Abstract

We describe a cost effective scheme to automatically separate two polarization channels in a polarization division multiplexing (PDM) system, without having to modify the existing transmitter or receiver electronics or software. We experimentally validate the concept by achieving an extinction ratio of more than 28-dB between two demultiplexed channels. Finally, we successfully demonstrate the PDM scheme in a 1.12-Tb/s (14×2×40-Gb/s) system over 62-km of transmission fiber.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. S. Bhandare, D. Sandel, B. Milivojevic, A. Hidayat, A. A. Fauzi, H. Zhang, S. K. Ibrahim, F. Wust, and R. Noe, "5.94-Tb/s 1.49-b/s/Hz (40x2x2x40 Gb/s) RZ-DQPSK polarization-division multiplex C-band transmission over 324 km," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 914-916 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  2. L. Leng, S. Stulz, B. Zhu, L.E. Nelson, B. Edvold, L. Gruner-Nielsen, S. Radic, J. Centanni, and A. Gnauck, "1.6-Tb/s (160x10.7 Gb/s) transmission over 4000 km of nonzero dispersion fiber at 25-GHz channel spacing," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1153-1155 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  3. Y. Frignac, G. Charlet, W. Idler, R. Dischler, P. Tran, S. Lanne, S. Borne, C. Martinelli, G. Velth, A. Jourdan, J. Hamaide, and S. Bigo, "Transmission of 256 wavelength-division and polarization-division-multiplexed channels at 42.7Gb/s (10.2 Tb/s capacity) over 3x100km of TeraLight fiber," in Proc. OFC’02 Postdeadline, Anaheim, CA, paper FC5 (2002).
  4. D. Borne, S. L. Jansen, E. Gottwald, P. M. Krummrich, G.-D, Khoe, and H. Waardt, "1.6-b/s/Hz spectrally efficient 40 x 85.6-Gb/s transmission over 1,700 km of SSMF using POLMUX-RZ-DQPSK," in Proc. OFC’06 Postdeadline, Anaheim, CA, paper PDP34 (2006).
  5. A. R. Chraplyvy, A. H. Gnauck, R. W. Tkach, J. L. Zyskind, J. W. Sulhoff, A. J. Lucero, Y. Sun, R. M. Jopson, F. Forghieri, R. M. Derosier, C. Wolf, and A. R. McCormick, "1-Tb/s transmission experiment," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1264-1266 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  6. P. M. Hill, R. Olshansky, and W. K. Burns, "Optical polarization division multiplexing at 4 Gb/s," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 500-502 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  7. S. G. Evangelides, L. F. Mollenauer, J. P. Gordon, and N. S. Bergano, "Polarization multiplexing with solitons," J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 28-35 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  8. K. Iwatsuki, K. Suzuki, S. Nishi, and M. Saruwatari, "80 Gb/s Optical soliton transmission over 80 km with time/polarization division multiplexing," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 245-247 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. I. Hayee, M. C. Cardakli, A. B. Sahin, and A. E. Willner, "Doubling of bandwidth utilization using two orthogonal polarizations and power unbalancing in a polarization-division-multiplexing scheme,"IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 881-883 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  10. Y. Han and G. Li, "Experimental demonstration of direct-detection quaternary differential polarization-phase-shift keying with electrical multilevel decision," Electron. Lett. 42, 109-111 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  11. R. Noe, S. Hinz, D. Sandel, and F. Wust, "Crosstalk detection schemes for polarization division multiplex transmission," J. Lightwave Technol. 19, 1469-1475 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  12. G. Charlet, H. Mardoyan, P. Tran, A. Klekamp, M. Astruc, M. Lefranc¸ois and S. Bigo, "Upgrade of 10 Gbit/s ultra-long-haul system to 40 Gbit/s with APol RZ-DPSK modulation format," Electron. Lett. 41, 1240-1241 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  13. X. Steve Yao, US patent application #60/575,127 (2005).
  14. L.E. Nelson, and H. Kogelnik, "Coherent crosstalk impairments in polarization multiplexed transmission due to polarization mode dispersion," Opt. Express 7, 350-361 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. L.E. Nelson, T. N. Nielsen, and H. Kogelnik, "Observation of PMD-Induced coherent crosstalk in polarization-multiplexed transmission," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 738-740 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  16. D. Borne, N. E. Hecker-Denschlag, G. D. Khoe, and H. Waardt, "PMD-induced transmission penalties in polarization-multiplexed transmission," J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 4004-4015 (2005).
    [CrossRef]

2006 (1)

Y. Han and G. Li, "Experimental demonstration of direct-detection quaternary differential polarization-phase-shift keying with electrical multilevel decision," Electron. Lett. 42, 109-111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (3)

G. Charlet, H. Mardoyan, P. Tran, A. Klekamp, M. Astruc, M. Lefranc¸ois and S. Bigo, "Upgrade of 10 Gbit/s ultra-long-haul system to 40 Gbit/s with APol RZ-DPSK modulation format," Electron. Lett. 41, 1240-1241 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Bhandare, D. Sandel, B. Milivojevic, A. Hidayat, A. A. Fauzi, H. Zhang, S. K. Ibrahim, F. Wust, and R. Noe, "5.94-Tb/s 1.49-b/s/Hz (40x2x2x40 Gb/s) RZ-DQPSK polarization-division multiplex C-band transmission over 324 km," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 914-916 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Borne, N. E. Hecker-Denschlag, G. D. Khoe, and H. Waardt, "PMD-induced transmission penalties in polarization-multiplexed transmission," J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 4004-4015 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

L. Leng, S. Stulz, B. Zhu, L.E. Nelson, B. Edvold, L. Gruner-Nielsen, S. Radic, J. Centanni, and A. Gnauck, "1.6-Tb/s (160x10.7 Gb/s) transmission over 4000 km of nonzero dispersion fiber at 25-GHz channel spacing," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1153-1155 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (3)

L.E. Nelson, T. N. Nielsen, and H. Kogelnik, "Observation of PMD-Induced coherent crosstalk in polarization-multiplexed transmission," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 738-740 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. Noe, S. Hinz, D. Sandel, and F. Wust, "Crosstalk detection schemes for polarization division multiplex transmission," J. Lightwave Technol. 19, 1469-1475 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Hayee, M. C. Cardakli, A. B. Sahin, and A. E. Willner, "Doubling of bandwidth utilization using two orthogonal polarizations and power unbalancing in a polarization-division-multiplexing scheme,"IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 881-883 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

1996 (1)

A. R. Chraplyvy, A. H. Gnauck, R. W. Tkach, J. L. Zyskind, J. W. Sulhoff, A. J. Lucero, Y. Sun, R. M. Jopson, F. Forghieri, R. M. Derosier, C. Wolf, and A. R. McCormick, "1-Tb/s transmission experiment," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1264-1266 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

K. Iwatsuki, K. Suzuki, S. Nishi, and M. Saruwatari, "80 Gb/s Optical soliton transmission over 80 km with time/polarization division multiplexing," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 245-247 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (2)

P. M. Hill, R. Olshansky, and W. K. Burns, "Optical polarization division multiplexing at 4 Gb/s," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 500-502 (1992).
[CrossRef]

S. G. Evangelides, L. F. Mollenauer, J. P. Gordon, and N. S. Bergano, "Polarization multiplexing with solitons," J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 28-35 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Astruc, M.

G. Charlet, H. Mardoyan, P. Tran, A. Klekamp, M. Astruc, M. Lefranc¸ois and S. Bigo, "Upgrade of 10 Gbit/s ultra-long-haul system to 40 Gbit/s with APol RZ-DPSK modulation format," Electron. Lett. 41, 1240-1241 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bergano, N. S.

S. G. Evangelides, L. F. Mollenauer, J. P. Gordon, and N. S. Bergano, "Polarization multiplexing with solitons," J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 28-35 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Bhandare, S.

S. Bhandare, D. Sandel, B. Milivojevic, A. Hidayat, A. A. Fauzi, H. Zhang, S. K. Ibrahim, F. Wust, and R. Noe, "5.94-Tb/s 1.49-b/s/Hz (40x2x2x40 Gb/s) RZ-DQPSK polarization-division multiplex C-band transmission over 324 km," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 914-916 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bigo, S.

G. Charlet, H. Mardoyan, P. Tran, A. Klekamp, M. Astruc, M. Lefranc¸ois and S. Bigo, "Upgrade of 10 Gbit/s ultra-long-haul system to 40 Gbit/s with APol RZ-DPSK modulation format," Electron. Lett. 41, 1240-1241 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Borne, D.

Burns, W. K.

P. M. Hill, R. Olshansky, and W. K. Burns, "Optical polarization division multiplexing at 4 Gb/s," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 500-502 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Cardakli, M. C.

M. I. Hayee, M. C. Cardakli, A. B. Sahin, and A. E. Willner, "Doubling of bandwidth utilization using two orthogonal polarizations and power unbalancing in a polarization-division-multiplexing scheme,"IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 881-883 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Centanni, J.

L. Leng, S. Stulz, B. Zhu, L.E. Nelson, B. Edvold, L. Gruner-Nielsen, S. Radic, J. Centanni, and A. Gnauck, "1.6-Tb/s (160x10.7 Gb/s) transmission over 4000 km of nonzero dispersion fiber at 25-GHz channel spacing," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1153-1155 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Charlet, G.

G. Charlet, H. Mardoyan, P. Tran, A. Klekamp, M. Astruc, M. Lefranc¸ois and S. Bigo, "Upgrade of 10 Gbit/s ultra-long-haul system to 40 Gbit/s with APol RZ-DPSK modulation format," Electron. Lett. 41, 1240-1241 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chraplyvy, A. R.

A. R. Chraplyvy, A. H. Gnauck, R. W. Tkach, J. L. Zyskind, J. W. Sulhoff, A. J. Lucero, Y. Sun, R. M. Jopson, F. Forghieri, R. M. Derosier, C. Wolf, and A. R. McCormick, "1-Tb/s transmission experiment," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1264-1266 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Derosier, R. M.

A. R. Chraplyvy, A. H. Gnauck, R. W. Tkach, J. L. Zyskind, J. W. Sulhoff, A. J. Lucero, Y. Sun, R. M. Jopson, F. Forghieri, R. M. Derosier, C. Wolf, and A. R. McCormick, "1-Tb/s transmission experiment," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1264-1266 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Edvold, B.

L. Leng, S. Stulz, B. Zhu, L.E. Nelson, B. Edvold, L. Gruner-Nielsen, S. Radic, J. Centanni, and A. Gnauck, "1.6-Tb/s (160x10.7 Gb/s) transmission over 4000 km of nonzero dispersion fiber at 25-GHz channel spacing," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1153-1155 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Evangelides, S. G.

S. G. Evangelides, L. F. Mollenauer, J. P. Gordon, and N. S. Bergano, "Polarization multiplexing with solitons," J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 28-35 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Fauzi, A. A.

S. Bhandare, D. Sandel, B. Milivojevic, A. Hidayat, A. A. Fauzi, H. Zhang, S. K. Ibrahim, F. Wust, and R. Noe, "5.94-Tb/s 1.49-b/s/Hz (40x2x2x40 Gb/s) RZ-DQPSK polarization-division multiplex C-band transmission over 324 km," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 914-916 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Forghieri, F.

A. R. Chraplyvy, A. H. Gnauck, R. W. Tkach, J. L. Zyskind, J. W. Sulhoff, A. J. Lucero, Y. Sun, R. M. Jopson, F. Forghieri, R. M. Derosier, C. Wolf, and A. R. McCormick, "1-Tb/s transmission experiment," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1264-1266 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Gnauck, A.

L. Leng, S. Stulz, B. Zhu, L.E. Nelson, B. Edvold, L. Gruner-Nielsen, S. Radic, J. Centanni, and A. Gnauck, "1.6-Tb/s (160x10.7 Gb/s) transmission over 4000 km of nonzero dispersion fiber at 25-GHz channel spacing," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1153-1155 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gnauck, A. H.

A. R. Chraplyvy, A. H. Gnauck, R. W. Tkach, J. L. Zyskind, J. W. Sulhoff, A. J. Lucero, Y. Sun, R. M. Jopson, F. Forghieri, R. M. Derosier, C. Wolf, and A. R. McCormick, "1-Tb/s transmission experiment," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1264-1266 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Gordon, J. P.

S. G. Evangelides, L. F. Mollenauer, J. P. Gordon, and N. S. Bergano, "Polarization multiplexing with solitons," J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 28-35 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Gruner-Nielsen, L.

L. Leng, S. Stulz, B. Zhu, L.E. Nelson, B. Edvold, L. Gruner-Nielsen, S. Radic, J. Centanni, and A. Gnauck, "1.6-Tb/s (160x10.7 Gb/s) transmission over 4000 km of nonzero dispersion fiber at 25-GHz channel spacing," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1153-1155 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Han, Y.

Y. Han and G. Li, "Experimental demonstration of direct-detection quaternary differential polarization-phase-shift keying with electrical multilevel decision," Electron. Lett. 42, 109-111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hayee, M. I.

M. I. Hayee, M. C. Cardakli, A. B. Sahin, and A. E. Willner, "Doubling of bandwidth utilization using two orthogonal polarizations and power unbalancing in a polarization-division-multiplexing scheme,"IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 881-883 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hecker-Denschlag, N. E.

Hidayat, A.

S. Bhandare, D. Sandel, B. Milivojevic, A. Hidayat, A. A. Fauzi, H. Zhang, S. K. Ibrahim, F. Wust, and R. Noe, "5.94-Tb/s 1.49-b/s/Hz (40x2x2x40 Gb/s) RZ-DQPSK polarization-division multiplex C-band transmission over 324 km," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 914-916 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hill, P. M.

P. M. Hill, R. Olshansky, and W. K. Burns, "Optical polarization division multiplexing at 4 Gb/s," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 500-502 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Hinz, S.

Ibrahim, S. K.

S. Bhandare, D. Sandel, B. Milivojevic, A. Hidayat, A. A. Fauzi, H. Zhang, S. K. Ibrahim, F. Wust, and R. Noe, "5.94-Tb/s 1.49-b/s/Hz (40x2x2x40 Gb/s) RZ-DQPSK polarization-division multiplex C-band transmission over 324 km," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 914-916 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Iwatsuki, K.

K. Iwatsuki, K. Suzuki, S. Nishi, and M. Saruwatari, "80 Gb/s Optical soliton transmission over 80 km with time/polarization division multiplexing," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 245-247 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Jopson, R. M.

A. R. Chraplyvy, A. H. Gnauck, R. W. Tkach, J. L. Zyskind, J. W. Sulhoff, A. J. Lucero, Y. Sun, R. M. Jopson, F. Forghieri, R. M. Derosier, C. Wolf, and A. R. McCormick, "1-Tb/s transmission experiment," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1264-1266 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Khoe, G. D.

Klekamp, A.

G. Charlet, H. Mardoyan, P. Tran, A. Klekamp, M. Astruc, M. Lefranc¸ois and S. Bigo, "Upgrade of 10 Gbit/s ultra-long-haul system to 40 Gbit/s with APol RZ-DPSK modulation format," Electron. Lett. 41, 1240-1241 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kogelnik, H.

L.E. Nelson, T. N. Nielsen, and H. Kogelnik, "Observation of PMD-Induced coherent crosstalk in polarization-multiplexed transmission," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 738-740 (2001).
[CrossRef]

L.E. Nelson, and H. Kogelnik, "Coherent crosstalk impairments in polarization multiplexed transmission due to polarization mode dispersion," Opt. Express 7, 350-361 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lefranc¸ois, M.

G. Charlet, H. Mardoyan, P. Tran, A. Klekamp, M. Astruc, M. Lefranc¸ois and S. Bigo, "Upgrade of 10 Gbit/s ultra-long-haul system to 40 Gbit/s with APol RZ-DPSK modulation format," Electron. Lett. 41, 1240-1241 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Leng, L.

L. Leng, S. Stulz, B. Zhu, L.E. Nelson, B. Edvold, L. Gruner-Nielsen, S. Radic, J. Centanni, and A. Gnauck, "1.6-Tb/s (160x10.7 Gb/s) transmission over 4000 km of nonzero dispersion fiber at 25-GHz channel spacing," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1153-1155 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Li, G.

Y. Han and G. Li, "Experimental demonstration of direct-detection quaternary differential polarization-phase-shift keying with electrical multilevel decision," Electron. Lett. 42, 109-111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lucero, A. J.

A. R. Chraplyvy, A. H. Gnauck, R. W. Tkach, J. L. Zyskind, J. W. Sulhoff, A. J. Lucero, Y. Sun, R. M. Jopson, F. Forghieri, R. M. Derosier, C. Wolf, and A. R. McCormick, "1-Tb/s transmission experiment," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1264-1266 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Mardoyan, H.

G. Charlet, H. Mardoyan, P. Tran, A. Klekamp, M. Astruc, M. Lefranc¸ois and S. Bigo, "Upgrade of 10 Gbit/s ultra-long-haul system to 40 Gbit/s with APol RZ-DPSK modulation format," Electron. Lett. 41, 1240-1241 (2005).
[CrossRef]

McCormick, A. R.

A. R. Chraplyvy, A. H. Gnauck, R. W. Tkach, J. L. Zyskind, J. W. Sulhoff, A. J. Lucero, Y. Sun, R. M. Jopson, F. Forghieri, R. M. Derosier, C. Wolf, and A. R. McCormick, "1-Tb/s transmission experiment," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1264-1266 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Milivojevic, B.

S. Bhandare, D. Sandel, B. Milivojevic, A. Hidayat, A. A. Fauzi, H. Zhang, S. K. Ibrahim, F. Wust, and R. Noe, "5.94-Tb/s 1.49-b/s/Hz (40x2x2x40 Gb/s) RZ-DQPSK polarization-division multiplex C-band transmission over 324 km," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 914-916 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mollenauer, L. F.

S. G. Evangelides, L. F. Mollenauer, J. P. Gordon, and N. S. Bergano, "Polarization multiplexing with solitons," J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 28-35 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Nelson, L.E.

L. Leng, S. Stulz, B. Zhu, L.E. Nelson, B. Edvold, L. Gruner-Nielsen, S. Radic, J. Centanni, and A. Gnauck, "1.6-Tb/s (160x10.7 Gb/s) transmission over 4000 km of nonzero dispersion fiber at 25-GHz channel spacing," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1153-1155 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L.E. Nelson, T. N. Nielsen, and H. Kogelnik, "Observation of PMD-Induced coherent crosstalk in polarization-multiplexed transmission," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 738-740 (2001).
[CrossRef]

L.E. Nelson, and H. Kogelnik, "Coherent crosstalk impairments in polarization multiplexed transmission due to polarization mode dispersion," Opt. Express 7, 350-361 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nielsen, T. N.

L.E. Nelson, T. N. Nielsen, and H. Kogelnik, "Observation of PMD-Induced coherent crosstalk in polarization-multiplexed transmission," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 738-740 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nishi, S.

K. Iwatsuki, K. Suzuki, S. Nishi, and M. Saruwatari, "80 Gb/s Optical soliton transmission over 80 km with time/polarization division multiplexing," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 245-247 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Noe, R.

S. Bhandare, D. Sandel, B. Milivojevic, A. Hidayat, A. A. Fauzi, H. Zhang, S. K. Ibrahim, F. Wust, and R. Noe, "5.94-Tb/s 1.49-b/s/Hz (40x2x2x40 Gb/s) RZ-DQPSK polarization-division multiplex C-band transmission over 324 km," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 914-916 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Noe, S. Hinz, D. Sandel, and F. Wust, "Crosstalk detection schemes for polarization division multiplex transmission," J. Lightwave Technol. 19, 1469-1475 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Olshansky, R.

P. M. Hill, R. Olshansky, and W. K. Burns, "Optical polarization division multiplexing at 4 Gb/s," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 500-502 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Radic, S.

L. Leng, S. Stulz, B. Zhu, L.E. Nelson, B. Edvold, L. Gruner-Nielsen, S. Radic, J. Centanni, and A. Gnauck, "1.6-Tb/s (160x10.7 Gb/s) transmission over 4000 km of nonzero dispersion fiber at 25-GHz channel spacing," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1153-1155 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sahin, A. B.

M. I. Hayee, M. C. Cardakli, A. B. Sahin, and A. E. Willner, "Doubling of bandwidth utilization using two orthogonal polarizations and power unbalancing in a polarization-division-multiplexing scheme,"IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 881-883 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sandel, D.

S. Bhandare, D. Sandel, B. Milivojevic, A. Hidayat, A. A. Fauzi, H. Zhang, S. K. Ibrahim, F. Wust, and R. Noe, "5.94-Tb/s 1.49-b/s/Hz (40x2x2x40 Gb/s) RZ-DQPSK polarization-division multiplex C-band transmission over 324 km," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 914-916 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Noe, S. Hinz, D. Sandel, and F. Wust, "Crosstalk detection schemes for polarization division multiplex transmission," J. Lightwave Technol. 19, 1469-1475 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Saruwatari, M.

K. Iwatsuki, K. Suzuki, S. Nishi, and M. Saruwatari, "80 Gb/s Optical soliton transmission over 80 km with time/polarization division multiplexing," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 245-247 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Stulz, S.

L. Leng, S. Stulz, B. Zhu, L.E. Nelson, B. Edvold, L. Gruner-Nielsen, S. Radic, J. Centanni, and A. Gnauck, "1.6-Tb/s (160x10.7 Gb/s) transmission over 4000 km of nonzero dispersion fiber at 25-GHz channel spacing," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1153-1155 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sulhoff, J. W.

A. R. Chraplyvy, A. H. Gnauck, R. W. Tkach, J. L. Zyskind, J. W. Sulhoff, A. J. Lucero, Y. Sun, R. M. Jopson, F. Forghieri, R. M. Derosier, C. Wolf, and A. R. McCormick, "1-Tb/s transmission experiment," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1264-1266 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sun, Y.

A. R. Chraplyvy, A. H. Gnauck, R. W. Tkach, J. L. Zyskind, J. W. Sulhoff, A. J. Lucero, Y. Sun, R. M. Jopson, F. Forghieri, R. M. Derosier, C. Wolf, and A. R. McCormick, "1-Tb/s transmission experiment," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1264-1266 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Suzuki, K.

K. Iwatsuki, K. Suzuki, S. Nishi, and M. Saruwatari, "80 Gb/s Optical soliton transmission over 80 km with time/polarization division multiplexing," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 245-247 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Tkach, R. W.

A. R. Chraplyvy, A. H. Gnauck, R. W. Tkach, J. L. Zyskind, J. W. Sulhoff, A. J. Lucero, Y. Sun, R. M. Jopson, F. Forghieri, R. M. Derosier, C. Wolf, and A. R. McCormick, "1-Tb/s transmission experiment," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1264-1266 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Tran, P.

G. Charlet, H. Mardoyan, P. Tran, A. Klekamp, M. Astruc, M. Lefranc¸ois and S. Bigo, "Upgrade of 10 Gbit/s ultra-long-haul system to 40 Gbit/s with APol RZ-DPSK modulation format," Electron. Lett. 41, 1240-1241 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Waardt, H.

Willner, A. E.

M. I. Hayee, M. C. Cardakli, A. B. Sahin, and A. E. Willner, "Doubling of bandwidth utilization using two orthogonal polarizations and power unbalancing in a polarization-division-multiplexing scheme,"IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 881-883 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wolf, C.

A. R. Chraplyvy, A. H. Gnauck, R. W. Tkach, J. L. Zyskind, J. W. Sulhoff, A. J. Lucero, Y. Sun, R. M. Jopson, F. Forghieri, R. M. Derosier, C. Wolf, and A. R. McCormick, "1-Tb/s transmission experiment," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1264-1266 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wust, F.

S. Bhandare, D. Sandel, B. Milivojevic, A. Hidayat, A. A. Fauzi, H. Zhang, S. K. Ibrahim, F. Wust, and R. Noe, "5.94-Tb/s 1.49-b/s/Hz (40x2x2x40 Gb/s) RZ-DQPSK polarization-division multiplex C-band transmission over 324 km," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 914-916 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Noe, S. Hinz, D. Sandel, and F. Wust, "Crosstalk detection schemes for polarization division multiplex transmission," J. Lightwave Technol. 19, 1469-1475 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, H.

S. Bhandare, D. Sandel, B. Milivojevic, A. Hidayat, A. A. Fauzi, H. Zhang, S. K. Ibrahim, F. Wust, and R. Noe, "5.94-Tb/s 1.49-b/s/Hz (40x2x2x40 Gb/s) RZ-DQPSK polarization-division multiplex C-band transmission over 324 km," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 914-916 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, B.

L. Leng, S. Stulz, B. Zhu, L.E. Nelson, B. Edvold, L. Gruner-Nielsen, S. Radic, J. Centanni, and A. Gnauck, "1.6-Tb/s (160x10.7 Gb/s) transmission over 4000 km of nonzero dispersion fiber at 25-GHz channel spacing," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1153-1155 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zyskind, J. L.

A. R. Chraplyvy, A. H. Gnauck, R. W. Tkach, J. L. Zyskind, J. W. Sulhoff, A. J. Lucero, Y. Sun, R. M. Jopson, F. Forghieri, R. M. Derosier, C. Wolf, and A. R. McCormick, "1-Tb/s transmission experiment," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1264-1266 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (2)

Y. Han and G. Li, "Experimental demonstration of direct-detection quaternary differential polarization-phase-shift keying with electrical multilevel decision," Electron. Lett. 42, 109-111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Charlet, H. Mardoyan, P. Tran, A. Klekamp, M. Astruc, M. Lefranc¸ois and S. Bigo, "Upgrade of 10 Gbit/s ultra-long-haul system to 40 Gbit/s with APol RZ-DPSK modulation format," Electron. Lett. 41, 1240-1241 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (7)

L.E. Nelson, T. N. Nielsen, and H. Kogelnik, "Observation of PMD-Induced coherent crosstalk in polarization-multiplexed transmission," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 738-740 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Bhandare, D. Sandel, B. Milivojevic, A. Hidayat, A. A. Fauzi, H. Zhang, S. K. Ibrahim, F. Wust, and R. Noe, "5.94-Tb/s 1.49-b/s/Hz (40x2x2x40 Gb/s) RZ-DQPSK polarization-division multiplex C-band transmission over 324 km," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 914-916 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. Leng, S. Stulz, B. Zhu, L.E. Nelson, B. Edvold, L. Gruner-Nielsen, S. Radic, J. Centanni, and A. Gnauck, "1.6-Tb/s (160x10.7 Gb/s) transmission over 4000 km of nonzero dispersion fiber at 25-GHz channel spacing," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1153-1155 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. R. Chraplyvy, A. H. Gnauck, R. W. Tkach, J. L. Zyskind, J. W. Sulhoff, A. J. Lucero, Y. Sun, R. M. Jopson, F. Forghieri, R. M. Derosier, C. Wolf, and A. R. McCormick, "1-Tb/s transmission experiment," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1264-1266 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P. M. Hill, R. Olshansky, and W. K. Burns, "Optical polarization division multiplexing at 4 Gb/s," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 500-502 (1992).
[CrossRef]

K. Iwatsuki, K. Suzuki, S. Nishi, and M. Saruwatari, "80 Gb/s Optical soliton transmission over 80 km with time/polarization division multiplexing," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 245-247 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Hayee, M. C. Cardakli, A. B. Sahin, and A. E. Willner, "Doubling of bandwidth utilization using two orthogonal polarizations and power unbalancing in a polarization-division-multiplexing scheme,"IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 881-883 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (3)

Opt. Express (1)

Other (3)

X. Steve Yao, US patent application #60/575,127 (2005).

Y. Frignac, G. Charlet, W. Idler, R. Dischler, P. Tran, S. Lanne, S. Borne, C. Martinelli, G. Velth, A. Jourdan, J. Hamaide, and S. Bigo, "Transmission of 256 wavelength-division and polarization-division-multiplexed channels at 42.7Gb/s (10.2 Tb/s capacity) over 3x100km of TeraLight fiber," in Proc. OFC’02 Postdeadline, Anaheim, CA, paper FC5 (2002).

D. Borne, S. L. Jansen, E. Gottwald, P. M. Krummrich, G.-D, Khoe, and H. Waardt, "1.6-b/s/Hz spectrally efficient 40 x 85.6-Gb/s transmission over 1,700 km of SSMF using POLMUX-RZ-DQPSK," in Proc. OFC’06 Postdeadline, Anaheim, CA, paper PDP34 (2006).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Illustration of a polarization division multiplexing (PDM) system

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Conceptual diagram of proposed Polarization DEMUX using automated feedback control (solid-line: optical path; dotted-line: electronic control). PBC: polarization combiner, PBS: polarization splitter, BS: beamsplitter, DPC: dynamic polarization controller, G1 & G2: electrical amplifiers, PD1 & PD2: photodetectors.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Concept proof using two static wavelength channels with different power levels: here the power difference is ~0.5-dB (before Pol. DEMUX), and an ER of ~ 28 dB is achieved with the proposed polarization demultiplexing scheme (after Pol. DEMUX). >35-dB ER is possible as the power difference increases.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Evaluation of proposed polarization demultiplexing scheme in a single-channel 10-Gb/s RZ back-to-back transmission setup. (a) Power penalties of both polarization channels (PDM_H and PDM_V) as a function of power difference between them. (b) Bit-error-rate (BER) curves as the power difference between two orthogonal channels is set to 0.5 dB (i.e. the power of PDM_V is 0.5-dB higher than that of PDM_H); the corresponding power penalties for the two orthogonal channels compared to the case without PDM are ~ 0.25 dB and 0.75 dB, respectively. Square: back-to-back without PDM. Circle: PDM-V. Triangle: PDM-H.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Experimental demonstration of 14-channel 1.12-Tb/s WDM-PDM transmission: (a) experimental setup; (b) optical spectrum of all 14 channels.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Transmission results (a) Power penalties of both polarization channels (PDM_V and PDM_H) for all 14 wavelength channels compared to the back-to-back PDM system sensitivity measured at 10-9 BER. (b) Typical BER curves of one wavelength channel with eye diagrams inserted: bk_bk (back-to-back case without PDM transmitter); PDM bk_bk (back-to-back case with PDM transmitter).

Equations (13)

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M x = 1 2 [ 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 ]
M y = 1 2 [ 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 ]
S i = [ S i 0 S i 1 S i 2 S i 3 ] = [ P i P i cos 2 ε i cos 2 θ i P i cos 2 ε i sin 2 θ i P i sin 2 ε i ]
P ix = 1 2 P i ( 1 + cos 2 ε i cos 2 θ i )
P iy = 1 2 P i ( 1 cos 2 ε i cos 2 θ i )
P x = P 1 x + P 2 x = 1 2 P 1 ( 1 + cos 2 ε 1 cos 2 θ 1 ) + 1 2 P 2 ( 1 + cos 2 ε 2 cos 2 θ 2 )
P y = P 1 y + P 2 y = 1 2 P 1 ( 1 + cos 2 ε 1 cos 2 θ 1 ) + 1 2 P 2 ( 1 + cos 2 ε 2 cos 2 θ 2 )
ε 2 = ε 1
{ θ 2 = θ 1 + 1 2 π , 0 θ 1 1 2 π θ 2 = θ 1 1 2 π , 1 2 π < θ 1 π
P x = 1 2 ( P 1 + P 2 ) + 1 2 ( P 1 P 2 ) cos 2 ε 1 cos 2 θ 1 )
P y = 1 2 ( P 1 + P 2 ) 1 2 ( P 1 P 2 ) cos 2 ε 1 cos 2 θ 1 )
V 1 V 2 = α 1 P x α 2 P 2 = 1 2 ( α 1 α 2 ) ( P 1 + P 2 ) + 1 2 ( α 1 + α 2 ) ( P 1 P 2 ) cos 2 ε 1 cos 2 θ 1
Δ V = V 1 V 2 = α ( P 1 P 2 ) cos 2 ε 1 cos 2 θ 1

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