Abstract

A single-chip white light LED is commonly modeled by considering the phosphor coating as a homogeneous Lambertian light source. However, this approach leads to an incorrect optical simulation of phosphor-coated multi-chip LEDs due to the presence of a previously unreported spatial distribution of emission spots across the phosphor layer. We introduce “weighting” factors based on position-dependent light strength across the phosphor surface in order to improve the model accuracy. Following the modeling algorithm in the mid-field region, we have built up a precise and practical optical model by using Monte Carlo ray tracing and weighting factors. We measure the LED radiation distribution at several representative distances to test the model performance. In all cases, the accuracy is higher than 99.5% in normalized cross correlation between the simulated pattern and experimental measurement.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, and S. L. Rudaz, "Illumination with solid state lighting technology," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron  8, 310 (2002).
  2. S. Nakamura, T. Mukai, and M. Senoh,"Candela-class high-brightness InGaN/AlGaN double-heterostructure blue-light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1687 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. S. Kaminski, K. J. Garcia, M. A. Stevenson, M. Frate, and R. J. Koshel, "Advanced Topics in Source Modeling," Proc. SPIE 4775, 46 (2002).
  4. H. Zerfhau-Dreihöfer, U. Haack, T. Weber, and D. Wendt, "Light source modeling for automotive lighting devices, "Proc. SPIE 4775, 58 (2002).
  5. S. Landau and J. Erion, "Car makers embrace LED signals," Nature Photon. 1, 31-32 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  6. C. C. Sun, T. X. Lee, S. H. Ma, Y. L. Lee, and S. M Huang, "Precise optical modeling for LED lighting verified by cross correlation in the midfield region," Opt. Lett. 31, 2193-2195 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  7. A. Borbely and S. G. Johnson, "Performance of phosphor-coated light-emitting diode optics in ray-trace simulations," Opt. Eng. 44, 111308 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. Strojnik and G. Paez, "Radiometry," in Handbook of Optical Engineering, D. Malacara, B. Thompson, eds., (2001).
  9. N. Narendran, Y. Gu, J. P. Freyssinier-Nova, Y. Zhu, "Extracting phosphor-scattered photons to improve white LED efficiency," Phys. Solid State  202, R60-R62 (2005).
  10. T. X. Lee, C. Y. Lin, S. H. Ma and C. C. Sun, "Analysis of position-dependent light extraction of GaN-based LEDs," Opt. Express 13, 4175-4179 (2005).
    [CrossRef]

2007 (1)

S. Landau and J. Erion, "Car makers embrace LED signals," Nature Photon. 1, 31-32 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

2005 (3)

A. Borbely and S. G. Johnson, "Performance of phosphor-coated light-emitting diode optics in ray-trace simulations," Opt. Eng. 44, 111308 (2005).
[CrossRef]

N. Narendran, Y. Gu, J. P. Freyssinier-Nova, Y. Zhu, "Extracting phosphor-scattered photons to improve white LED efficiency," Phys. Solid State  202, R60-R62 (2005).

T. X. Lee, C. Y. Lin, S. H. Ma and C. C. Sun, "Analysis of position-dependent light extraction of GaN-based LEDs," Opt. Express 13, 4175-4179 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2002 (3)

D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, and S. L. Rudaz, "Illumination with solid state lighting technology," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron  8, 310 (2002).

M. S. Kaminski, K. J. Garcia, M. A. Stevenson, M. Frate, and R. J. Koshel, "Advanced Topics in Source Modeling," Proc. SPIE 4775, 46 (2002).

H. Zerfhau-Dreihöfer, U. Haack, T. Weber, and D. Wendt, "Light source modeling for automotive lighting devices, "Proc. SPIE 4775, 58 (2002).

1994 (1)

S. Nakamura, T. Mukai, and M. Senoh,"Candela-class high-brightness InGaN/AlGaN double-heterostructure blue-light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1687 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Bhat, J. C.

D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, and S. L. Rudaz, "Illumination with solid state lighting technology," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron  8, 310 (2002).

Borbely, A.

A. Borbely and S. G. Johnson, "Performance of phosphor-coated light-emitting diode optics in ray-trace simulations," Opt. Eng. 44, 111308 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Collins, D.

D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, and S. L. Rudaz, "Illumination with solid state lighting technology," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron  8, 310 (2002).

Erion, J.

S. Landau and J. Erion, "Car makers embrace LED signals," Nature Photon. 1, 31-32 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fletcher, R. M.

D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, and S. L. Rudaz, "Illumination with solid state lighting technology," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron  8, 310 (2002).

Frate, M.

M. S. Kaminski, K. J. Garcia, M. A. Stevenson, M. Frate, and R. J. Koshel, "Advanced Topics in Source Modeling," Proc. SPIE 4775, 46 (2002).

Freyssinier-Nova, J. P.

N. Narendran, Y. Gu, J. P. Freyssinier-Nova, Y. Zhu, "Extracting phosphor-scattered photons to improve white LED efficiency," Phys. Solid State  202, R60-R62 (2005).

Garcia, K. J.

M. S. Kaminski, K. J. Garcia, M. A. Stevenson, M. Frate, and R. J. Koshel, "Advanced Topics in Source Modeling," Proc. SPIE 4775, 46 (2002).

Gu, Y.

N. Narendran, Y. Gu, J. P. Freyssinier-Nova, Y. Zhu, "Extracting phosphor-scattered photons to improve white LED efficiency," Phys. Solid State  202, R60-R62 (2005).

Haack, U.

H. Zerfhau-Dreihöfer, U. Haack, T. Weber, and D. Wendt, "Light source modeling for automotive lighting devices, "Proc. SPIE 4775, 58 (2002).

Holcomb, M. O.

D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, and S. L. Rudaz, "Illumination with solid state lighting technology," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron  8, 310 (2002).

Huang, S. M

Johnson, S. G.

A. Borbely and S. G. Johnson, "Performance of phosphor-coated light-emitting diode optics in ray-trace simulations," Opt. Eng. 44, 111308 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kaminski, M. S.

M. S. Kaminski, K. J. Garcia, M. A. Stevenson, M. Frate, and R. J. Koshel, "Advanced Topics in Source Modeling," Proc. SPIE 4775, 46 (2002).

Koshel, R. J.

M. S. Kaminski, K. J. Garcia, M. A. Stevenson, M. Frate, and R. J. Koshel, "Advanced Topics in Source Modeling," Proc. SPIE 4775, 46 (2002).

Landau, S.

S. Landau and J. Erion, "Car makers embrace LED signals," Nature Photon. 1, 31-32 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lee, T. X.

Lee, Y. L.

Lin, C. Y.

Ludowise, M. J.

D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, and S. L. Rudaz, "Illumination with solid state lighting technology," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron  8, 310 (2002).

Ma, S. H.

Martin, P. S.

D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, and S. L. Rudaz, "Illumination with solid state lighting technology," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron  8, 310 (2002).

Mukai, T.

S. Nakamura, T. Mukai, and M. Senoh,"Candela-class high-brightness InGaN/AlGaN double-heterostructure blue-light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1687 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, S.

S. Nakamura, T. Mukai, and M. Senoh,"Candela-class high-brightness InGaN/AlGaN double-heterostructure blue-light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1687 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Narendran, N.

N. Narendran, Y. Gu, J. P. Freyssinier-Nova, Y. Zhu, "Extracting phosphor-scattered photons to improve white LED efficiency," Phys. Solid State  202, R60-R62 (2005).

Rudaz, S. L.

D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, and S. L. Rudaz, "Illumination with solid state lighting technology," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron  8, 310 (2002).

Senoh, M.

S. Nakamura, T. Mukai, and M. Senoh,"Candela-class high-brightness InGaN/AlGaN double-heterostructure blue-light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1687 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Steigerwald, D. A.

D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, and S. L. Rudaz, "Illumination with solid state lighting technology," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron  8, 310 (2002).

Stevenson, M. A.

M. S. Kaminski, K. J. Garcia, M. A. Stevenson, M. Frate, and R. J. Koshel, "Advanced Topics in Source Modeling," Proc. SPIE 4775, 46 (2002).

Sun, C. C.

Weber, T.

H. Zerfhau-Dreihöfer, U. Haack, T. Weber, and D. Wendt, "Light source modeling for automotive lighting devices, "Proc. SPIE 4775, 58 (2002).

Wendt, D.

H. Zerfhau-Dreihöfer, U. Haack, T. Weber, and D. Wendt, "Light source modeling for automotive lighting devices, "Proc. SPIE 4775, 58 (2002).

Zerfhau-Dreihöfer, H.

H. Zerfhau-Dreihöfer, U. Haack, T. Weber, and D. Wendt, "Light source modeling for automotive lighting devices, "Proc. SPIE 4775, 58 (2002).

Zhu, Y.

N. Narendran, Y. Gu, J. P. Freyssinier-Nova, Y. Zhu, "Extracting phosphor-scattered photons to improve white LED efficiency," Phys. Solid State  202, R60-R62 (2005).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

S. Nakamura, T. Mukai, and M. Senoh,"Candela-class high-brightness InGaN/AlGaN double-heterostructure blue-light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1687 (1994).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron (1)

D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, and S. L. Rudaz, "Illumination with solid state lighting technology," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron  8, 310 (2002).

Nature Photon. (1)

S. Landau and J. Erion, "Car makers embrace LED signals," Nature Photon. 1, 31-32 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

A. Borbely and S. G. Johnson, "Performance of phosphor-coated light-emitting diode optics in ray-trace simulations," Opt. Eng. 44, 111308 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Solid State (1)

N. Narendran, Y. Gu, J. P. Freyssinier-Nova, Y. Zhu, "Extracting phosphor-scattered photons to improve white LED efficiency," Phys. Solid State  202, R60-R62 (2005).

Proc. SPIE (2)

M. S. Kaminski, K. J. Garcia, M. A. Stevenson, M. Frate, and R. J. Koshel, "Advanced Topics in Source Modeling," Proc. SPIE 4775, 46 (2002).

H. Zerfhau-Dreihöfer, U. Haack, T. Weber, and D. Wendt, "Light source modeling for automotive lighting devices, "Proc. SPIE 4775, 58 (2002).

Other (1)

M. Strojnik and G. Paez, "Radiometry," in Handbook of Optical Engineering, D. Malacara, B. Thompson, eds., (2001).

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