Abstract

The temperature sensitivity of modal birefringence (dB/dT) of different types of polarization-maintaining fibers with side holes was measured using a Sagnac loop interferometer. The thermal expansion coefficient can be varied by controlling the amount of germanium doped in the core region. Using this method, dB/dT could be made higher (~10-7/°C) than that of standard PMFs (~10-8/°C) or comparable to that of standard PMFs (~10-9/°C).

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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References

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2006

2005

2004

2003

C. S. Kim, Y. G. Han, R. M. Sova, U. C. Paek, Y. Chung, and J. U. Kang, "Optical fiber modal birefringence measurement based on Lyot-Sagnac interferometer," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 269-271 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1999

E. De L. Rosa-Cruz, F. Mendoza-Santoyo, A. N. Starodumov, and M. Pacheco, "Temperature-induced changes of sensitivity in the unbalanced Hi-Bi fiber Sagnac interferometer," Fiber and Int. Opt. 18, 41-48 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997

A. N. Starodumov, L. A. Zenteno, D. Monzon, and E. DeL. Rosa, "Fiber Sagnac interferometer temperature sensor," Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 19-21 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. S. Chiang, "Temperature sensitivity of coated stress-induced birefringent optical fibers," Opt. Eng. 36, 999-1007 (1997).
[CrossRef]

E. De la Rosa, L. A. Zenteno, A. N. Starodumov, and D. Monzon, "All-fiber absolute temperature sensor using an unbalanced high-birefringence Sagnac loop," Opt. Lett. 22, 481-483 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996

1995

K. P. Koo and A. D. Kersey, "Bragg grating-based laser sensors systems with interferometric interrogation and wavelength division multiplexing," J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 1243-1249 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993

G. A. Ball, W. W. Morey, and P. K. Cheo, "Single- and multipoint fiber-laser sensors," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 267-270 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1990

K. S. Chiang, H. L. W. Chan, and J. L. Gardner, "Detection of high-frequency ultrasound with a polarization-maintaining fiber," J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 1221-1227 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1988

1986

J. Noda, K. Okamoto, and Y. Sasaki, "Polarization-maintaining fibers and their applications," J. Lightwave Technol. LT-4, 1071-1089 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1983

A. Barlow and D. Payne, "The stress-optic effect in optical fibers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-19, 834-839 (1983).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Varnham, A. J. Barlow, D. N. Payne, and K. Okamoto, "Polarimetric strain gauges using high birefringence fiber," Electron. Lett. 19, 699-700 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1981

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

A. N. Starodumov, L. A. Zenteno, D. Monzon, and E. DeL. Rosa, "Fiber Sagnac interferometer temperature sensor," Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 19-21 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett.

M. P. Varnham, A. J. Barlow, D. N. Payne, and K. Okamoto, "Polarimetric strain gauges using high birefringence fiber," Electron. Lett. 19, 699-700 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Fiber and Int. Opt.

E. De L. Rosa-Cruz, F. Mendoza-Santoyo, A. N. Starodumov, and M. Pacheco, "Temperature-induced changes of sensitivity in the unbalanced Hi-Bi fiber Sagnac interferometer," Fiber and Int. Opt. 18, 41-48 (1999).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

A. Barlow and D. Payne, "The stress-optic effect in optical fibers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-19, 834-839 (1983).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

G. A. Ball, W. W. Morey, and P. K. Cheo, "Single- and multipoint fiber-laser sensors," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 267-270 (1993).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Kim, Y. G. Han, R. M. Sova, U. C. Paek, Y. Chung, and J. U. Kang, "Optical fiber modal birefringence measurement based on Lyot-Sagnac interferometer," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 269-271 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

J. Noda, K. Okamoto, and Y. Sasaki, "Polarization-maintaining fibers and their applications," J. Lightwave Technol. LT-4, 1071-1089 (1986).
[CrossRef]

K. P. Koo and A. D. Kersey, "Bragg grating-based laser sensors systems with interferometric interrogation and wavelength division multiplexing," J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 1243-1249 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. S. Chiang, H. L. W. Chan, and J. L. Gardner, "Detection of high-frequency ultrasound with a polarization-maintaining fiber," J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 1221-1227 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng.

K. S. Chiang, "Temperature sensitivity of coated stress-induced birefringent optical fibers," Opt. Eng. 36, 999-1007 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

The cross-section of the fabricated PM side-hole fiber with (a) an elliptical shape (Δn=0.02), (b) a circular shape I (Δn=0.018), and (c) a circular shape II (Δn=0.046).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

The Sagnac loop interferometer’s output spectra of PM side-hole fiber: (a) an elliptical shape (L=10m, Δλ=1.4 nm), (b) a circular shape I (L=26m, Δλ=0.8 nm), (c) a circular shape II (L=20m, Δλ=7.05 nm).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

The experimental setup of the Sagnac fiber temperature sensor.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

The temperature sensitivity of PM side-hole fiber (a) with an elliptic shape (L=0.22 m, Δλ=67.85 nm), (b) a circular shape I (L=0.42 m, Δλ=50.29 nm), and (c) a circular shape II (L=1.3 m, Δλ=1 11.64 nm), respectively.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

The peak separation versus temperature: (a) an elliptic shape, (b) a circular shape I, and (c) a circular shape II.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1. The specification of fabricated PM side-hole fibers

Tables Icon

Table 2. dϕ/dT and dB/dT of fabricated PM side-hole fibers.

Equations (2)

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1 L d ϕ dT = 2 π λ B ( 1 B dB dT + 1 L dL dT ) ,
dB dT = λ Δλ 1 L d λ dT .

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