Abstract

A highly stable version of spectral interferometry is demonstrated, allowing single shot measurement of ultrafast high field processes using modest energy lasers, with pump and probe pulses totaling less than 1 mJ. The technique makes possible reconstruction of ultrafast refractive index transients with one-dimensional spatial resolution, limited only by the bandwidth of the supercontinuum pulse (~100 nm) and instrument resolution. The ultrafast nonlinear Kerr effect in glass, and in Ar, N2, and N2O gases is measured, along with plasma generation in Ar. The inertial contribution to the nonlinear index from N2 and N2O molecular rotation is also observed.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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2006 (2)

N. H. Matlis, S. Reed, S. S. Bulanov, V. Chvykov, G. Kalintchenko, T. Matsuoka, P. Rousseau, V. Yanovsky, A. Maksimchuk, S. Kalmykov, G. Shvets and M. C. Downer, "Snapshots of laser wakefields," Nature Phys. 2, 749-753 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, and S. Coen, "Supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fiber," Rev. Mod. Phys. 78, 1135-1184 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

K. Y. Kim, I. Alexeev, and H. M. Milchberg, "Measurement of ultrafast dynamics in the interaction of intense laser pulses with gases, clusters, and plasma waveguides," Phys. Plasmas 12, 056712 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

K. Y. Kim, I. Alexeev, V. Kumarappan, E. Parra, T. Antonsen, T. Taguchi, A. Gupta, and H. M. Milchberg, "Gases of exploding laser-heated cluster nanoplasmas as a nonlinear optical medium," Phys. Plasmas 11, 2882- 2889 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

P. W. Dooley, I. V. Litvinyuk, KevinF. Lee, D. M. Rayner, M. Spanner, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, "Direct imaging of rotational wave-packet dynamics of diatomic molecules," Phys. Rev. A 68, 023406 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. Y. Kim, I. Alexeev, E. Parra, and H. M. Milchberg, "Time-resolved explosion of intense-laser-heated clusters," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 023401 (2003); I. Alexeev, T. M. Antonsen, K. Y. Kim, and H. M. Milchberg, "Self- focusing of intense laser pulses in a clustered gas," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 103402 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Y. Kim, I. Alexeev, E. Parra, and H. M. Milchberg, "Time-resolved explosion of intense-laser-heated clusters," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 023401 (2003); I. Alexeev, T. M. Antonsen, K. Y. Kim, and H. M. Milchberg, "Self- focusing of intense laser pulses in a clustered gas," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 103402 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (3)

K. Y. Kim, I. Alexeev, and H. M. Milchberg, "Single-shot supercontinuum spectral interferometry," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 4124-4126 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. Kim, I. Alexeev, and H. Milchberg, "Single-shot measurement of laser-induced double step ionization of helium," Opt. Express 10, 1563-1572 (2002).
[PubMed]

M. Falconieri, E. Palange, and H. L. Fragnito, "Achievement of λ/4000 phase distortion sensitivity in the measurement of optical nonlinearities by using a modulated Z-scan technique," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 4, 404-407 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

2000 (3)

1999 (3)

R. A. Toth, "Line positions and strengths of N2O between 3515 and 7800 cm1," J.Mol. Spectrosc. 197, 158-187 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Benuzzi-Mounaix, M. Koenig, J. M. Boudenne, T. A. Hall, D. Batani, F. Scianitti, A. Masini, and D. Di Santo, "Chirped pulse reflectivity and frequency domain interferometry in laser driven shock experiments," Phys. Rev. E 60, R2488-R2491 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. Salieres, L. LeDeroff, T. Auguste, P. Monot, P. d’Oliveira, D. Campo, J.-F. Hergott, H. Merdji, and B. Carre, "Frequency-Domain Interferometry in the XUV with High-Order Harmonics," Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 5483-5486 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

C. X. Yu, M. Margalit, E. P. Ippen, and H. A. Haus, "Direct measurement of self-phase shift due to fiber nonlinearity," Opt. Lett. 23, 679-681 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Marques, F. Dorchies, F. Amiranoff, P. Audebert, J. C. Gauthier, J. P. Geindre, A. Antonetti, T. M. Antonsen, Jr., P. Chessa, and P. Mora, "Laser Wakefield: experimental study of nonlinear radial electron oscillations," Phys. Plasmas 5, 1162-1177 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

J.-F. Ripoche, G. Grillon, B. Prade, M. Franco, E. Nibbering, R. Lange, A. Mysyrowicz, "Determination of the time dependence of n2 in air," Opt. Commun. 135, 310-314 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (3)

R. Evans, A. D. Badger, F. Fallies, M. Mahdieh, T. A. Hall, P. Audebert, J.-P. Geindre, J.-C. Gauthier, A. Mysyrowicz, G. Grillon, and A. Antonetti, "Time- and space-resolved optical probing of femtosecond-laser-driven shock waves in aluminum," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3359-3362 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. Marques, J. P. Geindre, F. Amiranoff, P. Audebert, J. C. Gauthier, A. Antonetti, and G. Grillon, "Temporal and spatial measurements of the electron density perturbation produced in the wake of an ultrashort laser pulse," Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 3566-3569 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. W. Siders, S. P. Le Blanc, D. Fisher, T. Tajima, M. C. Downer, A. Babine, A. Stepanov, and A. Sergeev, "Laser Wakefield excitation and measurement by Femtosecond Longitudinal Interferometry," Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 3570-3573 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (2)

B. Friedrich and D. Herschbach, "Alignment and trapping of molecules in intense laser fields," Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 4623-4626 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Augst, A. Talebpour, S. L. Chin, Y. Beaudoin, and M. Chaker, "Nonsequential triple ionization of argon atoms in a high-intensity laser field," Phys. Rev. A 52, R917-R919 (1995); S. Geltman, "Multiple ionization of argon atoms by intense laser pulses," Phys. Rev. A 54, 2489-2491 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Augst, A. Talebpour, S. L. Chin, Y. Beaudoin, and M. Chaker, "Nonsequential triple ionization of argon atoms in a high-intensity laser field," Phys. Rev. A 52, R917-R919 (1995); S. Geltman, "Multiple ionization of argon atoms by intense laser pulses," Phys. Rev. A 54, 2489-2491 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

1992 (1)

1989 (1)

1987 (1)

1986 (1)

P. B. Corkum, C. Rolland, and T. Srinivasan-Rao, "Supercontinuum Generation in Gases," Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 2268-2271 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1985 (1)

H. J. Lehmeier, W. Leupacher, and A. Penzkofer, "Nonresonant third order hyperpolarizability of rare gases and N2 determined by third harmonic generation," Opt. Commun. 56, 67-72 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1976 (1)

D. Milam and M. J. Weber, "Measurement of nonlinear refractive-index coefficients using time-resolved interferometry: Application to optical materials for high-power neodymium lasers," J. Appl. Phys. 47, 2497-2501 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

Cl. Froehly, A. Lacourt and J. Ch. Vienot, "Time impulse response and time frequency response of optical pupils.: Experimental confirmations and applications," Nouvelle Revue d’Optique 4, 183-196 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Adair, R.

Alexeev, I.

K. Y. Kim, I. Alexeev, and H. M. Milchberg, "Measurement of ultrafast dynamics in the interaction of intense laser pulses with gases, clusters, and plasma waveguides," Phys. Plasmas 12, 056712 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Y. Kim, I. Alexeev, V. Kumarappan, E. Parra, T. Antonsen, T. Taguchi, A. Gupta, and H. M. Milchberg, "Gases of exploding laser-heated cluster nanoplasmas as a nonlinear optical medium," Phys. Plasmas 11, 2882- 2889 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Y. Kim, I. Alexeev, E. Parra, and H. M. Milchberg, "Time-resolved explosion of intense-laser-heated clusters," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 023401 (2003); I. Alexeev, T. M. Antonsen, K. Y. Kim, and H. M. Milchberg, "Self- focusing of intense laser pulses in a clustered gas," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 103402 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Y. Kim, I. Alexeev, E. Parra, and H. M. Milchberg, "Time-resolved explosion of intense-laser-heated clusters," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 023401 (2003); I. Alexeev, T. M. Antonsen, K. Y. Kim, and H. M. Milchberg, "Self- focusing of intense laser pulses in a clustered gas," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 103402 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Y. Kim, I. Alexeev, and H. M. Milchberg, "Single-shot supercontinuum spectral interferometry," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 4124-4126 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. Kim, I. Alexeev, and H. Milchberg, "Single-shot measurement of laser-induced double step ionization of helium," Opt. Express 10, 1563-1572 (2002).
[PubMed]

Amiranoff, F.

J. R. Marques, F. Dorchies, F. Amiranoff, P. Audebert, J. C. Gauthier, J. P. Geindre, A. Antonetti, T. M. Antonsen, Jr., P. Chessa, and P. Mora, "Laser Wakefield: experimental study of nonlinear radial electron oscillations," Phys. Plasmas 5, 1162-1177 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Marques, J. P. Geindre, F. Amiranoff, P. Audebert, J. C. Gauthier, A. Antonetti, and G. Grillon, "Temporal and spatial measurements of the electron density perturbation produced in the wake of an ultrashort laser pulse," Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 3566-3569 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Antonetti, A.

J. R. Marques, F. Dorchies, F. Amiranoff, P. Audebert, J. C. Gauthier, J. P. Geindre, A. Antonetti, T. M. Antonsen, Jr., P. Chessa, and P. Mora, "Laser Wakefield: experimental study of nonlinear radial electron oscillations," Phys. Plasmas 5, 1162-1177 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Marques, J. P. Geindre, F. Amiranoff, P. Audebert, J. C. Gauthier, A. Antonetti, and G. Grillon, "Temporal and spatial measurements of the electron density perturbation produced in the wake of an ultrashort laser pulse," Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 3566-3569 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Evans, A. D. Badger, F. Fallies, M. Mahdieh, T. A. Hall, P. Audebert, J.-P. Geindre, J.-C. Gauthier, A. Mysyrowicz, G. Grillon, and A. Antonetti, "Time- and space-resolved optical probing of femtosecond-laser-driven shock waves in aluminum," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3359-3362 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. P. Geindre, P. Audebert, A. Rousse, F. Fallies, J. C. Gauthier, A. Mysyrowicz, A. Dos Santos, and G. Hamoniaux A. Antonetti, "Frequency-domain interferometer for measuring the phase and amplitude of a femtosecond pulse probing a laser-produced plasma," Opt. Lett. 19, 1997-1999 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Antonsen, T.

K. Y. Kim, I. Alexeev, V. Kumarappan, E. Parra, T. Antonsen, T. Taguchi, A. Gupta, and H. M. Milchberg, "Gases of exploding laser-heated cluster nanoplasmas as a nonlinear optical medium," Phys. Plasmas 11, 2882- 2889 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Antonsen, T. M.

K. Y. Kim, I. Alexeev, E. Parra, and H. M. Milchberg, "Time-resolved explosion of intense-laser-heated clusters," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 023401 (2003); I. Alexeev, T. M. Antonsen, K. Y. Kim, and H. M. Milchberg, "Self- focusing of intense laser pulses in a clustered gas," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 103402 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. Marques, F. Dorchies, F. Amiranoff, P. Audebert, J. C. Gauthier, J. P. Geindre, A. Antonetti, T. M. Antonsen, Jr., P. Chessa, and P. Mora, "Laser Wakefield: experimental study of nonlinear radial electron oscillations," Phys. Plasmas 5, 1162-1177 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Audebert, P.

J. -P. Geindre, P. Audebert, S. Rebibo, and J. -C. Gauthier, "Single-shot spectral interferometry with chirped pulses," Opt. Lett. 26, 1612-1614 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Marques, F. Dorchies, F. Amiranoff, P. Audebert, J. C. Gauthier, J. P. Geindre, A. Antonetti, T. M. Antonsen, Jr., P. Chessa, and P. Mora, "Laser Wakefield: experimental study of nonlinear radial electron oscillations," Phys. Plasmas 5, 1162-1177 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Marques, J. P. Geindre, F. Amiranoff, P. Audebert, J. C. Gauthier, A. Antonetti, and G. Grillon, "Temporal and spatial measurements of the electron density perturbation produced in the wake of an ultrashort laser pulse," Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 3566-3569 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Evans, A. D. Badger, F. Fallies, M. Mahdieh, T. A. Hall, P. Audebert, J.-P. Geindre, J.-C. Gauthier, A. Mysyrowicz, G. Grillon, and A. Antonetti, "Time- and space-resolved optical probing of femtosecond-laser-driven shock waves in aluminum," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3359-3362 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. P. Geindre, P. Audebert, A. Rousse, F. Fallies, J. C. Gauthier, A. Mysyrowicz, A. Dos Santos, and G. Hamoniaux A. Antonetti, "Frequency-domain interferometer for measuring the phase and amplitude of a femtosecond pulse probing a laser-produced plasma," Opt. Lett. 19, 1997-1999 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Augst, S.

S. Augst, A. Talebpour, S. L. Chin, Y. Beaudoin, and M. Chaker, "Nonsequential triple ionization of argon atoms in a high-intensity laser field," Phys. Rev. A 52, R917-R919 (1995); S. Geltman, "Multiple ionization of argon atoms by intense laser pulses," Phys. Rev. A 54, 2489-2491 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Babine, A.

C. W. Siders, S. P. Le Blanc, D. Fisher, T. Tajima, M. C. Downer, A. Babine, A. Stepanov, and A. Sergeev, "Laser Wakefield excitation and measurement by Femtosecond Longitudinal Interferometry," Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 3570-3573 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Badger, A. D.

R. Evans, A. D. Badger, F. Fallies, M. Mahdieh, T. A. Hall, P. Audebert, J.-P. Geindre, J.-C. Gauthier, A. Mysyrowicz, G. Grillon, and A. Antonetti, "Time- and space-resolved optical probing of femtosecond-laser-driven shock waves in aluminum," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3359-3362 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barthelemy, A.

Batani, D.

A. Benuzzi-Mounaix, M. Koenig, J. M. Boudenne, T. A. Hall, D. Batani, F. Scianitti, A. Masini, and D. Di Santo, "Chirped pulse reflectivity and frequency domain interferometry in laser driven shock experiments," Phys. Rev. E 60, R2488-R2491 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Beaudoin, Y.

S. Augst, A. Talebpour, S. L. Chin, Y. Beaudoin, and M. Chaker, "Nonsequential triple ionization of argon atoms in a high-intensity laser field," Phys. Rev. A 52, R917-R919 (1995); S. Geltman, "Multiple ionization of argon atoms by intense laser pulses," Phys. Rev. A 54, 2489-2491 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Benuzzi-Mounaix, A.

A. Benuzzi-Mounaix, M. Koenig, J. M. Boudenne, T. A. Hall, D. Batani, F. Scianitti, A. Masini, and D. Di Santo, "Chirped pulse reflectivity and frequency domain interferometry in laser driven shock experiments," Phys. Rev. E 60, R2488-R2491 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Boudenne, J. M.

A. Benuzzi-Mounaix, M. Koenig, J. M. Boudenne, T. A. Hall, D. Batani, F. Scianitti, A. Masini, and D. Di Santo, "Chirped pulse reflectivity and frequency domain interferometry in laser driven shock experiments," Phys. Rev. E 60, R2488-R2491 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bulanov, S. S.

N. H. Matlis, S. Reed, S. S. Bulanov, V. Chvykov, G. Kalintchenko, T. Matsuoka, P. Rousseau, V. Yanovsky, A. Maksimchuk, S. Kalmykov, G. Shvets and M. C. Downer, "Snapshots of laser wakefields," Nature Phys. 2, 749-753 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chaker, M.

S. Augst, A. Talebpour, S. L. Chin, Y. Beaudoin, and M. Chaker, "Nonsequential triple ionization of argon atoms in a high-intensity laser field," Phys. Rev. A 52, R917-R919 (1995); S. Geltman, "Multiple ionization of argon atoms by intense laser pulses," Phys. Rev. A 54, 2489-2491 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chase, L. L.

Chessa, P.

J. R. Marques, F. Dorchies, F. Amiranoff, P. Audebert, J. C. Gauthier, J. P. Geindre, A. Antonetti, T. M. Antonsen, Jr., P. Chessa, and P. Mora, "Laser Wakefield: experimental study of nonlinear radial electron oscillations," Phys. Plasmas 5, 1162-1177 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chien, C. Y.

Chin, S. L.

S. Augst, A. Talebpour, S. L. Chin, Y. Beaudoin, and M. Chaker, "Nonsequential triple ionization of argon atoms in a high-intensity laser field," Phys. Rev. A 52, R917-R919 (1995); S. Geltman, "Multiple ionization of argon atoms by intense laser pulses," Phys. Rev. A 54, 2489-2491 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chvykov, V.

N. H. Matlis, S. Reed, S. S. Bulanov, V. Chvykov, G. Kalintchenko, T. Matsuoka, P. Rousseau, V. Yanovsky, A. Maksimchuk, S. Kalmykov, G. Shvets and M. C. Downer, "Snapshots of laser wakefields," Nature Phys. 2, 749-753 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Coen, S.

J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, and S. Coen, "Supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fiber," Rev. Mod. Phys. 78, 1135-1184 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Corkum, P. B.

P. B. Corkum, C. Rolland, and T. Srinivasan-Rao, "Supercontinuum Generation in Gases," Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 2268-2271 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Desparois, A.

Di Santo, D.

A. Benuzzi-Mounaix, M. Koenig, J. M. Boudenne, T. A. Hall, D. Batani, F. Scianitti, A. Masini, and D. Di Santo, "Chirped pulse reflectivity and frequency domain interferometry in laser driven shock experiments," Phys. Rev. E 60, R2488-R2491 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Dooley, P. W.

P. W. Dooley, I. V. Litvinyuk, KevinF. Lee, D. M. Rayner, M. Spanner, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, "Direct imaging of rotational wave-packet dynamics of diatomic molecules," Phys. Rev. A 68, 023406 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dorchies, F.

J. R. Marques, F. Dorchies, F. Amiranoff, P. Audebert, J. C. Gauthier, J. P. Geindre, A. Antonetti, T. M. Antonsen, Jr., P. Chessa, and P. Mora, "Laser Wakefield: experimental study of nonlinear radial electron oscillations," Phys. Plasmas 5, 1162-1177 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Dos Santos, A.

Downer, M. C.

N. H. Matlis, S. Reed, S. S. Bulanov, V. Chvykov, G. Kalintchenko, T. Matsuoka, P. Rousseau, V. Yanovsky, A. Maksimchuk, S. Kalmykov, G. Shvets and M. C. Downer, "Snapshots of laser wakefields," Nature Phys. 2, 749-753 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Siders, S. P. Le Blanc, D. Fisher, T. Tajima, M. C. Downer, A. Babine, A. Stepanov, and A. Sergeev, "Laser Wakefield excitation and measurement by Femtosecond Longitudinal Interferometry," Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 3570-3573 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dudley, J. M.

J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, and S. Coen, "Supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fiber," Rev. Mod. Phys. 78, 1135-1184 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Evans, R.

R. Evans, A. D. Badger, F. Fallies, M. Mahdieh, T. A. Hall, P. Audebert, J.-P. Geindre, J.-C. Gauthier, A. Mysyrowicz, G. Grillon, and A. Antonetti, "Time- and space-resolved optical probing of femtosecond-laser-driven shock waves in aluminum," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3359-3362 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Falconieri, M.

M. Falconieri, E. Palange, and H. L. Fragnito, "Achievement of λ/4000 phase distortion sensitivity in the measurement of optical nonlinearities by using a modulated Z-scan technique," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 4, 404-407 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fallies, F.

R. Evans, A. D. Badger, F. Fallies, M. Mahdieh, T. A. Hall, P. Audebert, J.-P. Geindre, J.-C. Gauthier, A. Mysyrowicz, G. Grillon, and A. Antonetti, "Time- and space-resolved optical probing of femtosecond-laser-driven shock waves in aluminum," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3359-3362 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. P. Geindre, P. Audebert, A. Rousse, F. Fallies, J. C. Gauthier, A. Mysyrowicz, A. Dos Santos, and G. Hamoniaux A. Antonetti, "Frequency-domain interferometer for measuring the phase and amplitude of a femtosecond pulse probing a laser-produced plasma," Opt. Lett. 19, 1997-1999 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fisher, D.

C. W. Siders, S. P. Le Blanc, D. Fisher, T. Tajima, M. C. Downer, A. Babine, A. Stepanov, and A. Sergeev, "Laser Wakefield excitation and measurement by Femtosecond Longitudinal Interferometry," Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 3570-3573 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fragnito, H. L.

M. Falconieri, E. Palange, and H. L. Fragnito, "Achievement of λ/4000 phase distortion sensitivity in the measurement of optical nonlinearities by using a modulated Z-scan technique," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 4, 404-407 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Franco, M.

J.-F. Ripoche, G. Grillon, B. Prade, M. Franco, E. Nibbering, R. Lange, A. Mysyrowicz, "Determination of the time dependence of n2 in air," Opt. Commun. 135, 310-314 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Friedrich, B.

B. Friedrich and D. Herschbach, "Alignment and trapping of molecules in intense laser fields," Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 4623-4626 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Froehly, Cl.

Cl. Froehly, A. Lacourt and J. Ch. Vienot, "Time impulse response and time frequency response of optical pupils.: Experimental confirmations and applications," Nouvelle Revue d’Optique 4, 183-196 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Gaul, E.W.

Gauthier, J. C.

J. R. Marques, F. Dorchies, F. Amiranoff, P. Audebert, J. C. Gauthier, J. P. Geindre, A. Antonetti, T. M. Antonsen, Jr., P. Chessa, and P. Mora, "Laser Wakefield: experimental study of nonlinear radial electron oscillations," Phys. Plasmas 5, 1162-1177 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Marques, J. P. Geindre, F. Amiranoff, P. Audebert, J. C. Gauthier, A. Antonetti, and G. Grillon, "Temporal and spatial measurements of the electron density perturbation produced in the wake of an ultrashort laser pulse," Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 3566-3569 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. P. Geindre, P. Audebert, A. Rousse, F. Fallies, J. C. Gauthier, A. Mysyrowicz, A. Dos Santos, and G. Hamoniaux A. Antonetti, "Frequency-domain interferometer for measuring the phase and amplitude of a femtosecond pulse probing a laser-produced plasma," Opt. Lett. 19, 1997-1999 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gauthier, J. -C.

Gauthier, J.-C.

R. Evans, A. D. Badger, F. Fallies, M. Mahdieh, T. A. Hall, P. Audebert, J.-P. Geindre, J.-C. Gauthier, A. Mysyrowicz, G. Grillon, and A. Antonetti, "Time- and space-resolved optical probing of femtosecond-laser-driven shock waves in aluminum," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3359-3362 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Geindre, J. P.

J. R. Marques, F. Dorchies, F. Amiranoff, P. Audebert, J. C. Gauthier, J. P. Geindre, A. Antonetti, T. M. Antonsen, Jr., P. Chessa, and P. Mora, "Laser Wakefield: experimental study of nonlinear radial electron oscillations," Phys. Plasmas 5, 1162-1177 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Marques, J. P. Geindre, F. Amiranoff, P. Audebert, J. C. Gauthier, A. Antonetti, and G. Grillon, "Temporal and spatial measurements of the electron density perturbation produced in the wake of an ultrashort laser pulse," Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 3566-3569 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. P. Geindre, P. Audebert, A. Rousse, F. Fallies, J. C. Gauthier, A. Mysyrowicz, A. Dos Santos, and G. Hamoniaux A. Antonetti, "Frequency-domain interferometer for measuring the phase and amplitude of a femtosecond pulse probing a laser-produced plasma," Opt. Lett. 19, 1997-1999 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Geindre, J. -P.

Geindre, J.-P.

R. Evans, A. D. Badger, F. Fallies, M. Mahdieh, T. A. Hall, P. Audebert, J.-P. Geindre, J.-C. Gauthier, A. Mysyrowicz, G. Grillon, and A. Antonetti, "Time- and space-resolved optical probing of femtosecond-laser-driven shock waves in aluminum," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3359-3362 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Geltman, S.

S. Augst, A. Talebpour, S. L. Chin, Y. Beaudoin, and M. Chaker, "Nonsequential triple ionization of argon atoms in a high-intensity laser field," Phys. Rev. A 52, R917-R919 (1995); S. Geltman, "Multiple ionization of argon atoms by intense laser pulses," Phys. Rev. A 54, 2489-2491 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Genty, G.

J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, and S. Coen, "Supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fiber," Rev. Mod. Phys. 78, 1135-1184 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Grillon, G.

J.-F. Ripoche, G. Grillon, B. Prade, M. Franco, E. Nibbering, R. Lange, A. Mysyrowicz, "Determination of the time dependence of n2 in air," Opt. Commun. 135, 310-314 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. Evans, A. D. Badger, F. Fallies, M. Mahdieh, T. A. Hall, P. Audebert, J.-P. Geindre, J.-C. Gauthier, A. Mysyrowicz, G. Grillon, and A. Antonetti, "Time- and space-resolved optical probing of femtosecond-laser-driven shock waves in aluminum," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3359-3362 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. Marques, J. P. Geindre, F. Amiranoff, P. Audebert, J. C. Gauthier, A. Antonetti, and G. Grillon, "Temporal and spatial measurements of the electron density perturbation produced in the wake of an ultrashort laser pulse," Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 3566-3569 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gu, X.

Gupta, A.

K. Y. Kim, I. Alexeev, V. Kumarappan, E. Parra, T. Antonsen, T. Taguchi, A. Gupta, and H. M. Milchberg, "Gases of exploding laser-heated cluster nanoplasmas as a nonlinear optical medium," Phys. Plasmas 11, 2882- 2889 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hall, T. A.

A. Benuzzi-Mounaix, M. Koenig, J. M. Boudenne, T. A. Hall, D. Batani, F. Scianitti, A. Masini, and D. Di Santo, "Chirped pulse reflectivity and frequency domain interferometry in laser driven shock experiments," Phys. Rev. E 60, R2488-R2491 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. Evans, A. D. Badger, F. Fallies, M. Mahdieh, T. A. Hall, P. Audebert, J.-P. Geindre, J.-C. Gauthier, A. Mysyrowicz, G. Grillon, and A. Antonetti, "Time- and space-resolved optical probing of femtosecond-laser-driven shock waves in aluminum," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3359-3362 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hamoniaux, G.

Haus, H. A.

Herschbach, D.

B. Friedrich and D. Herschbach, "Alignment and trapping of molecules in intense laser fields," Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 4623-4626 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ippen, E. P.

Jiang, Z.

Johnston, T. W.

Kalintchenko, G.

N. H. Matlis, S. Reed, S. S. Bulanov, V. Chvykov, G. Kalintchenko, T. Matsuoka, P. Rousseau, V. Yanovsky, A. Maksimchuk, S. Kalmykov, G. Shvets and M. C. Downer, "Snapshots of laser wakefields," Nature Phys. 2, 749-753 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kalmykov, S.

N. H. Matlis, S. Reed, S. S. Bulanov, V. Chvykov, G. Kalintchenko, T. Matsuoka, P. Rousseau, V. Yanovsky, A. Maksimchuk, S. Kalmykov, G. Shvets and M. C. Downer, "Snapshots of laser wakefields," Nature Phys. 2, 749-753 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kevin, I. V.

P. W. Dooley, I. V. Litvinyuk, KevinF. Lee, D. M. Rayner, M. Spanner, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, "Direct imaging of rotational wave-packet dynamics of diatomic molecules," Phys. Rev. A 68, 023406 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kieffer, J. C.

Kim, K.

Kim, K. Y.

K. Y. Kim, I. Alexeev, and H. M. Milchberg, "Measurement of ultrafast dynamics in the interaction of intense laser pulses with gases, clusters, and plasma waveguides," Phys. Plasmas 12, 056712 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Y. Kim, I. Alexeev, V. Kumarappan, E. Parra, T. Antonsen, T. Taguchi, A. Gupta, and H. M. Milchberg, "Gases of exploding laser-heated cluster nanoplasmas as a nonlinear optical medium," Phys. Plasmas 11, 2882- 2889 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Y. Kim, I. Alexeev, E. Parra, and H. M. Milchberg, "Time-resolved explosion of intense-laser-heated clusters," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 023401 (2003); I. Alexeev, T. M. Antonsen, K. Y. Kim, and H. M. Milchberg, "Self- focusing of intense laser pulses in a clustered gas," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 103402 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Y. Kim, I. Alexeev, E. Parra, and H. M. Milchberg, "Time-resolved explosion of intense-laser-heated clusters," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 023401 (2003); I. Alexeev, T. M. Antonsen, K. Y. Kim, and H. M. Milchberg, "Self- focusing of intense laser pulses in a clustered gas," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 103402 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Y. Kim, I. Alexeev, and H. M. Milchberg, "Single-shot supercontinuum spectral interferometry," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 4124-4126 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kimmel, M.

Kobayashi, T.

Koenig, M.

A. Benuzzi-Mounaix, M. Koenig, J. M. Boudenne, T. A. Hall, D. Batani, F. Scianitti, A. Masini, and D. Di Santo, "Chirped pulse reflectivity and frequency domain interferometry in laser driven shock experiments," Phys. Rev. E 60, R2488-R2491 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kumarappan, V.

K. Y. Kim, I. Alexeev, V. Kumarappan, E. Parra, T. Antonsen, T. Taguchi, A. Gupta, and H. M. Milchberg, "Gases of exploding laser-heated cluster nanoplasmas as a nonlinear optical medium," Phys. Plasmas 11, 2882- 2889 (2004).
[CrossRef]

La Fontaine, B.

Lacourt, A.

Cl. Froehly, A. Lacourt and J. Ch. Vienot, "Time impulse response and time frequency response of optical pupils.: Experimental confirmations and applications," Nouvelle Revue d’Optique 4, 183-196 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Lange, R.

J.-F. Ripoche, G. Grillon, B. Prade, M. Franco, E. Nibbering, R. Lange, A. Mysyrowicz, "Determination of the time dependence of n2 in air," Opt. Commun. 135, 310-314 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Le, L.

P. Salieres, L. LeDeroff, T. Auguste, P. Monot, P. d’Oliveira, D. Campo, J.-F. Hergott, H. Merdji, and B. Carre, "Frequency-Domain Interferometry in the XUV with High-Order Harmonics," Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 5483-5486 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Le Blanc, S. P.

S. P. Le Blanc, E. W. Gaul, N. H. Matlis, A. Rundquist, and M. C. Downer, "Single-shot measurement of temporal phase shifts by frequency-domain holography," Opt. Lett. 25, 764-766 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Siders, S. P. Le Blanc, D. Fisher, T. Tajima, M. C. Downer, A. Babine, A. Stepanov, and A. Sergeev, "Laser Wakefield excitation and measurement by Femtosecond Longitudinal Interferometry," Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 3570-3573 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lehmeier, H. J.

H. J. Lehmeier, W. Leupacher, and A. Penzkofer, "Nonresonant third order hyperpolarizability of rare gases and N2 determined by third harmonic generation," Opt. Commun. 56, 67-72 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Leupacher, W.

H. J. Lehmeier, W. Leupacher, and A. Penzkofer, "Nonresonant third order hyperpolarizability of rare gases and N2 determined by third harmonic generation," Opt. Commun. 56, 67-72 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Litvinyuk, I. V.

P. W. Dooley, I. V. Litvinyuk, KevinF. Lee, D. M. Rayner, M. Spanner, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, "Direct imaging of rotational wave-packet dynamics of diatomic molecules," Phys. Rev. A 68, 023406 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mahdieh, M.

R. Evans, A. D. Badger, F. Fallies, M. Mahdieh, T. A. Hall, P. Audebert, J.-P. Geindre, J.-C. Gauthier, A. Mysyrowicz, G. Grillon, and A. Antonetti, "Time- and space-resolved optical probing of femtosecond-laser-driven shock waves in aluminum," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3359-3362 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maksimchuk, A.

N. H. Matlis, S. Reed, S. S. Bulanov, V. Chvykov, G. Kalintchenko, T. Matsuoka, P. Rousseau, V. Yanovsky, A. Maksimchuk, S. Kalmykov, G. Shvets and M. C. Downer, "Snapshots of laser wakefields," Nature Phys. 2, 749-753 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Margalit, M.

Marqu`es, J. R.

J. R. Marques, F. Dorchies, F. Amiranoff, P. Audebert, J. C. Gauthier, J. P. Geindre, A. Antonetti, T. M. Antonsen, Jr., P. Chessa, and P. Mora, "Laser Wakefield: experimental study of nonlinear radial electron oscillations," Phys. Plasmas 5, 1162-1177 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Marques, J. P. Geindre, F. Amiranoff, P. Audebert, J. C. Gauthier, A. Antonetti, and G. Grillon, "Temporal and spatial measurements of the electron density perturbation produced in the wake of an ultrashort laser pulse," Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 3566-3569 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Masini, A.

A. Benuzzi-Mounaix, M. Koenig, J. M. Boudenne, T. A. Hall, D. Batani, F. Scianitti, A. Masini, and D. Di Santo, "Chirped pulse reflectivity and frequency domain interferometry in laser driven shock experiments," Phys. Rev. E 60, R2488-R2491 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Matlis, N. H.

N. H. Matlis, S. Reed, S. S. Bulanov, V. Chvykov, G. Kalintchenko, T. Matsuoka, P. Rousseau, V. Yanovsky, A. Maksimchuk, S. Kalmykov, G. Shvets and M. C. Downer, "Snapshots of laser wakefields," Nature Phys. 2, 749-753 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. P. Le Blanc, E. W. Gaul, N. H. Matlis, A. Rundquist, and M. C. Downer, "Single-shot measurement of temporal phase shifts by frequency-domain holography," Opt. Lett. 25, 764-766 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Matsuoka, T.

N. H. Matlis, S. Reed, S. S. Bulanov, V. Chvykov, G. Kalintchenko, T. Matsuoka, P. Rousseau, V. Yanovsky, A. Maksimchuk, S. Kalmykov, G. Shvets and M. C. Downer, "Snapshots of laser wakefields," Nature Phys. 2, 749-753 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Milam, D.

D. Milam and M. J. Weber, "Measurement of nonlinear refractive-index coefficients using time-resolved interferometry: Application to optical materials for high-power neodymium lasers," J. Appl. Phys. 47, 2497-2501 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Milchberg, H.

Milchberg, H. M.

K. Y. Kim, I. Alexeev, and H. M. Milchberg, "Measurement of ultrafast dynamics in the interaction of intense laser pulses with gases, clusters, and plasma waveguides," Phys. Plasmas 12, 056712 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Y. Kim, I. Alexeev, V. Kumarappan, E. Parra, T. Antonsen, T. Taguchi, A. Gupta, and H. M. Milchberg, "Gases of exploding laser-heated cluster nanoplasmas as a nonlinear optical medium," Phys. Plasmas 11, 2882- 2889 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Y. Kim, I. Alexeev, E. Parra, and H. M. Milchberg, "Time-resolved explosion of intense-laser-heated clusters," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 023401 (2003); I. Alexeev, T. M. Antonsen, K. Y. Kim, and H. M. Milchberg, "Self- focusing of intense laser pulses in a clustered gas," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 103402 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Y. Kim, I. Alexeev, E. Parra, and H. M. Milchberg, "Time-resolved explosion of intense-laser-heated clusters," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 023401 (2003); I. Alexeev, T. M. Antonsen, K. Y. Kim, and H. M. Milchberg, "Self- focusing of intense laser pulses in a clustered gas," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 103402 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Y. Kim, I. Alexeev, and H. M. Milchberg, "Single-shot supercontinuum spectral interferometry," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 4124-4126 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mora, P.

J. R. Marques, F. Dorchies, F. Amiranoff, P. Audebert, J. C. Gauthier, J. P. Geindre, A. Antonetti, T. M. Antonsen, Jr., P. Chessa, and P. Mora, "Laser Wakefield: experimental study of nonlinear radial electron oscillations," Phys. Plasmas 5, 1162-1177 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mysyrowicz, A.

J.-F. Ripoche, G. Grillon, B. Prade, M. Franco, E. Nibbering, R. Lange, A. Mysyrowicz, "Determination of the time dependence of n2 in air," Opt. Commun. 135, 310-314 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. Evans, A. D. Badger, F. Fallies, M. Mahdieh, T. A. Hall, P. Audebert, J.-P. Geindre, J.-C. Gauthier, A. Mysyrowicz, G. Grillon, and A. Antonetti, "Time- and space-resolved optical probing of femtosecond-laser-driven shock waves in aluminum," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3359-3362 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. P. Geindre, P. Audebert, A. Rousse, F. Fallies, J. C. Gauthier, A. Mysyrowicz, A. Dos Santos, and G. Hamoniaux A. Antonetti, "Frequency-domain interferometer for measuring the phase and amplitude of a femtosecond pulse probing a laser-produced plasma," Opt. Lett. 19, 1997-1999 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nibbering, E.

J.-F. Ripoche, G. Grillon, B. Prade, M. Franco, E. Nibbering, R. Lange, A. Mysyrowicz, "Determination of the time dependence of n2 in air," Opt. Commun. 135, 310-314 (1997).
[CrossRef]

O’Shea, P.

Palange, E.

M. Falconieri, E. Palange, and H. L. Fragnito, "Achievement of λ/4000 phase distortion sensitivity in the measurement of optical nonlinearities by using a modulated Z-scan technique," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 4, 404-407 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Parra, E.

K. Y. Kim, I. Alexeev, V. Kumarappan, E. Parra, T. Antonsen, T. Taguchi, A. Gupta, and H. M. Milchberg, "Gases of exploding laser-heated cluster nanoplasmas as a nonlinear optical medium," Phys. Plasmas 11, 2882- 2889 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Y. Kim, I. Alexeev, E. Parra, and H. M. Milchberg, "Time-resolved explosion of intense-laser-heated clusters," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 023401 (2003); I. Alexeev, T. M. Antonsen, K. Y. Kim, and H. M. Milchberg, "Self- focusing of intense laser pulses in a clustered gas," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 103402 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Payne, S. A.

Penzkofer, A.

H. J. Lehmeier, W. Leupacher, and A. Penzkofer, "Nonresonant third order hyperpolarizability of rare gases and N2 determined by third harmonic generation," Opt. Commun. 56, 67-72 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Prade, B.

J.-F. Ripoche, G. Grillon, B. Prade, M. Franco, E. Nibbering, R. Lange, A. Mysyrowicz, "Determination of the time dependence of n2 in air," Opt. Commun. 135, 310-314 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ranka, J. K.

Rebibo, S.

Reed, S.

N. H. Matlis, S. Reed, S. S. Bulanov, V. Chvykov, G. Kalintchenko, T. Matsuoka, P. Rousseau, V. Yanovsky, A. Maksimchuk, S. Kalmykov, G. Shvets and M. C. Downer, "Snapshots of laser wakefields," Nature Phys. 2, 749-753 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Reynaud, F.

Ripoche, J.-F.

J.-F. Ripoche, G. Grillon, B. Prade, M. Franco, E. Nibbering, R. Lange, A. Mysyrowicz, "Determination of the time dependence of n2 in air," Opt. Commun. 135, 310-314 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Rolland, C.

P. B. Corkum, C. Rolland, and T. Srinivasan-Rao, "Supercontinuum Generation in Gases," Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 2268-2271 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rousse, A.

Rousseau, P.

N. H. Matlis, S. Reed, S. S. Bulanov, V. Chvykov, G. Kalintchenko, T. Matsuoka, P. Rousseau, V. Yanovsky, A. Maksimchuk, S. Kalmykov, G. Shvets and M. C. Downer, "Snapshots of laser wakefields," Nature Phys. 2, 749-753 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rundquist, A.

Salieres, P.

P. Salieres, L. LeDeroff, T. Auguste, P. Monot, P. d’Oliveira, D. Campo, J.-F. Hergott, H. Merdji, and B. Carre, "Frequency-Domain Interferometry in the XUV with High-Order Harmonics," Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 5483-5486 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Salin, F.

Scianitti, F.

A. Benuzzi-Mounaix, M. Koenig, J. M. Boudenne, T. A. Hall, D. Batani, F. Scianitti, A. Masini, and D. Di Santo, "Chirped pulse reflectivity and frequency domain interferometry in laser driven shock experiments," Phys. Rev. E 60, R2488-R2491 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sergeev, A.

C. W. Siders, S. P. Le Blanc, D. Fisher, T. Tajima, M. C. Downer, A. Babine, A. Stepanov, and A. Sergeev, "Laser Wakefield excitation and measurement by Femtosecond Longitudinal Interferometry," Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 3570-3573 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shvets, G.

N. H. Matlis, S. Reed, S. S. Bulanov, V. Chvykov, G. Kalintchenko, T. Matsuoka, P. Rousseau, V. Yanovsky, A. Maksimchuk, S. Kalmykov, G. Shvets and M. C. Downer, "Snapshots of laser wakefields," Nature Phys. 2, 749-753 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Siders, C. W.

C. W. Siders, S. P. Le Blanc, D. Fisher, T. Tajima, M. C. Downer, A. Babine, A. Stepanov, and A. Sergeev, "Laser Wakefield excitation and measurement by Femtosecond Longitudinal Interferometry," Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 3570-3573 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Srinivasan-Rao, T.

P. B. Corkum, C. Rolland, and T. Srinivasan-Rao, "Supercontinuum Generation in Gases," Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 2268-2271 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stentz, A. J.

Stepanov, A.

C. W. Siders, S. P. Le Blanc, D. Fisher, T. Tajima, M. C. Downer, A. Babine, A. Stepanov, and A. Sergeev, "Laser Wakefield excitation and measurement by Femtosecond Longitudinal Interferometry," Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 3570-3573 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Taguchi, T.

K. Y. Kim, I. Alexeev, V. Kumarappan, E. Parra, T. Antonsen, T. Taguchi, A. Gupta, and H. M. Milchberg, "Gases of exploding laser-heated cluster nanoplasmas as a nonlinear optical medium," Phys. Plasmas 11, 2882- 2889 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tajima, T.

C. W. Siders, S. P. Le Blanc, D. Fisher, T. Tajima, M. C. Downer, A. Babine, A. Stepanov, and A. Sergeev, "Laser Wakefield excitation and measurement by Femtosecond Longitudinal Interferometry," Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 3570-3573 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Talebpour, A.

S. Augst, A. Talebpour, S. L. Chin, Y. Beaudoin, and M. Chaker, "Nonsequential triple ionization of argon atoms in a high-intensity laser field," Phys. Rev. A 52, R917-R919 (1995); S. Geltman, "Multiple ionization of argon atoms by intense laser pulses," Phys. Rev. A 54, 2489-2491 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Terasaki, A.

Tokunaga, E.

Toth, R. A.

R. A. Toth, "Line positions and strengths of N2O between 3515 and 7800 cm1," J.Mol. Spectrosc. 197, 158-187 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Vienot, J. Ch.

Cl. Froehly, A. Lacourt and J. Ch. Vienot, "Time impulse response and time frequency response of optical pupils.: Experimental confirmations and applications," Nouvelle Revue d’Optique 4, 183-196 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Weber, M. J.

D. Milam and M. J. Weber, "Measurement of nonlinear refractive-index coefficients using time-resolved interferometry: Application to optical materials for high-power neodymium lasers," J. Appl. Phys. 47, 2497-2501 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Windeler, R. S.

Yanovsky, V.

N. H. Matlis, S. Reed, S. S. Bulanov, V. Chvykov, G. Kalintchenko, T. Matsuoka, P. Rousseau, V. Yanovsky, A. Maksimchuk, S. Kalmykov, G. Shvets and M. C. Downer, "Snapshots of laser wakefields," Nature Phys. 2, 749-753 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yu, C. X.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

K. Y. Kim, I. Alexeev, and H. M. Milchberg, "Single-shot supercontinuum spectral interferometry," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 4124-4126 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

D. Milam and M. J. Weber, "Measurement of nonlinear refractive-index coefficients using time-resolved interferometry: Application to optical materials for high-power neodymium lasers," J. Appl. Phys. 47, 2497-2501 (1976).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. (1)

M. Falconieri, E. Palange, and H. L. Fragnito, "Achievement of λ/4000 phase distortion sensitivity in the measurement of optical nonlinearities by using a modulated Z-scan technique," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 4, 404-407 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J.Mol. Spectrosc. (1)

R. A. Toth, "Line positions and strengths of N2O between 3515 and 7800 cm1," J.Mol. Spectrosc. 197, 158-187 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature Phys. (1)

N. H. Matlis, S. Reed, S. S. Bulanov, V. Chvykov, G. Kalintchenko, T. Matsuoka, P. Rousseau, V. Yanovsky, A. Maksimchuk, S. Kalmykov, G. Shvets and M. C. Downer, "Snapshots of laser wakefields," Nature Phys. 2, 749-753 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nouvelle Revue d’Optique (1)

Cl. Froehly, A. Lacourt and J. Ch. Vienot, "Time impulse response and time frequency response of optical pupils.: Experimental confirmations and applications," Nouvelle Revue d’Optique 4, 183-196 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (2)

H. J. Lehmeier, W. Leupacher, and A. Penzkofer, "Nonresonant third order hyperpolarizability of rare gases and N2 determined by third harmonic generation," Opt. Commun. 56, 67-72 (1985).
[CrossRef]

J.-F. Ripoche, G. Grillon, B. Prade, M. Franco, E. Nibbering, R. Lange, A. Mysyrowicz, "Determination of the time dependence of n2 in air," Opt. Commun. 135, 310-314 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (9)

C. Y. Chien, B. La Fontaine, A. Desparois, Z. Jiang, T. W. Johnston, J. C. Kieffer, H. Pepin, F. Vidal, and H. P. Mercure, "Single-shot chirped-pulse spectral interferometry used to measure the femtosecond ionization dynamics of air," Opt. Lett. 25, 578-580 (2000).
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J. -P. Geindre, P. Audebert, S. Rebibo, and J. -C. Gauthier, "Single-shot spectral interferometry with chirped pulses," Opt. Lett. 26, 1612-1614 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. P. Le Blanc, E. W. Gaul, N. H. Matlis, A. Rundquist, and M. C. Downer, "Single-shot measurement of temporal phase shifts by frequency-domain holography," Opt. Lett. 25, 764-766 (2000).
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[CrossRef]

J. P. Geindre, P. Audebert, A. Rousse, F. Fallies, J. C. Gauthier, A. Mysyrowicz, A. Dos Santos, and G. Hamoniaux A. Antonetti, "Frequency-domain interferometer for measuring the phase and amplitude of a femtosecond pulse probing a laser-produced plasma," Opt. Lett. 19, 1997-1999 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Phys. Plasmas (3)

J. R. Marques, F. Dorchies, F. Amiranoff, P. Audebert, J. C. Gauthier, J. P. Geindre, A. Antonetti, T. M. Antonsen, Jr., P. Chessa, and P. Mora, "Laser Wakefield: experimental study of nonlinear radial electron oscillations," Phys. Plasmas 5, 1162-1177 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. Y. Kim, I. Alexeev, V. Kumarappan, E. Parra, T. Antonsen, T. Taguchi, A. Gupta, and H. M. Milchberg, "Gases of exploding laser-heated cluster nanoplasmas as a nonlinear optical medium," Phys. Plasmas 11, 2882- 2889 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Y. Kim, I. Alexeev, and H. M. Milchberg, "Measurement of ultrafast dynamics in the interaction of intense laser pulses with gases, clusters, and plasma waveguides," Phys. Plasmas 12, 056712 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (2)

S. Augst, A. Talebpour, S. L. Chin, Y. Beaudoin, and M. Chaker, "Nonsequential triple ionization of argon atoms in a high-intensity laser field," Phys. Rev. A 52, R917-R919 (1995); S. Geltman, "Multiple ionization of argon atoms by intense laser pulses," Phys. Rev. A 54, 2489-2491 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. W. Dooley, I. V. Litvinyuk, KevinF. Lee, D. M. Rayner, M. Spanner, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, "Direct imaging of rotational wave-packet dynamics of diatomic molecules," Phys. Rev. A 68, 023406 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E (1)

A. Benuzzi-Mounaix, M. Koenig, J. M. Boudenne, T. A. Hall, D. Batani, F. Scianitti, A. Masini, and D. Di Santo, "Chirped pulse reflectivity and frequency domain interferometry in laser driven shock experiments," Phys. Rev. E 60, R2488-R2491 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (7)

P. Salieres, L. LeDeroff, T. Auguste, P. Monot, P. d’Oliveira, D. Campo, J.-F. Hergott, H. Merdji, and B. Carre, "Frequency-Domain Interferometry in the XUV with High-Order Harmonics," Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 5483-5486 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. Evans, A. D. Badger, F. Fallies, M. Mahdieh, T. A. Hall, P. Audebert, J.-P. Geindre, J.-C. Gauthier, A. Mysyrowicz, G. Grillon, and A. Antonetti, "Time- and space-resolved optical probing of femtosecond-laser-driven shock waves in aluminum," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3359-3362 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Y. Kim, I. Alexeev, E. Parra, and H. M. Milchberg, "Time-resolved explosion of intense-laser-heated clusters," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 023401 (2003); I. Alexeev, T. M. Antonsen, K. Y. Kim, and H. M. Milchberg, "Self- focusing of intense laser pulses in a clustered gas," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 103402 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. Marques, J. P. Geindre, F. Amiranoff, P. Audebert, J. C. Gauthier, A. Antonetti, and G. Grillon, "Temporal and spatial measurements of the electron density perturbation produced in the wake of an ultrashort laser pulse," Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 3566-3569 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. W. Siders, S. P. Le Blanc, D. Fisher, T. Tajima, M. C. Downer, A. Babine, A. Stepanov, and A. Sergeev, "Laser Wakefield excitation and measurement by Femtosecond Longitudinal Interferometry," Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 3570-3573 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Friedrich and D. Herschbach, "Alignment and trapping of molecules in intense laser fields," Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 4623-4626 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. B. Corkum, C. Rolland, and T. Srinivasan-Rao, "Supercontinuum Generation in Gases," Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 2268-2271 (1986).
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Rev. Mod. Phys. (1)

J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, and S. Coen, "Supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fiber," Rev. Mod. Phys. 78, 1135-1184 (2006).
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W. Demtroder, Molecular Physics (Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, 2005).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Experimental setup. BS1: beamsplitter, XGC: xenon gas cell, MI: Michelson interferometer, P: 500 μm pinhole, SF4: 2.5-cm thick SF4 glass as dispersive material, HWP: half waveplate, M: zero degree Ti:Sapphire dielectric mirror, BS2: beamsplitter for combining pump and SC pulses. The pump beam energy can be tuned by another set of half waveplate and polarizer, which is not shown in this figure.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Spectral interferograms showing pump-induced, wavelength-dependent fringe shift in argon at (a) 7.8 atm and Ipeak = 4.1×1013 W/cm2 and (b) 4.4 atm and Ipeak = 7.7×1013 W/cm2, where plasma is observed as a long tail extending to the short wavelength edge on the interferogram. Note that the SC probe and reference pulses are positively chirped, thus a shorter wavelength on the interferogram means a later time. The 1D space and time variations of the effective argon nonlinear refractive index change Δn extracted from (a) and (b) are shown in (c) and (d), respectively. The positive index shift is due to instantaneous electronic nonlinearity, which follows the pump pulse temporal profile. The plasma-induced negative index shift is seen in (d) following the pump pulse. The baseline noise in extracted Δn(x,t) plots is determined by the CCD camera pixel size, which sets the minimum resolvable fringe shift in (a) and (b).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

250 shot average (solid line) and a single shot trace (circles) of refractive index transient Δn(x = 0,t) (and extracted phase ΔΦ(x = 0,t)) along the beam axis for 5.1 atm nitrogen. The results agree well, confirming good shot-to-shot stability. The pump energy was 60 μJ, corresponding to Ipeak = 4.1×1013 W/cm2, below the threshold for nitrogen ionization.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) A sample single-shot spectral interferogram taken in 5.1 atm N2O with 1.4×1013 W/cm2 pump intensity. (b) Averaged spectral interferogram image over 300 laser shots, taken in the same condition as (a). The close resemblance between single-shot and multi-shot-averaged spectra indicates good stability in SC generation.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Induced nonlinear refractive index shift Δn(x,t) from a 200 μm-thick BK7 window with 5 μJ pump pulse energy and 3.4×1012 W/cm2 peak intensity. The inset is the probe phase shift ΔΦ(x = 0,t) with corresponding Δn(x = 0,t) (solid line). The temporal phase evolution profile from 7.8 atm argon (Fig. 2(a)), normalized to the same peak phase value, is shown here for comparison (circles).

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Measured nonlinear refractive index shift Δn(x,t) in Ar, N2, and N2O. For the linear molecules N2 and N2O, part of the nonlinearity is contributed by the inertia of molecular rotation, which causes a delayed response which does not follow the pump pulse shape.

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