Abstract

Microscopic investigations of UV-induced formation of laser damage on LiB3O5 optical surfaces during long-term sum-frequency generation (SFG) uncovers a significant growth of a SiO2-amorphous layer spatially limited to the illuminated area. The layer gives rise to a catastrophic break-down of the LiB3O5-output surface upon long-term laser operation even at intensities far below the laser-induced damage threshold. The interaction of UV laser light, LiB3O5 surface and foreign atoms in the ambient atmosphere is discussed in the frame of a two-step process for surface-damage formation.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. C. T. Chen, N. Ye, J. Lin, J. Jiang, W. Zeng and B. Wu, "Computer-assisted search for nonlinear optical crystals," Adv. Mater. 11, 1071-1078 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  2. Z. S. Lin, J. Lin, Z. Z. Wang, C. T. Chen, and M. H. Lee, "Mechanism for linear and nonlinear optical effects in LiB3O5, CsB3O5, and CsLiB6O10 crystals," Phys. Rev. B 62, 1757-1764 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  3. C. Chen, Y. Wu, A. Jiang, B. Wu, G. You, R. Li, S. Lin, "New nonlinear-optical crystal: LiB3O5," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 616-621 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  4. Y. Furukawa, S. A. Markgraf, M. Sato, H. Yoshida, T. Sasaki, H. Fujita, T. Yamanaka and S. Nakai, "Investigation of the bulk laser damage of lithium triborate, LiB3O5, single crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 1480-1482 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  5. H. Konig and R. Hoppe, "Über Borate der Alkalimetalle II Zur Kenntniss von LiB3O5," Z. anorg. allg.Chem. 439, 71-79 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  6. V. V. Atuchin, L. D. Pobrovsky, V. G. Kesler, L. I. Isaenko, and L. I. Gubenko, "Structure and chemistry of LiB3O5 (LBO) optical surfaces," J. Ceram. Proc. Res. 4, 84-87 (2003).
  7. W. E. Morgan and J. R. Van Wazer, "Binding energy shifts in the x-ray photoelectron spectra of a series of related group IV-a compounds," J. Phys. Chem. 77, 964-969 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  8. R. W. Andreatta, C. C. Abele, J. F. Osmundsen, J. G. Eden, D. Lubben and J. E. Greene, "Low-temperature growth of polycrystalline Si and Ge films by ultraviolet laser photodissocation of silane and germane," Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 183-185 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  9. C. Licoppe, Y. I. Nissim and J. M. Moison, "Surface chemistry and growth modes in the photochemical deposition of silica films," Phys. Rev. B 45, 6275-6278 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  10. K. Awazu and H. Onuki, "Photoinduced synthesis of amorphous SiO2 with tetramethoxysilane," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 482-484 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  11. H. Takao, M. Okoshi and N. Inoue, "SiO2 films fabricated by F2 laser-induced chemical deposition using silicone rubber," Appl. Phys. A 79, 1567-1570 (2004).
  12. M. Suto and L.C. Lee, "Quantitative photoexcitation study of SiH4 in vacuum ultraviolet," J. Chem. Phys. 84, 1160-1164 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  13. F. Houzay, J. M. Moison and C. A. Sèbenne, "Surface localization of the photochemical vapor deposition of SiO2 on InP at low pressure and room temperature," Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 1071-1073 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  14. C. Muguruma, N. Koga, Y. Hatanaka, I. El-Sayed, M. Mikami and M. Tanaka, "Theoretical study of ultraviolet absorption Spectra of Tetra- and Pentacoordinate Silicon Compounds," J. Phys. Chem. A 104, 4928-1935 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  17. C. R. A. Catlow, S. A. French, A. A. Sokol, and J. M. Thomas, "Computational approaches to determination of active site structures and reaction mechanisms in heterogeneous catalysts," Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A 363, 913-936 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

S. Stolbov and T. S. Rahman, "Alkali-induced enhancement of surface electronic polarizibility," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 186801 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

C. R. A. Catlow, S. A. French, A. A. Sokol, and J. M. Thomas, "Computational approaches to determination of active site structures and reaction mechanisms in heterogeneous catalysts," Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A 363, 913-936 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

H. Takao, M. Okoshi and N. Inoue, "SiO2 films fabricated by F2 laser-induced chemical deposition using silicone rubber," Appl. Phys. A 79, 1567-1570 (2004).

2003 (2)

W. Hong, M. M. Chirila, N. Y. Garces, L. E. Halliburton, D. Lupinski and P. Villeval, "Electron paramagnetic resonance and electron-nuclear double resonance study of trapped-hole centers in LiB3O5 crystals," Phys. Rev. B 68, 094111 (2003).
[CrossRef]

V. V. Atuchin, L. D. Pobrovsky, V. G. Kesler, L. I. Isaenko, and L. I. Gubenko, "Structure and chemistry of LiB3O5 (LBO) optical surfaces," J. Ceram. Proc. Res. 4, 84-87 (2003).

2000 (2)

Z. S. Lin, J. Lin, Z. Z. Wang, C. T. Chen, and M. H. Lee, "Mechanism for linear and nonlinear optical effects in LiB3O5, CsB3O5, and CsLiB6O10 crystals," Phys. Rev. B 62, 1757-1764 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. Muguruma, N. Koga, Y. Hatanaka, I. El-Sayed, M. Mikami and M. Tanaka, "Theoretical study of ultraviolet absorption Spectra of Tetra- and Pentacoordinate Silicon Compounds," J. Phys. Chem. A 104, 4928-1935 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

C. T. Chen, N. Ye, J. Lin, J. Jiang, W. Zeng and B. Wu, "Computer-assisted search for nonlinear optical crystals," Adv. Mater. 11, 1071-1078 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

K. Awazu and H. Onuki, "Photoinduced synthesis of amorphous SiO2 with tetramethoxysilane," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 482-484 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

Y. Furukawa, S. A. Markgraf, M. Sato, H. Yoshida, T. Sasaki, H. Fujita, T. Yamanaka and S. Nakai, "Investigation of the bulk laser damage of lithium triborate, LiB3O5, single crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 1480-1482 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

C. Licoppe, Y. I. Nissim and J. M. Moison, "Surface chemistry and growth modes in the photochemical deposition of silica films," Phys. Rev. B 45, 6275-6278 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

F. Houzay, J. M. Moison and C. A. Sèbenne, "Surface localization of the photochemical vapor deposition of SiO2 on InP at low pressure and room temperature," Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 1071-1073 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

1986 (1)

M. Suto and L.C. Lee, "Quantitative photoexcitation study of SiH4 in vacuum ultraviolet," J. Chem. Phys. 84, 1160-1164 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

R. W. Andreatta, C. C. Abele, J. F. Osmundsen, J. G. Eden, D. Lubben and J. E. Greene, "Low-temperature growth of polycrystalline Si and Ge films by ultraviolet laser photodissocation of silane and germane," Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 183-185 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

H. Konig and R. Hoppe, "Über Borate der Alkalimetalle II Zur Kenntniss von LiB3O5," Z. anorg. allg.Chem. 439, 71-79 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

W. E. Morgan and J. R. Van Wazer, "Binding energy shifts in the x-ray photoelectron spectra of a series of related group IV-a compounds," J. Phys. Chem. 77, 964-969 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Abele, C. C.

R. W. Andreatta, C. C. Abele, J. F. Osmundsen, J. G. Eden, D. Lubben and J. E. Greene, "Low-temperature growth of polycrystalline Si and Ge films by ultraviolet laser photodissocation of silane and germane," Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 183-185 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Andreatta, R. W.

R. W. Andreatta, C. C. Abele, J. F. Osmundsen, J. G. Eden, D. Lubben and J. E. Greene, "Low-temperature growth of polycrystalline Si and Ge films by ultraviolet laser photodissocation of silane and germane," Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 183-185 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Atuchin, V. V.

V. V. Atuchin, L. D. Pobrovsky, V. G. Kesler, L. I. Isaenko, and L. I. Gubenko, "Structure and chemistry of LiB3O5 (LBO) optical surfaces," J. Ceram. Proc. Res. 4, 84-87 (2003).

Awazu, K.

K. Awazu and H. Onuki, "Photoinduced synthesis of amorphous SiO2 with tetramethoxysilane," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 482-484 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Catlow, C. R. A.

C. R. A. Catlow, S. A. French, A. A. Sokol, and J. M. Thomas, "Computational approaches to determination of active site structures and reaction mechanisms in heterogeneous catalysts," Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A 363, 913-936 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, C.

Chen, C. T.

Z. S. Lin, J. Lin, Z. Z. Wang, C. T. Chen, and M. H. Lee, "Mechanism for linear and nonlinear optical effects in LiB3O5, CsB3O5, and CsLiB6O10 crystals," Phys. Rev. B 62, 1757-1764 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. T. Chen, N. Ye, J. Lin, J. Jiang, W. Zeng and B. Wu, "Computer-assisted search for nonlinear optical crystals," Adv. Mater. 11, 1071-1078 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chirila, M. M.

W. Hong, M. M. Chirila, N. Y. Garces, L. E. Halliburton, D. Lupinski and P. Villeval, "Electron paramagnetic resonance and electron-nuclear double resonance study of trapped-hole centers in LiB3O5 crystals," Phys. Rev. B 68, 094111 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Eden, J. G.

R. W. Andreatta, C. C. Abele, J. F. Osmundsen, J. G. Eden, D. Lubben and J. E. Greene, "Low-temperature growth of polycrystalline Si and Ge films by ultraviolet laser photodissocation of silane and germane," Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 183-185 (1982).
[CrossRef]

El-Sayed, I.

C. Muguruma, N. Koga, Y. Hatanaka, I. El-Sayed, M. Mikami and M. Tanaka, "Theoretical study of ultraviolet absorption Spectra of Tetra- and Pentacoordinate Silicon Compounds," J. Phys. Chem. A 104, 4928-1935 (2000).
[CrossRef]

French, S. A.

C. R. A. Catlow, S. A. French, A. A. Sokol, and J. M. Thomas, "Computational approaches to determination of active site structures and reaction mechanisms in heterogeneous catalysts," Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A 363, 913-936 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujita, H.

Y. Furukawa, S. A. Markgraf, M. Sato, H. Yoshida, T. Sasaki, H. Fujita, T. Yamanaka and S. Nakai, "Investigation of the bulk laser damage of lithium triborate, LiB3O5, single crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 1480-1482 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Furukawa, Y.

Y. Furukawa, S. A. Markgraf, M. Sato, H. Yoshida, T. Sasaki, H. Fujita, T. Yamanaka and S. Nakai, "Investigation of the bulk laser damage of lithium triborate, LiB3O5, single crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 1480-1482 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Garces, N. Y.

W. Hong, M. M. Chirila, N. Y. Garces, L. E. Halliburton, D. Lupinski and P. Villeval, "Electron paramagnetic resonance and electron-nuclear double resonance study of trapped-hole centers in LiB3O5 crystals," Phys. Rev. B 68, 094111 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Greene, J. E.

R. W. Andreatta, C. C. Abele, J. F. Osmundsen, J. G. Eden, D. Lubben and J. E. Greene, "Low-temperature growth of polycrystalline Si and Ge films by ultraviolet laser photodissocation of silane and germane," Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 183-185 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Gubenko, L. I.

V. V. Atuchin, L. D. Pobrovsky, V. G. Kesler, L. I. Isaenko, and L. I. Gubenko, "Structure and chemistry of LiB3O5 (LBO) optical surfaces," J. Ceram. Proc. Res. 4, 84-87 (2003).

Halliburton, L. E.

W. Hong, M. M. Chirila, N. Y. Garces, L. E. Halliburton, D. Lupinski and P. Villeval, "Electron paramagnetic resonance and electron-nuclear double resonance study of trapped-hole centers in LiB3O5 crystals," Phys. Rev. B 68, 094111 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hatanaka, Y.

C. Muguruma, N. Koga, Y. Hatanaka, I. El-Sayed, M. Mikami and M. Tanaka, "Theoretical study of ultraviolet absorption Spectra of Tetra- and Pentacoordinate Silicon Compounds," J. Phys. Chem. A 104, 4928-1935 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hong, W.

W. Hong, M. M. Chirila, N. Y. Garces, L. E. Halliburton, D. Lupinski and P. Villeval, "Electron paramagnetic resonance and electron-nuclear double resonance study of trapped-hole centers in LiB3O5 crystals," Phys. Rev. B 68, 094111 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hoppe, R.

H. Konig and R. Hoppe, "Über Borate der Alkalimetalle II Zur Kenntniss von LiB3O5," Z. anorg. allg.Chem. 439, 71-79 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Houzay, F.

F. Houzay, J. M. Moison and C. A. Sèbenne, "Surface localization of the photochemical vapor deposition of SiO2 on InP at low pressure and room temperature," Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 1071-1073 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Inoue, N.

H. Takao, M. Okoshi and N. Inoue, "SiO2 films fabricated by F2 laser-induced chemical deposition using silicone rubber," Appl. Phys. A 79, 1567-1570 (2004).

Isaenko, L. I.

V. V. Atuchin, L. D. Pobrovsky, V. G. Kesler, L. I. Isaenko, and L. I. Gubenko, "Structure and chemistry of LiB3O5 (LBO) optical surfaces," J. Ceram. Proc. Res. 4, 84-87 (2003).

Jiang, A.

Jiang, J.

C. T. Chen, N. Ye, J. Lin, J. Jiang, W. Zeng and B. Wu, "Computer-assisted search for nonlinear optical crystals," Adv. Mater. 11, 1071-1078 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kesler, V. G.

V. V. Atuchin, L. D. Pobrovsky, V. G. Kesler, L. I. Isaenko, and L. I. Gubenko, "Structure and chemistry of LiB3O5 (LBO) optical surfaces," J. Ceram. Proc. Res. 4, 84-87 (2003).

Koga, N.

C. Muguruma, N. Koga, Y. Hatanaka, I. El-Sayed, M. Mikami and M. Tanaka, "Theoretical study of ultraviolet absorption Spectra of Tetra- and Pentacoordinate Silicon Compounds," J. Phys. Chem. A 104, 4928-1935 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Konig, H.

H. Konig and R. Hoppe, "Über Borate der Alkalimetalle II Zur Kenntniss von LiB3O5," Z. anorg. allg.Chem. 439, 71-79 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Lee, L.C.

M. Suto and L.C. Lee, "Quantitative photoexcitation study of SiH4 in vacuum ultraviolet," J. Chem. Phys. 84, 1160-1164 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Lee, M. H.

Z. S. Lin, J. Lin, Z. Z. Wang, C. T. Chen, and M. H. Lee, "Mechanism for linear and nonlinear optical effects in LiB3O5, CsB3O5, and CsLiB6O10 crystals," Phys. Rev. B 62, 1757-1764 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Li, R.

Licoppe, C.

C. Licoppe, Y. I. Nissim and J. M. Moison, "Surface chemistry and growth modes in the photochemical deposition of silica films," Phys. Rev. B 45, 6275-6278 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Lin, J.

Z. S. Lin, J. Lin, Z. Z. Wang, C. T. Chen, and M. H. Lee, "Mechanism for linear and nonlinear optical effects in LiB3O5, CsB3O5, and CsLiB6O10 crystals," Phys. Rev. B 62, 1757-1764 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. T. Chen, N. Ye, J. Lin, J. Jiang, W. Zeng and B. Wu, "Computer-assisted search for nonlinear optical crystals," Adv. Mater. 11, 1071-1078 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lin, S.

Lin, Z. S.

Z. S. Lin, J. Lin, Z. Z. Wang, C. T. Chen, and M. H. Lee, "Mechanism for linear and nonlinear optical effects in LiB3O5, CsB3O5, and CsLiB6O10 crystals," Phys. Rev. B 62, 1757-1764 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lubben, D.

R. W. Andreatta, C. C. Abele, J. F. Osmundsen, J. G. Eden, D. Lubben and J. E. Greene, "Low-temperature growth of polycrystalline Si and Ge films by ultraviolet laser photodissocation of silane and germane," Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 183-185 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Lupinski, D.

W. Hong, M. M. Chirila, N. Y. Garces, L. E. Halliburton, D. Lupinski and P. Villeval, "Electron paramagnetic resonance and electron-nuclear double resonance study of trapped-hole centers in LiB3O5 crystals," Phys. Rev. B 68, 094111 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Markgraf, S. A.

Y. Furukawa, S. A. Markgraf, M. Sato, H. Yoshida, T. Sasaki, H. Fujita, T. Yamanaka and S. Nakai, "Investigation of the bulk laser damage of lithium triborate, LiB3O5, single crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 1480-1482 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Mikami, M.

C. Muguruma, N. Koga, Y. Hatanaka, I. El-Sayed, M. Mikami and M. Tanaka, "Theoretical study of ultraviolet absorption Spectra of Tetra- and Pentacoordinate Silicon Compounds," J. Phys. Chem. A 104, 4928-1935 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Moison, J. M.

C. Licoppe, Y. I. Nissim and J. M. Moison, "Surface chemistry and growth modes in the photochemical deposition of silica films," Phys. Rev. B 45, 6275-6278 (1992).
[CrossRef]

F. Houzay, J. M. Moison and C. A. Sèbenne, "Surface localization of the photochemical vapor deposition of SiO2 on InP at low pressure and room temperature," Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 1071-1073 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Morgan, W. E.

W. E. Morgan and J. R. Van Wazer, "Binding energy shifts in the x-ray photoelectron spectra of a series of related group IV-a compounds," J. Phys. Chem. 77, 964-969 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Muguruma, C.

C. Muguruma, N. Koga, Y. Hatanaka, I. El-Sayed, M. Mikami and M. Tanaka, "Theoretical study of ultraviolet absorption Spectra of Tetra- and Pentacoordinate Silicon Compounds," J. Phys. Chem. A 104, 4928-1935 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nakai, S.

Y. Furukawa, S. A. Markgraf, M. Sato, H. Yoshida, T. Sasaki, H. Fujita, T. Yamanaka and S. Nakai, "Investigation of the bulk laser damage of lithium triborate, LiB3O5, single crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 1480-1482 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Nissim, Y. I.

C. Licoppe, Y. I. Nissim and J. M. Moison, "Surface chemistry and growth modes in the photochemical deposition of silica films," Phys. Rev. B 45, 6275-6278 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Okoshi, M.

H. Takao, M. Okoshi and N. Inoue, "SiO2 films fabricated by F2 laser-induced chemical deposition using silicone rubber," Appl. Phys. A 79, 1567-1570 (2004).

Onuki, H.

K. Awazu and H. Onuki, "Photoinduced synthesis of amorphous SiO2 with tetramethoxysilane," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 482-484 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Osmundsen, J. F.

R. W. Andreatta, C. C. Abele, J. F. Osmundsen, J. G. Eden, D. Lubben and J. E. Greene, "Low-temperature growth of polycrystalline Si and Ge films by ultraviolet laser photodissocation of silane and germane," Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 183-185 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Pobrovsky, L. D.

V. V. Atuchin, L. D. Pobrovsky, V. G. Kesler, L. I. Isaenko, and L. I. Gubenko, "Structure and chemistry of LiB3O5 (LBO) optical surfaces," J. Ceram. Proc. Res. 4, 84-87 (2003).

Rahman, T. S.

S. Stolbov and T. S. Rahman, "Alkali-induced enhancement of surface electronic polarizibility," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 186801 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sasaki, T.

Y. Furukawa, S. A. Markgraf, M. Sato, H. Yoshida, T. Sasaki, H. Fujita, T. Yamanaka and S. Nakai, "Investigation of the bulk laser damage of lithium triborate, LiB3O5, single crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 1480-1482 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Sato, M.

Y. Furukawa, S. A. Markgraf, M. Sato, H. Yoshida, T. Sasaki, H. Fujita, T. Yamanaka and S. Nakai, "Investigation of the bulk laser damage of lithium triborate, LiB3O5, single crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 1480-1482 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Sèbenne, C. A.

F. Houzay, J. M. Moison and C. A. Sèbenne, "Surface localization of the photochemical vapor deposition of SiO2 on InP at low pressure and room temperature," Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 1071-1073 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Sokol, A. A.

C. R. A. Catlow, S. A. French, A. A. Sokol, and J. M. Thomas, "Computational approaches to determination of active site structures and reaction mechanisms in heterogeneous catalysts," Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A 363, 913-936 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stolbov, S.

S. Stolbov and T. S. Rahman, "Alkali-induced enhancement of surface electronic polarizibility," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 186801 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Suto, M.

M. Suto and L.C. Lee, "Quantitative photoexcitation study of SiH4 in vacuum ultraviolet," J. Chem. Phys. 84, 1160-1164 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Takao, H.

H. Takao, M. Okoshi and N. Inoue, "SiO2 films fabricated by F2 laser-induced chemical deposition using silicone rubber," Appl. Phys. A 79, 1567-1570 (2004).

Tanaka, M.

C. Muguruma, N. Koga, Y. Hatanaka, I. El-Sayed, M. Mikami and M. Tanaka, "Theoretical study of ultraviolet absorption Spectra of Tetra- and Pentacoordinate Silicon Compounds," J. Phys. Chem. A 104, 4928-1935 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Thomas, J. M.

C. R. A. Catlow, S. A. French, A. A. Sokol, and J. M. Thomas, "Computational approaches to determination of active site structures and reaction mechanisms in heterogeneous catalysts," Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A 363, 913-936 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Van Wazer, J. R.

W. E. Morgan and J. R. Van Wazer, "Binding energy shifts in the x-ray photoelectron spectra of a series of related group IV-a compounds," J. Phys. Chem. 77, 964-969 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Villeval, P.

W. Hong, M. M. Chirila, N. Y. Garces, L. E. Halliburton, D. Lupinski and P. Villeval, "Electron paramagnetic resonance and electron-nuclear double resonance study of trapped-hole centers in LiB3O5 crystals," Phys. Rev. B 68, 094111 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Z. Z.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Microscopic images of the LBO output surface after an SFG-exposure of 192 hours: a) determined by LCM, and b) determined by AFM.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Surface profiles of the LBO sample determined by LCM as a function of SFG-exposure exemplarily at the beginning (t = 0h) and after 24, 48, 120, and 240 hours. The data points were determined along the scan line shown in the inserted spot image. The horizontal dotted lines indicate the mean-surface roughness of the LBO crystal.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Height profile of a cracked surface area related to the LCM-image shown in the insert. Such surface cracks predominantly occur at SFG-exposure≫500 h, or at high SFG-efficiencies, i. e., at high intensities of the ultraviolet laser beam.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Results of an ESC analysis for one area covering the regime of surface elevation (exposed) as well as an unaffected (unexposed) area of the LBO surface. The energetic positions of the determined peaks are referenced to the hydrocarbon-contaminant C (1s) line, assuming a value of 285.0 eV [7]. The values reflect the fraction of the particular element related to the total ESCA-signal (relative error ≈ 10%). An increase of the peak at 103.9 eV by a factor of five is found in the exposed area.

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