Abstract

We control the atomic coherence and the population transfer among Rb hyperfine atomic levels by the fractional stimulated Raman adiabatic passage (F-STIRAP) in a Λ-type configuration, and verify the theoretical predictions. Applying this technique, we are able to prepare the atoms with maximal coherence to enhance coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) signal. In our experiment by scanning the frequency of one laser from 794.9839 nm to 794.9844 nm with the 794.9698 nm laser frequency fixed to generate a maximum of the CARS signal we are able to obtain the energy level diagram of the sample.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. J. Merriam, S. J. Sharpe,M. Shverdin, D. Manuszak, G. Y. Yin, and S. E. Harris,"Efficient nonlinear frequency conversion in an all-resonant double-Λ System," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5308 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. A. V. Sokolov, D. R. Walker, D. D. Yavuz, G. Y. Yin, and S. E. Harris,"Raman generation by phased and antiphased molecular states,"Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 562 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. D. Oron, N. Dudovich, D. Yelin, and Y. Silberberg,"Narrow-Band Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Signals from Broad-Band Pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 063004 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. M. O. Scully, G. W. Kattawar, P. R. Lucht, T. Opatrny, H. Pilloff, A. Rebane, A. V. Stokolov, and M. S. Zubairy, "FAST CARS: Engineering a laser spectroscopic technique for rapid identification of bacterial spores," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99, 10994 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. C. Y. Ye, V. A. Sautenkov, Y. V. Rostovtsev, and M. O. Scully,"Fast optical switching via stimulated Raman adiabatic passage," Opt. Lett. 28, 2213 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. N. V. Vitanov, K. A. Suominen, and B. W. Shore,"Creation of coherent atomic superpositions by fractional stimulated Raman adiabatic passage," J. Phys. B 32, 4535 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  7. V. A. Sautenkov, C. Y. Ye, Y. V. Rostovtsev, G. R. Welch, and M. O. Scully,"Enhancement of field generation via maximal atomic coherence prepared by fast adiabatic passage in Rb vapor," Phys. Rev. A 70, 033406 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  8. C. Y. Ye, V. A. Sautenkov, Y. V. Rostovtsev, G. R. Welch, and M. O. Scully,"Control of population and atomic coherence by adiabatic rapid passage and optimization of coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering signal by maximal coherence," J. Mod. Opt. 51, 2555 (2004).
    [CrossRef]

2004 (2)

V. A. Sautenkov, C. Y. Ye, Y. V. Rostovtsev, G. R. Welch, and M. O. Scully,"Enhancement of field generation via maximal atomic coherence prepared by fast adiabatic passage in Rb vapor," Phys. Rev. A 70, 033406 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. Y. Ye, V. A. Sautenkov, Y. V. Rostovtsev, G. R. Welch, and M. O. Scully,"Control of population and atomic coherence by adiabatic rapid passage and optimization of coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering signal by maximal coherence," J. Mod. Opt. 51, 2555 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

2002 (2)

D. Oron, N. Dudovich, D. Yelin, and Y. Silberberg,"Narrow-Band Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Signals from Broad-Band Pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 063004 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. O. Scully, G. W. Kattawar, P. R. Lucht, T. Opatrny, H. Pilloff, A. Rebane, A. V. Stokolov, and M. S. Zubairy, "FAST CARS: Engineering a laser spectroscopic technique for rapid identification of bacterial spores," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99, 10994 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (2)

A. J. Merriam, S. J. Sharpe,M. Shverdin, D. Manuszak, G. Y. Yin, and S. E. Harris,"Efficient nonlinear frequency conversion in an all-resonant double-Λ System," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5308 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. V. Sokolov, D. R. Walker, D. D. Yavuz, G. Y. Yin, and S. E. Harris,"Raman generation by phased and antiphased molecular states,"Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 562 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

N. V. Vitanov, K. A. Suominen, and B. W. Shore,"Creation of coherent atomic superpositions by fractional stimulated Raman adiabatic passage," J. Phys. B 32, 4535 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Dudovich, N.

D. Oron, N. Dudovich, D. Yelin, and Y. Silberberg,"Narrow-Band Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Signals from Broad-Band Pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 063004 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Harris, S. E.

A. J. Merriam, S. J. Sharpe,M. Shverdin, D. Manuszak, G. Y. Yin, and S. E. Harris,"Efficient nonlinear frequency conversion in an all-resonant double-Λ System," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5308 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. V. Sokolov, D. R. Walker, D. D. Yavuz, G. Y. Yin, and S. E. Harris,"Raman generation by phased and antiphased molecular states,"Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 562 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kattawar, G. W.

M. O. Scully, G. W. Kattawar, P. R. Lucht, T. Opatrny, H. Pilloff, A. Rebane, A. V. Stokolov, and M. S. Zubairy, "FAST CARS: Engineering a laser spectroscopic technique for rapid identification of bacterial spores," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99, 10994 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lucht, P. R.

M. O. Scully, G. W. Kattawar, P. R. Lucht, T. Opatrny, H. Pilloff, A. Rebane, A. V. Stokolov, and M. S. Zubairy, "FAST CARS: Engineering a laser spectroscopic technique for rapid identification of bacterial spores," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99, 10994 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Manuszak, D.

A. J. Merriam, S. J. Sharpe,M. Shverdin, D. Manuszak, G. Y. Yin, and S. E. Harris,"Efficient nonlinear frequency conversion in an all-resonant double-Λ System," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5308 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Merriam, A. J.

A. J. Merriam, S. J. Sharpe,M. Shverdin, D. Manuszak, G. Y. Yin, and S. E. Harris,"Efficient nonlinear frequency conversion in an all-resonant double-Λ System," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5308 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opatrny, T.

M. O. Scully, G. W. Kattawar, P. R. Lucht, T. Opatrny, H. Pilloff, A. Rebane, A. V. Stokolov, and M. S. Zubairy, "FAST CARS: Engineering a laser spectroscopic technique for rapid identification of bacterial spores," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99, 10994 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oron, D.

D. Oron, N. Dudovich, D. Yelin, and Y. Silberberg,"Narrow-Band Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Signals from Broad-Band Pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 063004 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pilloff, H.

M. O. Scully, G. W. Kattawar, P. R. Lucht, T. Opatrny, H. Pilloff, A. Rebane, A. V. Stokolov, and M. S. Zubairy, "FAST CARS: Engineering a laser spectroscopic technique for rapid identification of bacterial spores," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99, 10994 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rebane, A.

M. O. Scully, G. W. Kattawar, P. R. Lucht, T. Opatrny, H. Pilloff, A. Rebane, A. V. Stokolov, and M. S. Zubairy, "FAST CARS: Engineering a laser spectroscopic technique for rapid identification of bacterial spores," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99, 10994 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rostovtsev, Y. V.

C. Y. Ye, V. A. Sautenkov, Y. V. Rostovtsev, G. R. Welch, and M. O. Scully,"Control of population and atomic coherence by adiabatic rapid passage and optimization of coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering signal by maximal coherence," J. Mod. Opt. 51, 2555 (2004).
[CrossRef]

V. A. Sautenkov, C. Y. Ye, Y. V. Rostovtsev, G. R. Welch, and M. O. Scully,"Enhancement of field generation via maximal atomic coherence prepared by fast adiabatic passage in Rb vapor," Phys. Rev. A 70, 033406 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. Y. Ye, V. A. Sautenkov, Y. V. Rostovtsev, and M. O. Scully,"Fast optical switching via stimulated Raman adiabatic passage," Opt. Lett. 28, 2213 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sautenkov, V. A.

V. A. Sautenkov, C. Y. Ye, Y. V. Rostovtsev, G. R. Welch, and M. O. Scully,"Enhancement of field generation via maximal atomic coherence prepared by fast adiabatic passage in Rb vapor," Phys. Rev. A 70, 033406 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. Y. Ye, V. A. Sautenkov, Y. V. Rostovtsev, G. R. Welch, and M. O. Scully,"Control of population and atomic coherence by adiabatic rapid passage and optimization of coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering signal by maximal coherence," J. Mod. Opt. 51, 2555 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. Y. Ye, V. A. Sautenkov, Y. V. Rostovtsev, and M. O. Scully,"Fast optical switching via stimulated Raman adiabatic passage," Opt. Lett. 28, 2213 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Scully, M. O.

V. A. Sautenkov, C. Y. Ye, Y. V. Rostovtsev, G. R. Welch, and M. O. Scully,"Enhancement of field generation via maximal atomic coherence prepared by fast adiabatic passage in Rb vapor," Phys. Rev. A 70, 033406 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. Y. Ye, V. A. Sautenkov, Y. V. Rostovtsev, G. R. Welch, and M. O. Scully,"Control of population and atomic coherence by adiabatic rapid passage and optimization of coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering signal by maximal coherence," J. Mod. Opt. 51, 2555 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. Y. Ye, V. A. Sautenkov, Y. V. Rostovtsev, and M. O. Scully,"Fast optical switching via stimulated Raman adiabatic passage," Opt. Lett. 28, 2213 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. O. Scully, G. W. Kattawar, P. R. Lucht, T. Opatrny, H. Pilloff, A. Rebane, A. V. Stokolov, and M. S. Zubairy, "FAST CARS: Engineering a laser spectroscopic technique for rapid identification of bacterial spores," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99, 10994 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sharpe, S. J.

A. J. Merriam, S. J. Sharpe,M. Shverdin, D. Manuszak, G. Y. Yin, and S. E. Harris,"Efficient nonlinear frequency conversion in an all-resonant double-Λ System," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5308 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shore, B. W.

N. V. Vitanov, K. A. Suominen, and B. W. Shore,"Creation of coherent atomic superpositions by fractional stimulated Raman adiabatic passage," J. Phys. B 32, 4535 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Shverdin, M.

A. J. Merriam, S. J. Sharpe,M. Shverdin, D. Manuszak, G. Y. Yin, and S. E. Harris,"Efficient nonlinear frequency conversion in an all-resonant double-Λ System," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5308 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Silberberg, Y.

D. Oron, N. Dudovich, D. Yelin, and Y. Silberberg,"Narrow-Band Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Signals from Broad-Band Pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 063004 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sokolov, A. V.

A. V. Sokolov, D. R. Walker, D. D. Yavuz, G. Y. Yin, and S. E. Harris,"Raman generation by phased and antiphased molecular states,"Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 562 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stokolov, A. V.

M. O. Scully, G. W. Kattawar, P. R. Lucht, T. Opatrny, H. Pilloff, A. Rebane, A. V. Stokolov, and M. S. Zubairy, "FAST CARS: Engineering a laser spectroscopic technique for rapid identification of bacterial spores," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99, 10994 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Suominen, K. A.

N. V. Vitanov, K. A. Suominen, and B. W. Shore,"Creation of coherent atomic superpositions by fractional stimulated Raman adiabatic passage," J. Phys. B 32, 4535 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Vitanov, N. V.

N. V. Vitanov, K. A. Suominen, and B. W. Shore,"Creation of coherent atomic superpositions by fractional stimulated Raman adiabatic passage," J. Phys. B 32, 4535 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Walker, D. R.

A. V. Sokolov, D. R. Walker, D. D. Yavuz, G. Y. Yin, and S. E. Harris,"Raman generation by phased and antiphased molecular states,"Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 562 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Welch, G. R.

V. A. Sautenkov, C. Y. Ye, Y. V. Rostovtsev, G. R. Welch, and M. O. Scully,"Enhancement of field generation via maximal atomic coherence prepared by fast adiabatic passage in Rb vapor," Phys. Rev. A 70, 033406 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. Y. Ye, V. A. Sautenkov, Y. V. Rostovtsev, G. R. Welch, and M. O. Scully,"Control of population and atomic coherence by adiabatic rapid passage and optimization of coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering signal by maximal coherence," J. Mod. Opt. 51, 2555 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yavuz, D. D.

A. V. Sokolov, D. R. Walker, D. D. Yavuz, G. Y. Yin, and S. E. Harris,"Raman generation by phased and antiphased molecular states,"Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 562 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ye, C. Y.

V. A. Sautenkov, C. Y. Ye, Y. V. Rostovtsev, G. R. Welch, and M. O. Scully,"Enhancement of field generation via maximal atomic coherence prepared by fast adiabatic passage in Rb vapor," Phys. Rev. A 70, 033406 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. Y. Ye, V. A. Sautenkov, Y. V. Rostovtsev, G. R. Welch, and M. O. Scully,"Control of population and atomic coherence by adiabatic rapid passage and optimization of coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering signal by maximal coherence," J. Mod. Opt. 51, 2555 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. Y. Ye, V. A. Sautenkov, Y. V. Rostovtsev, and M. O. Scully,"Fast optical switching via stimulated Raman adiabatic passage," Opt. Lett. 28, 2213 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yelin, D.

D. Oron, N. Dudovich, D. Yelin, and Y. Silberberg,"Narrow-Band Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Signals from Broad-Band Pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 063004 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yin, G. Y.

A. V. Sokolov, D. R. Walker, D. D. Yavuz, G. Y. Yin, and S. E. Harris,"Raman generation by phased and antiphased molecular states,"Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 562 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. J. Merriam, S. J. Sharpe,M. Shverdin, D. Manuszak, G. Y. Yin, and S. E. Harris,"Efficient nonlinear frequency conversion in an all-resonant double-Λ System," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5308 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zubairy, M. S.

M. O. Scully, G. W. Kattawar, P. R. Lucht, T. Opatrny, H. Pilloff, A. Rebane, A. V. Stokolov, and M. S. Zubairy, "FAST CARS: Engineering a laser spectroscopic technique for rapid identification of bacterial spores," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99, 10994 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

C. Y. Ye, V. A. Sautenkov, Y. V. Rostovtsev, G. R. Welch, and M. O. Scully,"Control of population and atomic coherence by adiabatic rapid passage and optimization of coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering signal by maximal coherence," J. Mod. Opt. 51, 2555 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. B (1)

N. V. Vitanov, K. A. Suominen, and B. W. Shore,"Creation of coherent atomic superpositions by fractional stimulated Raman adiabatic passage," J. Phys. B 32, 4535 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

V. A. Sautenkov, C. Y. Ye, Y. V. Rostovtsev, G. R. Welch, and M. O. Scully,"Enhancement of field generation via maximal atomic coherence prepared by fast adiabatic passage in Rb vapor," Phys. Rev. A 70, 033406 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

A. J. Merriam, S. J. Sharpe,M. Shverdin, D. Manuszak, G. Y. Yin, and S. E. Harris,"Efficient nonlinear frequency conversion in an all-resonant double-Λ System," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5308 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. V. Sokolov, D. R. Walker, D. D. Yavuz, G. Y. Yin, and S. E. Harris,"Raman generation by phased and antiphased molecular states,"Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 562 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Oron, N. Dudovich, D. Yelin, and Y. Silberberg,"Narrow-Band Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Signals from Broad-Band Pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 063004 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1)

M. O. Scully, G. W. Kattawar, P. R. Lucht, T. Opatrny, H. Pilloff, A. Rebane, A. V. Stokolov, and M. S. Zubairy, "FAST CARS: Engineering a laser spectroscopic technique for rapid identification of bacterial spores," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99, 10994 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Energy-level diagram of the Λ-type system in 87Rb. Ω c1, Ω c2, Ω p , Ω CARS are the Rabi frequency of the first, second coupling, probe and CARS signal, respectively.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Numerical simulations of the population transfer, coherence and the propagation of laser pulses by the technique of F-STIRAP. (a) The first coupling, the second coupling and probe pulses at the entrance of the sample cell. (b) The output pulses and the CARS signal at the exit of the cell. (c) Population transfer between |1〉 and |3〉, and the coherence between states |1〉 and |3〉.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Schematic of the experimental setup.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a). The pulses at the entrance of the Rb cell, the duration of Ω c1, Ω c2, Ω p are 150 ns, 20 ns, 20 ns, respectively. (b)The pulses after Rb cell, Ω CARS is the generated signal. All the signals are normalized to the intensity of the probe pulse before entering the cell.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

The intensity of the signal versus the wavelength of the first coupling pulse with the second coupling laser frequency fixed at 794.9698 nm. Squares are the experimental results, the solid curve is the theoretical one.

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

H I = h ¯ Δ p 2 2 + h ¯ ( Δ p Δ s ) 3 3 h ¯ 2 ( Ω c 2 + Ω CARS ) * 1 2
h ¯ 2 ( Ω c 2 + Ω CARS ) 2 1 h ¯ 2 ( Ω c 1 + Ω p ) 2 3 h ¯ 2 ( Ω c 1 + Ω p ) * 3 2 ,
ρ ij = i h ¯ ( H ik I ρ kj ρ ik H kj I ) 1 2 ( Γ ik ρ kj + ρ ik Γ kj ) ,
( Ω c 1 + Ω p ) ξ = i η 23 ρ 32 ,
( Ω c 2 + Ω CARS ) ξ = i η 21 ρ 12 ,

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