Abstract

We have developed a new approach for producing high performance sampled Bragg gratings in planar waveguides as a platform for WDM on-chip signal processing in a compact integrated device. Using this method we have successfully integrated a shadow mask directly onto a chalcogenide (As2S3) waveguide using standard semiconductor processing, eliminating misalignment errors between the mask and waveguide that otherwise occur. Through this integrated mask we demonstrate a very low duty cycle sampled Bragg grating with very narrow rejection peaks and spanning a very broad bandwidth.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. K. O. Hill, Y. Fujii, D. C. Johnson, and B. S. Kawasaki, "Photosensitivity in optical fiber waveguides: application to reflection fiber fabrication," Appl. Phys. Lett. 32,647-649 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  2. B. J. Eggleton, P. A. Krug, L. Poladian, and F. Ouellette, "Long periodic superstructure Bragg gratings in optical fibres," Electron. Lett. 30, 1620-1622 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  3. A. Othonos, "Fiber Bragg gratings," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 4309-4341 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J.M. Harbold, F.O. Ilday, F.W. Wise and B.G. Aitken, "Highly nonlinear Ge-As-Se and Ge-As-S-Se Glasses for all-optical switching," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 822-824 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J.T. Gopinath, M. Solajcic and E. Ippen,V. N. Fuflygin, M. Shurgalin "Third order nonlinearities in Ge-As-Se based glasses for telecommunications applications," J. Appl. Phys. 96, 6931-6933 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J.M. Harbold, F.Ö. Ilday, F.W. Wise, J.S. Sanghera, V.Q. Nguyen, L.B. Shaw and I.D. Aggarwal, "Highly nonlinear As-S-Se glasses for all-optical switching," Opt. Lett. 27, 119-121 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  7. K. Tanaka, N. Toyosawa, and H. Hisakuni, "Photoinduced Bragg gratings in As2S3 optical fibers," Opt. Lett. 20, 1976-1978 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. C. Meneghini and A. Villeneuve, "As2S3 photosensitivity by two-photon absorption: holographic gratings and self-written channel waveguides," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 2946-2950 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  9. T. V. Galstyan, J.-F. Viens, A. Villeneuve, K. Richardson, and M. A. Duguay, "Photoinduced Self-Developing Relief Gratings in Thin Film Chalcogenide As2S3 Glasses," J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 1343-1347 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  10. M. Shokooh-Saremi, V. G. Ta’eed, N. J. Baker, I. C. M. Littler, D. J. Moss, B. J. Eggleton, Y. Ruan, and B. Luther-Davies, "High-performance Bragg gratings in chalcogenide rib- waveguides written with a modified Sagnac Interferometer," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 23, 1323-1331 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  11. A. Zoubir, M. Richardson, C. Rivero, A. Schulte, C. Lopez, K. Richardson, N. Hô, and R. Vallée, "Direct femtosecond laser writing of waveguides in As2S3 thin films," Opt. Lett. 29, 748-750 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. N. J. Baker, H. W. Lee, I. C. M. Littler, C. M. de Sterke, B. J. Eggleton, D-Y Choi, S. Maden, B. Luther-Davies "Sampled Bragg gratings in chalcogenide (As2S3) rib waveguides," Opt. Express 14, 9451-9459 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. B. Luther-Davies, V. Z. Kolev, M. J. Lederer, N. R. Madsen, A. V. Rode, J. Giesekus, K.-M. Du, M. Duering, "Table-top 50-W laser system for ultra-fast laser ablation," Appl. Phys. A 79, 1051-1055 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  14. B. Luther-Davies, A. V. Rode, N. Madsen, E. G. Gamaly, "Picosecond high repetition rate pulsed laser ablation of dielectrics: The effect of energy accumulation between pulses," Opt. Eng. 44, 51102-1-8 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  15. Inorganic Polymer Glass is a trade mark of RPO Pty, Ltd. of Canberra, Australia.
  16. D. Y. Choi, S. Madden, A. Rode, R. Wang, B. Luther-Davies, "Fabrication and optical characterisation of Ge33As12Se55 (AMTIR-1) Thin Film Waveguides," Proc. of IEEE LEOS 2006, 318-319 (2006).

2006 (3)

2004 (3)

B. Luther-Davies, V. Z. Kolev, M. J. Lederer, N. R. Madsen, A. V. Rode, J. Giesekus, K.-M. Du, M. Duering, "Table-top 50-W laser system for ultra-fast laser ablation," Appl. Phys. A 79, 1051-1055 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Zoubir, M. Richardson, C. Rivero, A. Schulte, C. Lopez, K. Richardson, N. Hô, and R. Vallée, "Direct femtosecond laser writing of waveguides in As2S3 thin films," Opt. Lett. 29, 748-750 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.T. Gopinath, M. Solajcic and E. Ippen,V. N. Fuflygin, M. Shurgalin "Third order nonlinearities in Ge-As-Se based glasses for telecommunications applications," J. Appl. Phys. 96, 6931-6933 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

J.M. Harbold, F.O. Ilday, F.W. Wise and B.G. Aitken, "Highly nonlinear Ge-As-Se and Ge-As-S-Se Glasses for all-optical switching," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 822-824 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J.M. Harbold, F.Ö. Ilday, F.W. Wise, J.S. Sanghera, V.Q. Nguyen, L.B. Shaw and I.D. Aggarwal, "Highly nonlinear As-S-Se glasses for all-optical switching," Opt. Lett. 27, 119-121 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

1997 (2)

A. Othonos, "Fiber Bragg gratings," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 4309-4341 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. V. Galstyan, J.-F. Viens, A. Villeneuve, K. Richardson, and M. A. Duguay, "Photoinduced Self-Developing Relief Gratings in Thin Film Chalcogenide As2S3 Glasses," J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 1343-1347 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

1994 (1)

B. J. Eggleton, P. A. Krug, L. Poladian, and F. Ouellette, "Long periodic superstructure Bragg gratings in optical fibres," Electron. Lett. 30, 1620-1622 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

K. O. Hill, Y. Fujii, D. C. Johnson, and B. S. Kawasaki, "Photosensitivity in optical fiber waveguides: application to reflection fiber fabrication," Appl. Phys. Lett. 32,647-649 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Aggarwal, I.D.

Aitken, B.G.

J.M. Harbold, F.O. Ilday, F.W. Wise and B.G. Aitken, "Highly nonlinear Ge-As-Se and Ge-As-S-Se Glasses for all-optical switching," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 822-824 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Baker, N. J.

Choi, D. Y.

D. Y. Choi, S. Madden, A. Rode, R. Wang, B. Luther-Davies, "Fabrication and optical characterisation of Ge33As12Se55 (AMTIR-1) Thin Film Waveguides," Proc. of IEEE LEOS 2006, 318-319 (2006).

Choi, D-Y

de Sterke, C. M.

Du, K.-M.

B. Luther-Davies, V. Z. Kolev, M. J. Lederer, N. R. Madsen, A. V. Rode, J. Giesekus, K.-M. Du, M. Duering, "Table-top 50-W laser system for ultra-fast laser ablation," Appl. Phys. A 79, 1051-1055 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Duering, M.

B. Luther-Davies, V. Z. Kolev, M. J. Lederer, N. R. Madsen, A. V. Rode, J. Giesekus, K.-M. Du, M. Duering, "Table-top 50-W laser system for ultra-fast laser ablation," Appl. Phys. A 79, 1051-1055 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Duguay, M. A.

T. V. Galstyan, J.-F. Viens, A. Villeneuve, K. Richardson, and M. A. Duguay, "Photoinduced Self-Developing Relief Gratings in Thin Film Chalcogenide As2S3 Glasses," J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 1343-1347 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Eggleton, B. J.

Fuflygin, V. N.

J.T. Gopinath, M. Solajcic and E. Ippen,V. N. Fuflygin, M. Shurgalin "Third order nonlinearities in Ge-As-Se based glasses for telecommunications applications," J. Appl. Phys. 96, 6931-6933 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fujii, Y.

K. O. Hill, Y. Fujii, D. C. Johnson, and B. S. Kawasaki, "Photosensitivity in optical fiber waveguides: application to reflection fiber fabrication," Appl. Phys. Lett. 32,647-649 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Galstyan, T. V.

T. V. Galstyan, J.-F. Viens, A. Villeneuve, K. Richardson, and M. A. Duguay, "Photoinduced Self-Developing Relief Gratings in Thin Film Chalcogenide As2S3 Glasses," J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 1343-1347 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Giesekus, J.

B. Luther-Davies, V. Z. Kolev, M. J. Lederer, N. R. Madsen, A. V. Rode, J. Giesekus, K.-M. Du, M. Duering, "Table-top 50-W laser system for ultra-fast laser ablation," Appl. Phys. A 79, 1051-1055 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gopinath, J.T.

J.T. Gopinath, M. Solajcic and E. Ippen,V. N. Fuflygin, M. Shurgalin "Third order nonlinearities in Ge-As-Se based glasses for telecommunications applications," J. Appl. Phys. 96, 6931-6933 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Harbold, J.M.

J.M. Harbold, F.Ö. Ilday, F.W. Wise, J.S. Sanghera, V.Q. Nguyen, L.B. Shaw and I.D. Aggarwal, "Highly nonlinear As-S-Se glasses for all-optical switching," Opt. Lett. 27, 119-121 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J.M. Harbold, F.O. Ilday, F.W. Wise and B.G. Aitken, "Highly nonlinear Ge-As-Se and Ge-As-S-Se Glasses for all-optical switching," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 822-824 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hill, K. O.

K. O. Hill, Y. Fujii, D. C. Johnson, and B. S. Kawasaki, "Photosensitivity in optical fiber waveguides: application to reflection fiber fabrication," Appl. Phys. Lett. 32,647-649 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Hisakuni, H.

Hô, N.

Ilday, F.O.

J.M. Harbold, F.O. Ilday, F.W. Wise and B.G. Aitken, "Highly nonlinear Ge-As-Se and Ge-As-S-Se Glasses for all-optical switching," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 822-824 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ilday, F.Ö.

Ippen, E.

J.T. Gopinath, M. Solajcic and E. Ippen,V. N. Fuflygin, M. Shurgalin "Third order nonlinearities in Ge-As-Se based glasses for telecommunications applications," J. Appl. Phys. 96, 6931-6933 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, D. C.

K. O. Hill, Y. Fujii, D. C. Johnson, and B. S. Kawasaki, "Photosensitivity in optical fiber waveguides: application to reflection fiber fabrication," Appl. Phys. Lett. 32,647-649 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Kawasaki, B. S.

K. O. Hill, Y. Fujii, D. C. Johnson, and B. S. Kawasaki, "Photosensitivity in optical fiber waveguides: application to reflection fiber fabrication," Appl. Phys. Lett. 32,647-649 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Kolev, V. Z.

B. Luther-Davies, V. Z. Kolev, M. J. Lederer, N. R. Madsen, A. V. Rode, J. Giesekus, K.-M. Du, M. Duering, "Table-top 50-W laser system for ultra-fast laser ablation," Appl. Phys. A 79, 1051-1055 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Krug, P. A.

B. J. Eggleton, P. A. Krug, L. Poladian, and F. Ouellette, "Long periodic superstructure Bragg gratings in optical fibres," Electron. Lett. 30, 1620-1622 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Lederer, M. J.

B. Luther-Davies, V. Z. Kolev, M. J. Lederer, N. R. Madsen, A. V. Rode, J. Giesekus, K.-M. Du, M. Duering, "Table-top 50-W laser system for ultra-fast laser ablation," Appl. Phys. A 79, 1051-1055 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lee, H. W.

Littler, I. C. M.

Lopez, C.

Luther-Davies, B.

M. Shokooh-Saremi, V. G. Ta’eed, N. J. Baker, I. C. M. Littler, D. J. Moss, B. J. Eggleton, Y. Ruan, and B. Luther-Davies, "High-performance Bragg gratings in chalcogenide rib- waveguides written with a modified Sagnac Interferometer," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 23, 1323-1331 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Y. Choi, S. Madden, A. Rode, R. Wang, B. Luther-Davies, "Fabrication and optical characterisation of Ge33As12Se55 (AMTIR-1) Thin Film Waveguides," Proc. of IEEE LEOS 2006, 318-319 (2006).

N. J. Baker, H. W. Lee, I. C. M. Littler, C. M. de Sterke, B. J. Eggleton, D-Y Choi, S. Maden, B. Luther-Davies "Sampled Bragg gratings in chalcogenide (As2S3) rib waveguides," Opt. Express 14, 9451-9459 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Luther-Davies, V. Z. Kolev, M. J. Lederer, N. R. Madsen, A. V. Rode, J. Giesekus, K.-M. Du, M. Duering, "Table-top 50-W laser system for ultra-fast laser ablation," Appl. Phys. A 79, 1051-1055 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Madden, S.

D. Y. Choi, S. Madden, A. Rode, R. Wang, B. Luther-Davies, "Fabrication and optical characterisation of Ge33As12Se55 (AMTIR-1) Thin Film Waveguides," Proc. of IEEE LEOS 2006, 318-319 (2006).

Maden, S.

Madsen, N. R.

B. Luther-Davies, V. Z. Kolev, M. J. Lederer, N. R. Madsen, A. V. Rode, J. Giesekus, K.-M. Du, M. Duering, "Table-top 50-W laser system for ultra-fast laser ablation," Appl. Phys. A 79, 1051-1055 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Meneghini, C.

Moss, D. J.

Nguyen, V.Q.

Othonos, A.

A. Othonos, "Fiber Bragg gratings," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 4309-4341 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ouellette, F.

B. J. Eggleton, P. A. Krug, L. Poladian, and F. Ouellette, "Long periodic superstructure Bragg gratings in optical fibres," Electron. Lett. 30, 1620-1622 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Poladian, L.

B. J. Eggleton, P. A. Krug, L. Poladian, and F. Ouellette, "Long periodic superstructure Bragg gratings in optical fibres," Electron. Lett. 30, 1620-1622 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Richardson, K.

A. Zoubir, M. Richardson, C. Rivero, A. Schulte, C. Lopez, K. Richardson, N. Hô, and R. Vallée, "Direct femtosecond laser writing of waveguides in As2S3 thin films," Opt. Lett. 29, 748-750 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. V. Galstyan, J.-F. Viens, A. Villeneuve, K. Richardson, and M. A. Duguay, "Photoinduced Self-Developing Relief Gratings in Thin Film Chalcogenide As2S3 Glasses," J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 1343-1347 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Richardson, M.

Rivero, C.

Rode, A.

D. Y. Choi, S. Madden, A. Rode, R. Wang, B. Luther-Davies, "Fabrication and optical characterisation of Ge33As12Se55 (AMTIR-1) Thin Film Waveguides," Proc. of IEEE LEOS 2006, 318-319 (2006).

Rode, A. V.

B. Luther-Davies, V. Z. Kolev, M. J. Lederer, N. R. Madsen, A. V. Rode, J. Giesekus, K.-M. Du, M. Duering, "Table-top 50-W laser system for ultra-fast laser ablation," Appl. Phys. A 79, 1051-1055 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ruan, Y.

Sanghera, J.S.

Schulte, A.

Shaw, L.B.

Shokooh-Saremi, M.

Shurgalin, M.

J.T. Gopinath, M. Solajcic and E. Ippen,V. N. Fuflygin, M. Shurgalin "Third order nonlinearities in Ge-As-Se based glasses for telecommunications applications," J. Appl. Phys. 96, 6931-6933 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Solajcic, M.

J.T. Gopinath, M. Solajcic and E. Ippen,V. N. Fuflygin, M. Shurgalin "Third order nonlinearities in Ge-As-Se based glasses for telecommunications applications," J. Appl. Phys. 96, 6931-6933 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ta’eed, V. G.

Tanaka, K.

Toyosawa, N.

Vallée, R.

Viens, J.-F.

T. V. Galstyan, J.-F. Viens, A. Villeneuve, K. Richardson, and M. A. Duguay, "Photoinduced Self-Developing Relief Gratings in Thin Film Chalcogenide As2S3 Glasses," J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 1343-1347 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Villeneuve, A.

C. Meneghini and A. Villeneuve, "As2S3 photosensitivity by two-photon absorption: holographic gratings and self-written channel waveguides," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 2946-2950 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. V. Galstyan, J.-F. Viens, A. Villeneuve, K. Richardson, and M. A. Duguay, "Photoinduced Self-Developing Relief Gratings in Thin Film Chalcogenide As2S3 Glasses," J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 1343-1347 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wang, R.

D. Y. Choi, S. Madden, A. Rode, R. Wang, B. Luther-Davies, "Fabrication and optical characterisation of Ge33As12Se55 (AMTIR-1) Thin Film Waveguides," Proc. of IEEE LEOS 2006, 318-319 (2006).

Wise, F.W.

J.M. Harbold, F.Ö. Ilday, F.W. Wise, J.S. Sanghera, V.Q. Nguyen, L.B. Shaw and I.D. Aggarwal, "Highly nonlinear As-S-Se glasses for all-optical switching," Opt. Lett. 27, 119-121 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J.M. Harbold, F.O. Ilday, F.W. Wise and B.G. Aitken, "Highly nonlinear Ge-As-Se and Ge-As-S-Se Glasses for all-optical switching," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 822-824 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zoubir, A.

Appl. Phys. A (1)

B. Luther-Davies, V. Z. Kolev, M. J. Lederer, N. R. Madsen, A. V. Rode, J. Giesekus, K.-M. Du, M. Duering, "Table-top 50-W laser system for ultra-fast laser ablation," Appl. Phys. A 79, 1051-1055 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

K. O. Hill, Y. Fujii, D. C. Johnson, and B. S. Kawasaki, "Photosensitivity in optical fiber waveguides: application to reflection fiber fabrication," Appl. Phys. Lett. 32,647-649 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

B. J. Eggleton, P. A. Krug, L. Poladian, and F. Ouellette, "Long periodic superstructure Bragg gratings in optical fibres," Electron. Lett. 30, 1620-1622 (1994).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

J.M. Harbold, F.O. Ilday, F.W. Wise and B.G. Aitken, "Highly nonlinear Ge-As-Se and Ge-As-S-Se Glasses for all-optical switching," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 822-824 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

J.T. Gopinath, M. Solajcic and E. Ippen,V. N. Fuflygin, M. Shurgalin "Third order nonlinearities in Ge-As-Se based glasses for telecommunications applications," J. Appl. Phys. 96, 6931-6933 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

T. V. Galstyan, J.-F. Viens, A. Villeneuve, K. Richardson, and M. A. Duguay, "Photoinduced Self-Developing Relief Gratings in Thin Film Chalcogenide As2S3 Glasses," J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 1343-1347 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Proc. of IEEE LEOS (1)

D. Y. Choi, S. Madden, A. Rode, R. Wang, B. Luther-Davies, "Fabrication and optical characterisation of Ge33As12Se55 (AMTIR-1) Thin Film Waveguides," Proc. of IEEE LEOS 2006, 318-319 (2006).

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

A. Othonos, "Fiber Bragg gratings," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 4309-4341 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

B. Luther-Davies, A. V. Rode, N. Madsen, E. G. Gamaly, "Picosecond high repetition rate pulsed laser ablation of dielectrics: The effect of energy accumulation between pulses," Opt. Eng. 44, 51102-1-8 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Inorganic Polymer Glass is a trade mark of RPO Pty, Ltd. of Canberra, Australia.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Scanning Sagnac interferometric grating system showing modulating shadow mask for an SBG fabrication (b) Schematic demonstrating the interference walk-off caused by a tilt of the shadow mask [12].

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Schematic showing the principle of this double slits structure (b) The optical microscope image of the fabricated shadow mask on the clad surface. We can see a part of the As2S3 waveguide through the slits and polymer cladding.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

The spectral response of a SBG written into an As2S3 waveguide. The inset in right side shows the enlarged view of the peak centered at 1551 nm.

Metrics