Abstract

Most Mueller matrix imaging polarimeters implement sequential acquisition of at least 16 raw images of the same object with different incident and detected light polarizations. When this technique is implemented in vivo, the unavoidable motions of the subject may shift and distort the raw images to an extent such that the final Mueller images cannot be extracted. We describe a registration algorithm which solves this problem for the typical conditions of in vivo imaging, e.g. with spatially inhomogeneous medium to strong depolarization. The algorithm, based on the so called “optical flow”, is validated experimentally by comparing the Mueller images of a pig skin sample taken in static and in dynamic conditions.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  3. S. L. Jacques, R. J. Roman, and K. Lee, "Imaging skin pathology with polarized light," J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 329 -340 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. R. R. Anderson, "Polarized-light examination and photography of the skin," Arch. Dermatol. 127, 1000-1005 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  12. J. A. Bangham, R. Harvey, and P. D. Ling, "Morphological scale-space preserving transforms in many dimensions," J. Electron. Imaging 5, 283-299 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  13. M. Kim, J. C. Jeon, J. S. Kwak, M. H. Lee, and C. Ahn, "Moving object segmentation in video sequences by user interaction and automatic object tracking," Image Vis. Comput. 19, 245-260 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  14. J. M. Odobez and P. Bouthemy, "Robust multi-resolution estimation of parametric motion models applied to complex scenes," IRISA, Technical Report, 788 (1994).
  15. Z. Zhang and R. S. Blum, "A hybrid image registration technique for a digital camera image fusion application," Information Fusion 2, 135-149 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  20. G. Yao and L. V. Wang, "Two-dimensional depth-resolved Mueller matrix characterization of biological tissue by optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 24, 537-539 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
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2006 (2)

2005 (1)

F. Boulvert, B. Boulbry, G. Le Brun, B. Le Jeune, S. Rivet, and J. Cariou, "Analysis of the depolarizing properties of irradiated pig skin," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 7, 21-28 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

2003 (1)

2002 (2)

S. L. Jacques, J. C. Ramella-Roman, and Ken Lee, "Imaging skin pathology with polarized light," J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 329-340 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. L. Jacques, R. J. Roman, and K. Lee, "Imaging skin pathology with polarized light," J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 329 -340 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (2)

M. Kim, J. C. Jeon, J. S. Kwak, M. H. Lee, and C. Ahn, "Moving object segmentation in video sequences by user interaction and automatic object tracking," Image Vis. Comput. 19, 245-260 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Z. Zhang and R. S. Blum, "A hybrid image registration technique for a digital camera image fusion application," Information Fusion 2, 135-149 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

M. H. Smith, P. Burke, A. Lompado, E. Tanner, and L. W. Hillman, "Mueller matrix imaging polarimetry in dermatology," Proc. SPIE  3911, 210-216 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

G. Yao and L. V. Wang, "Two-dimensional depth-resolved Mueller matrix characterization of biological tissue by optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 24, 537-539 (1999).
[CrossRef]

N. Ritter, R. Owens, J. Cooper, R. H. Eikelboom, and P. P. v. Saarloos, "Registration of stereo and temporal images of the retina," IEEE Trans. Med. Image 18, 404-418 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

1996 (1)

J. A. Bangham, R. Harvey, and P. D. Ling, "Morphological scale-space preserving transforms in many dimensions," J. Electron. Imaging 5, 283-299 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

R. R. Anderson, "Polarized-light examination and photography of the skin," Arch. Dermatol. 127, 1000-1005 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

1983 (1)

P. J. Burt and E. H. Adelson, "The Laplacian Pyramid as a Compact Image Code," IEEE Trans. Commun.  COM-31, 532-540 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

B. K. P. Horn and B. G. Schunk, "Determining optical flow," Artif. Intell. 17, 185-203 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Adelson, E. H.

P. J. Burt and E. H. Adelson, "The Laplacian Pyramid as a Compact Image Code," IEEE Trans. Commun.  COM-31, 532-540 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Ahn, C.

M. Kim, J. C. Jeon, J. S. Kwak, M. H. Lee, and C. Ahn, "Moving object segmentation in video sequences by user interaction and automatic object tracking," Image Vis. Comput. 19, 245-260 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Alfano, R. R.

Anderson, R. R.

R. R. Anderson, "Polarized-light examination and photography of the skin," Arch. Dermatol. 127, 1000-1005 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bangham, J. A.

J. A. Bangham, R. Harvey, and P. D. Ling, "Morphological scale-space preserving transforms in many dimensions," J. Electron. Imaging 5, 283-299 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bigio, I.

Blum, R. S.

Z. Zhang and R. S. Blum, "A hybrid image registration technique for a digital camera image fusion application," Information Fusion 2, 135-149 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Boulbry, B.

F. Boulvert, B. Boulbry, G. Le Brun, B. Le Jeune, S. Rivet, and J. Cariou, "Analysis of the depolarizing properties of irradiated pig skin," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 7, 21-28 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Boulvert, F.

F. Boulvert, B. Boulbry, G. Le Brun, B. Le Jeune, S. Rivet, and J. Cariou, "Analysis of the depolarizing properties of irradiated pig skin," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 7, 21-28 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bouthemy, P.

J. M. Odobez and P. Bouthemy, "Robust multi-resolution estimation of parametric motion models applied to complex scenes," IRISA, Technical Report, 788 (1994).

Buddhiwant, P.

Burke, P.

M. H. Smith, P. Burke, A. Lompado, E. Tanner, and L. W. Hillman, "Mueller matrix imaging polarimetry in dermatology," Proc. SPIE  3911, 210-216 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Burt, P. J.

P. J. Burt and E. H. Adelson, "The Laplacian Pyramid as a Compact Image Code," IEEE Trans. Commun.  COM-31, 532-540 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Cariou, J.

F. Boulvert, B. Boulbry, G. Le Brun, B. Le Jeune, S. Rivet, and J. Cariou, "Analysis of the depolarizing properties of irradiated pig skin," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 7, 21-28 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cooper, J.

N. Ritter, R. Owens, J. Cooper, R. H. Eikelboom, and P. P. v. Saarloos, "Registration of stereo and temporal images of the retina," IEEE Trans. Med. Image 18, 404-418 (1999).
[CrossRef]

De Martino, A.

Demos, S. G.

Drévillon, B.

Eick, A.

Eikelboom, R. H.

N. Ritter, R. Owens, J. Cooper, R. H. Eikelboom, and P. P. v. Saarloos, "Registration of stereo and temporal images of the retina," IEEE Trans. Med. Image 18, 404-418 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Freyer, J.

Ghosh, N.

Gupta, P. K.

Harvey, R.

J. A. Bangham, R. Harvey, and P. D. Ling, "Morphological scale-space preserving transforms in many dimensions," J. Electron. Imaging 5, 283-299 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hielscher, A.

Hillman, L. W.

M. H. Smith, P. Burke, A. Lompado, E. Tanner, and L. W. Hillman, "Mueller matrix imaging polarimetry in dermatology," Proc. SPIE  3911, 210-216 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Horn, B. K. P.

B. K. P. Horn and B. G. Schunk, "Determining optical flow," Artif. Intell. 17, 185-203 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Jacques, S. L.

S. L. Jacques, J. C. Ramella-Roman, and Ken Lee, "Imaging skin pathology with polarized light," J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 329-340 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. L. Jacques, R. J. Roman, and K. Lee, "Imaging skin pathology with polarized light," J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 329 -340 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jeon, J. C.

M. Kim, J. C. Jeon, J. S. Kwak, M. H. Lee, and C. Ahn, "Moving object segmentation in video sequences by user interaction and automatic object tracking," Image Vis. Comput. 19, 245-260 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kaneko, T.

Kim, M.

M. Kim, J. C. Jeon, J. S. Kwak, M. H. Lee, and C. Ahn, "Moving object segmentation in video sequences by user interaction and automatic object tracking," Image Vis. Comput. 19, 245-260 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kwak, J. S.

M. Kim, J. C. Jeon, J. S. Kwak, M. H. Lee, and C. Ahn, "Moving object segmentation in video sequences by user interaction and automatic object tracking," Image Vis. Comput. 19, 245-260 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Laude-Boulesteix, B.

Le Brun, G.

F. Boulvert, B. Boulbry, G. Le Brun, B. Le Jeune, S. Rivet, and J. Cariou, "Analysis of the depolarizing properties of irradiated pig skin," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 7, 21-28 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Le Jeune, B.

F. Boulvert, B. Boulbry, G. Le Brun, B. Le Jeune, S. Rivet, and J. Cariou, "Analysis of the depolarizing properties of irradiated pig skin," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 7, 21-28 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lee, K.

S. L. Jacques, R. J. Roman, and K. Lee, "Imaging skin pathology with polarized light," J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 329 -340 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, M. H.

M. Kim, J. C. Jeon, J. S. Kwak, M. H. Lee, and C. Ahn, "Moving object segmentation in video sequences by user interaction and automatic object tracking," Image Vis. Comput. 19, 245-260 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ling, P. D.

J. A. Bangham, R. Harvey, and P. D. Ling, "Morphological scale-space preserving transforms in many dimensions," J. Electron. Imaging 5, 283-299 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lompado, A.

M. H. Smith, P. Burke, A. Lompado, E. Tanner, and L. W. Hillman, "Mueller matrix imaging polarimetry in dermatology," Proc. SPIE  3911, 210-216 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Madjarova, V. D.

Makita, S.

Manhas, S.

Mourant, J.

Odobez, J. M.

J. M. Odobez and P. Bouthemy, "Robust multi-resolution estimation of parametric motion models applied to complex scenes," IRISA, Technical Report, 788 (1994).

Oka, K.

Owens, R.

N. Ritter, R. Owens, J. Cooper, R. H. Eikelboom, and P. P. v. Saarloos, "Registration of stereo and temporal images of the retina," IEEE Trans. Med. Image 18, 404-418 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Perrone, J. A.

Ramella-Roman, J. C.

S. L. Jacques, J. C. Ramella-Roman, and Ken Lee, "Imaging skin pathology with polarized light," J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 329-340 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ritter, N.

N. Ritter, R. Owens, J. Cooper, R. H. Eikelboom, and P. P. v. Saarloos, "Registration of stereo and temporal images of the retina," IEEE Trans. Med. Image 18, 404-418 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rivet, S.

F. Boulvert, B. Boulbry, G. Le Brun, B. Le Jeune, S. Rivet, and J. Cariou, "Analysis of the depolarizing properties of irradiated pig skin," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 7, 21-28 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Roman, R. J.

S. L. Jacques, R. J. Roman, and K. Lee, "Imaging skin pathology with polarized light," J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 329 -340 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schunk, B. G.

B. K. P. Horn and B. G. Schunk, "Determining optical flow," Artif. Intell. 17, 185-203 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Schwartz, L.

Shen, D.

Singh, J.

Smith, M. H.

M. H. Smith, P. Burke, A. Lompado, E. Tanner, and L. W. Hillman, "Mueller matrix imaging polarimetry in dermatology," Proc. SPIE  3911, 210-216 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Swami, M. K.

Tanner, E.

M. H. Smith, P. Burke, A. Lompado, E. Tanner, and L. W. Hillman, "Mueller matrix imaging polarimetry in dermatology," Proc. SPIE  3911, 210-216 (2000).
[CrossRef]

v. Saarloos, P. P.

N. Ritter, R. Owens, J. Cooper, R. H. Eikelboom, and P. P. v. Saarloos, "Registration of stereo and temporal images of the retina," IEEE Trans. Med. Image 18, 404-418 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wang, L. V.

Yamanari, M.

Yao, G.

Yasuno, Y.

Yatagai, T.

Zhang, Z.

Z. Zhang and R. S. Blum, "A hybrid image registration technique for a digital camera image fusion application," Information Fusion 2, 135-149 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Arch. Dermatol. (1)

R. R. Anderson, "Polarized-light examination and photography of the skin," Arch. Dermatol. 127, 1000-1005 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Artif. Intell. (1)

B. K. P. Horn and B. G. Schunk, "Determining optical flow," Artif. Intell. 17, 185-203 (1981).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Commun. (1)

P. J. Burt and E. H. Adelson, "The Laplacian Pyramid as a Compact Image Code," IEEE Trans. Commun.  COM-31, 532-540 (1983).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Med. Image (1)

N. Ritter, R. Owens, J. Cooper, R. H. Eikelboom, and P. P. v. Saarloos, "Registration of stereo and temporal images of the retina," IEEE Trans. Med. Image 18, 404-418 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Image Vis. Comput. (1)

M. Kim, J. C. Jeon, J. S. Kwak, M. H. Lee, and C. Ahn, "Moving object segmentation in video sequences by user interaction and automatic object tracking," Image Vis. Comput. 19, 245-260 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Information Fusion (1)

Z. Zhang and R. S. Blum, "A hybrid image registration technique for a digital camera image fusion application," Information Fusion 2, 135-149 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt. (2)

S. L. Jacques, J. C. Ramella-Roman, and Ken Lee, "Imaging skin pathology with polarized light," J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 329-340 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. L. Jacques, R. J. Roman, and K. Lee, "Imaging skin pathology with polarized light," J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 329 -340 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Electron. Imaging (1)

J. A. Bangham, R. Harvey, and P. D. Ling, "Morphological scale-space preserving transforms in many dimensions," J. Electron. Imaging 5, 283-299 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. (1)

F. Boulvert, B. Boulbry, G. Le Brun, B. Le Jeune, S. Rivet, and J. Cariou, "Analysis of the depolarizing properties of irradiated pig skin," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 7, 21-28 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. SPIE (1)

M. H. Smith, P. Burke, A. Lompado, E. Tanner, and L. W. Hillman, "Mueller matrix imaging polarimetry in dermatology," Proc. SPIE  3911, 210-216 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

J. M. Odobez and P. Bouthemy, "Robust multi-resolution estimation of parametric motion models applied to complex scenes," IRISA, Technical Report, 788 (1994).

C. Brosseau, Fundamental of polarized light: a statistical optics approach (Wiley, NY, 1998).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Two typical raw images of the tattooed pig skin sample, taken with different polarizations.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Intensity histograms of the raw images shown in Fig.1. The intensities (horizontal axis) are normalized by the CCD saturation level.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Normalized Mueller matrix of the tattooed pig skin, taken in static conditions. All matrix elements are normalized by M 00, which is not shown. Diagonal and off-diagonal elements are displayed with different color scales, to enhance the visualization of the smaller off diagonal terms.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Mueller matrix of the sample with motion, without registration of the raw images.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Left: field of displacement between the two images shown in Fig. 1. Right: magnified visualization of the non uniformity of the transformation.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Result of the registration on the Mueller matrix of the Fig. 3.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Static, dynamic and readjusted M 22 terms of the previous matrices, with the same color scale as above.

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

B = AMW .
p ( x , y , t ) = a + bx + cy , q ( x , y , t ) = d + ex + fy ,
I ( x + p , y + q , t + 1 ) I ( x , y , t ) = pI x + qI y + I t ,
D 2 ( p , q ) = x , y ( pI x + qI y + I t ) 2 ,
[ I x 2 xI x 2 yI x 2 I x I y x I x I y y I x I y x I x 2 x 2 I x 2 xy I x 2 x I x I y x 2 I x I y x y I x I y y I x 2 xy I x 2 y 2 I x 2 y I x I y x y I x I y y 2 I x I y I x I y x I x I y y I x I y I y 2 x I y 2 y I y 2 x I x I y x 2 I x I y xy I x I y x I y 2 x 2 I y 2 xy I y 2 y I x I y xy I x I y y 2 I x I y y I y 2 xy I y 2 y 2 I y 2 ] [ a b c d e f ] = [ I x I t x I x I t y I x I t I y I t x I y I t y I y I t ]
r = m n ( A mn A ¯ ) ( B mn B ¯ ) m n ( A mn A ¯ ) 2 m n ( B mn B ¯ ) 2 .

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