystals for optical interconnect" J. Select. Areas. Commun. 23, 1341 (2005).

Nature

D. K. Armani, T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, "Ultra-high-Q toroid microcavity on a chip," Nature 421, 925-929 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. B

R. C. Reddick, R. J. Warmack, T. R. Ferrel, "New form of scanning optical microscopy," Phys. Rev. B 39, 767-770 (1990).

I. De Leon and F. S. Roux, "Fourier analysis of reflection and refraction in two-dimensional photonic crystals" Phys. Rev. B 71, 235105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

E. Schonbrun, T. Yamashita, W. Park, and C. J. Summers, "Negative-Index imaging by an index-matched photonic crystal slab," Phys. Rev. B 73, 195117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B.

Z. Ruan, M. Qiu, S. Xiao, S. He, and L. Thylen, "Coupling between plane waves and Bloch waves in photonic crystals with negative refraction," Phys. Rev. B. 71, 045111 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

M. L. M. Balisteri, J. P. Korterik, L. Kuipers and N. F. van Hulst, "Local observations of phase singularities in optical fields in waveguide structures" Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 294 (2000).

A. Berrier, M. Mulot, M. Swillo, M. Qiu, L. Thylen, A. Talneau, and S. Anand, "Negative refraction at infrared wavelengths in a two-dimensional photonic crystal," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 073902 (2004).
[CrossRef]

W. M. Robertson, G. Arjavalingam, R. D. Meade, K. D. Brommer, A. M. Rappe, and J. D. Joannopoulos, "Measurement of photonic band Structure in a two-dimensional periodic dielectric array," Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2023 (1991).

Other

H. Kosaka, T. Kawashima, A. Tomita, T. Sato, and S. Kawakami, "Photonic crystals for micro lightwavecircuits using wavelength-dependent angular beam steering," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1370-1372 (1999).

K. Sakoda, Optical Properties of Photonic Crystals, (Springer Series, Berlin, 2001).

N. J. Harrick, Internal Reflection Spectroscopy, (Interscience, New York, 1967).

A. Yariv, Optical Electronics in Modern Communications, (Oxford, New York, 1997).

H. Raether, Surface plasmons on smooth and rough surfaces and on gratings, (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1988).

W. Park, "Modeling of photonic crystals" in Handbook of Theoretical and Computational Nanotechnology Vol. 7, M. Rieth and W. Schommers, ed., (American Scientific Publishers, Stevenson Ranch, CA, 2006), pp. 263-327.

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