Abstract

In this paper, a scaling law of photoionization of atoms irradiated by intense, few-cycle laser pulses is established. The scaling law sets a relation to the phase-dependent ionization with the kinetic energy of photoelectrons, the duration and peak intensity of short pulses, and the ionization potential of the target atoms. We find that it will be advantageous to manifest the phase-dependent photoionization by choosing the target atoms with larger ionization potential, using laser with smaller carrier-frequency, and increasing the pulse intensity.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, O. Svelto, R. Szipcs, K. Ferencz, Ch. Spielmann, S. Sartania, F. Krausz, "Compression of high-energy laser pulses below 5 fs," Opt. Lett. 22, 522-524 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. T. Brabec and F. Krausz, "Intense few-cycle laser fields: Frontiers of nonlinear optics," Rev. Mod. Phys. 72, 545-591 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  3. A. Baltuska, Th. Udem,M. Uibereacker,M. Henstchel, E. Goullelmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V.S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hansch, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields," Nature (London) 421, 611-615 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. G. G. Paulus, F. Grasbon, H. Walther, P. Villoresi,M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, E. Priori, S. De Silvestri, "Absolute-phase phenomena in photoionization with few-cycle laser pulses," Nature (London) 414, 182 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. M. Kakehata, Y. Kobayashi, H. Takada, K. Torizuka, "Single-shot measurement of a carrier-envelope phase by use of a time-dependent polarization pulse," Opt. Lett. 27, 1247-1249 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  9. D. B. Milosevic, G. G. Paulus, D. Bauer and W. Becker, "Above-threshold ionization by few-cycle pulses," J. Phys. B 39, R203-262 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  10. D. B. Milosevic, G. G. Paulus, and W. Becker, "High-order above-threshold ionization with few-cycle pulse: a meter of the absolute phase," Opt. Exp. 11, 1418-1429 (2003).
  11. G. G. Paulus, F. Linder, H. Walther, A. Baltuska, E. Goulielmakis, M. Lezius, and F. Krausz, "Measurement of the phase of few-cycle laser pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 253004(4) (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  12. S. Chelkowski and A.D. Bandrauk, "Asymmetries in strong-field photoionization by few-cycle laser pulses: Kinetic-energy spectra and semiclassical explanation of the asymmetries of fast and slow electrons," Phys. Rev. A 71, 053815(9) (2005).
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  14. J. Tate, T. Auguste, H. G. Muller, P. Salieres, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, "Scaling of wave-packet dynamics in an intense midinfrared field," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98. 013901 (2007)
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. A. Gordon and F. Kartner, "Scaling of keV HHG photon yield with drive wavelength," Opt. Exp. 13, 2941-2947 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  16. D.-S. Guo, J. Zhang, Z. Xu, X. Li, P. Fu, and R. R. Freeman, "Practical scaling law for photoelectron angular distributions," Phys. Rev. A 68, 043404(5) (2003).
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  18. X. Zhang, J. Zhang, R. Li, Q. Gong, and Z. Xu, "Photoionization of H atoms in few-cycle laser pulses," Eur. Phys. J. D 37, 457-462 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  19. J. Zhang and Z. Xu, "Above-threshold ionization of Kr atoms in an infinite sequence of circularly polarized few-cycle pulses," Phys. Rev. A 68, 013402(5) (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  20. J. Zhang, X. Feng, Z. Xu, and D.-S. Guo, "Phase-dependent angular distributions of photoelectrons in an infinite sequence of linearly polarized few-cycle pulses," Phys. Rev. A 69,043409 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  21. D.-S. Guo, T. °Aberg and B. Crasemann, "Scattering theory of multiphoton ionization in strong fields," Phys. Rev. A 40, 4997-5005(1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. X. Zhang, J. Zhang, L. Bai, Q. Gong, and Z. Xu, "Verification of a scaling law in few-cycle laser pulses," Opt. Exp. 13, 8708-8716 (2005).
    [CrossRef]

2007 (1)

J. Tate, T. Auguste, H. G. Muller, P. Salieres, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, "Scaling of wave-packet dynamics in an intense midinfrared field," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98. 013901 (2007)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (2)

X. Zhang, J. Zhang, R. Li, Q. Gong, and Z. Xu, "Photoionization of H atoms in few-cycle laser pulses," Eur. Phys. J. D 37, 457-462 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. B. Milosevic, G. G. Paulus, D. Bauer and W. Becker, "Above-threshold ionization by few-cycle pulses," J. Phys. B 39, R203-262 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

A. Gordon and F. Kartner, "Scaling of keV HHG photon yield with drive wavelength," Opt. Exp. 13, 2941-2947 (2005).
[CrossRef]

X. Zhang, J. Zhang, L. Bai, Q. Gong, and Z. Xu, "Verification of a scaling law in few-cycle laser pulses," Opt. Exp. 13, 8708-8716 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

2003 (2)

D. B. Milosevic, G. G. Paulus, and W. Becker, "High-order above-threshold ionization with few-cycle pulse: a meter of the absolute phase," Opt. Exp. 11, 1418-1429 (2003).

A. Baltuska, Th. Udem,M. Uibereacker,M. Henstchel, E. Goullelmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V.S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hansch, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields," Nature (London) 421, 611-615 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

2001 (1)

G. G. Paulus, F. Grasbon, H. Walther, P. Villoresi,M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, E. Priori, S. De Silvestri, "Absolute-phase phenomena in photoionization with few-cycle laser pulses," Nature (London) 414, 182 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (2)

T. Brabec and F. Krausz, "Intense few-cycle laser fields: Frontiers of nonlinear optics," Rev. Mod. Phys. 72, 545-591 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. Dietrich, F. Krausz, and P. B. Corkum, "Determining the absolute carrier phase of a few-cycle laser pulse," Opt. Lett. 25, 16-18 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

1989 (1)

D.-S. Guo, T. °Aberg and B. Crasemann, "Scattering theory of multiphoton ionization in strong fields," Phys. Rev. A 40, 4997-5005(1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Agostini, P.

J. Tate, T. Auguste, H. G. Muller, P. Salieres, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, "Scaling of wave-packet dynamics in an intense midinfrared field," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98. 013901 (2007)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Apolonski, A.

Auguste, T.

J. Tate, T. Auguste, H. G. Muller, P. Salieres, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, "Scaling of wave-packet dynamics in an intense midinfrared field," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98. 013901 (2007)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bai, L.

X. Zhang, J. Zhang, L. Bai, Q. Gong, and Z. Xu, "Verification of a scaling law in few-cycle laser pulses," Opt. Exp. 13, 8708-8716 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Baltuska, A.

A. Baltuska, Th. Udem,M. Uibereacker,M. Henstchel, E. Goullelmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V.S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hansch, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields," Nature (London) 421, 611-615 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bandrauk, A. D.

Bauer, D.

D. B. Milosevic, G. G. Paulus, D. Bauer and W. Becker, "Above-threshold ionization by few-cycle pulses," J. Phys. B 39, R203-262 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Becker, W.

D. B. Milosevic, G. G. Paulus, D. Bauer and W. Becker, "Above-threshold ionization by few-cycle pulses," J. Phys. B 39, R203-262 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. B. Milosevic, G. G. Paulus, and W. Becker, "High-order above-threshold ionization with few-cycle pulse: a meter of the absolute phase," Opt. Exp. 11, 1418-1429 (2003).

Brabec, T.

T. Brabec and F. Krausz, "Intense few-cycle laser fields: Frontiers of nonlinear optics," Rev. Mod. Phys. 72, 545-591 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chelkowski, S.

Corkum, P. B.

De Silvestri, S.

G. G. Paulus, F. Grasbon, H. Walther, P. Villoresi,M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, E. Priori, S. De Silvestri, "Absolute-phase phenomena in photoionization with few-cycle laser pulses," Nature (London) 414, 182 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, O. Svelto, R. Szipcs, K. Ferencz, Ch. Spielmann, S. Sartania, F. Krausz, "Compression of high-energy laser pulses below 5 fs," Opt. Lett. 22, 522-524 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dietrich, P.

DiMauro, L. F.

J. Tate, T. Auguste, H. G. Muller, P. Salieres, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, "Scaling of wave-packet dynamics in an intense midinfrared field," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98. 013901 (2007)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ferencz, K.

Gohle, Ch.

A. Baltuska, Th. Udem,M. Uibereacker,M. Henstchel, E. Goullelmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V.S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hansch, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields," Nature (London) 421, 611-615 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gong, Q.

X. Zhang, J. Zhang, R. Li, Q. Gong, and Z. Xu, "Photoionization of H atoms in few-cycle laser pulses," Eur. Phys. J. D 37, 457-462 (2006).
[CrossRef]

X. Zhang, J. Zhang, L. Bai, Q. Gong, and Z. Xu, "Verification of a scaling law in few-cycle laser pulses," Opt. Exp. 13, 8708-8716 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gordon, A.

A. Gordon and F. Kartner, "Scaling of keV HHG photon yield with drive wavelength," Opt. Exp. 13, 2941-2947 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Goullelmakis, E.

A. Baltuska, Th. Udem,M. Uibereacker,M. Henstchel, E. Goullelmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V.S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hansch, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields," Nature (London) 421, 611-615 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grasbon, F.

G. G. Paulus, F. Grasbon, H. Walther, P. Villoresi,M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, E. Priori, S. De Silvestri, "Absolute-phase phenomena in photoionization with few-cycle laser pulses," Nature (London) 414, 182 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guo, D.-S.

D.-S. Guo, T. °Aberg and B. Crasemann, "Scattering theory of multiphoton ionization in strong fields," Phys. Rev. A 40, 4997-5005(1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hansch, T. W.

A. Baltuska, Th. Udem,M. Uibereacker,M. Henstchel, E. Goullelmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V.S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hansch, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields," Nature (London) 421, 611-615 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Henstchel, M.

A. Baltuska, Th. Udem,M. Uibereacker,M. Henstchel, E. Goullelmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V.S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hansch, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields," Nature (London) 421, 611-615 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Holzwarth, R.

A. Baltuska, Th. Udem,M. Uibereacker,M. Henstchel, E. Goullelmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V.S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hansch, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields," Nature (London) 421, 611-615 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kakehata, M.

Kartner, F.

A. Gordon and F. Kartner, "Scaling of keV HHG photon yield with drive wavelength," Opt. Exp. 13, 2941-2947 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kobayashi, Y.

Krausz, F.

A. Baltuska, Th. Udem,M. Uibereacker,M. Henstchel, E. Goullelmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V.S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hansch, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields," Nature (London) 421, 611-615 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Dietrich, F. Krausz, and P. B. Corkum, "Determining the absolute carrier phase of a few-cycle laser pulse," Opt. Lett. 25, 16-18 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. Brabec and F. Krausz, "Intense few-cycle laser fields: Frontiers of nonlinear optics," Rev. Mod. Phys. 72, 545-591 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, O. Svelto, R. Szipcs, K. Ferencz, Ch. Spielmann, S. Sartania, F. Krausz, "Compression of high-energy laser pulses below 5 fs," Opt. Lett. 22, 522-524 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, R.

X. Zhang, J. Zhang, R. Li, Q. Gong, and Z. Xu, "Photoionization of H atoms in few-cycle laser pulses," Eur. Phys. J. D 37, 457-462 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Milosevic, D. B.

D. B. Milosevic, G. G. Paulus, D. Bauer and W. Becker, "Above-threshold ionization by few-cycle pulses," J. Phys. B 39, R203-262 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. B. Milosevic, G. G. Paulus, and W. Becker, "High-order above-threshold ionization with few-cycle pulse: a meter of the absolute phase," Opt. Exp. 11, 1418-1429 (2003).

Muller, H. G.

J. Tate, T. Auguste, H. G. Muller, P. Salieres, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, "Scaling of wave-packet dynamics in an intense midinfrared field," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98. 013901 (2007)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nisoli, M.

G. G. Paulus, F. Grasbon, H. Walther, P. Villoresi,M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, E. Priori, S. De Silvestri, "Absolute-phase phenomena in photoionization with few-cycle laser pulses," Nature (London) 414, 182 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, O. Svelto, R. Szipcs, K. Ferencz, Ch. Spielmann, S. Sartania, F. Krausz, "Compression of high-energy laser pulses below 5 fs," Opt. Lett. 22, 522-524 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Paulus, G. G.

D. B. Milosevic, G. G. Paulus, D. Bauer and W. Becker, "Above-threshold ionization by few-cycle pulses," J. Phys. B 39, R203-262 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. B. Milosevic, G. G. Paulus, and W. Becker, "High-order above-threshold ionization with few-cycle pulse: a meter of the absolute phase," Opt. Exp. 11, 1418-1429 (2003).

G. G. Paulus, F. Grasbon, H. Walther, P. Villoresi,M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, E. Priori, S. De Silvestri, "Absolute-phase phenomena in photoionization with few-cycle laser pulses," Nature (London) 414, 182 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Priori, E.

G. G. Paulus, F. Grasbon, H. Walther, P. Villoresi,M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, E. Priori, S. De Silvestri, "Absolute-phase phenomena in photoionization with few-cycle laser pulses," Nature (London) 414, 182 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Salieres, P.

J. Tate, T. Auguste, H. G. Muller, P. Salieres, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, "Scaling of wave-packet dynamics in an intense midinfrared field," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98. 013901 (2007)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sartania, S.

Scrinzi, A.

A. Baltuska, Th. Udem,M. Uibereacker,M. Henstchel, E. Goullelmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V.S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hansch, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields," Nature (London) 421, 611-615 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Spielmann, Ch.

Stagira, S.

G. G. Paulus, F. Grasbon, H. Walther, P. Villoresi,M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, E. Priori, S. De Silvestri, "Absolute-phase phenomena in photoionization with few-cycle laser pulses," Nature (London) 414, 182 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Svelto, O.

Szipcs, R.

Takada, H.

Tate, J.

J. Tate, T. Auguste, H. G. Muller, P. Salieres, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, "Scaling of wave-packet dynamics in an intense midinfrared field," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98. 013901 (2007)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Torizuka, K.

Udem, Th.

A. Baltuska, Th. Udem,M. Uibereacker,M. Henstchel, E. Goullelmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V.S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hansch, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields," Nature (London) 421, 611-615 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Uibereacker, M.

A. Baltuska, Th. Udem,M. Uibereacker,M. Henstchel, E. Goullelmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V.S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hansch, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields," Nature (London) 421, 611-615 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Villoresi, P.

G. G. Paulus, F. Grasbon, H. Walther, P. Villoresi,M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, E. Priori, S. De Silvestri, "Absolute-phase phenomena in photoionization with few-cycle laser pulses," Nature (London) 414, 182 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Walther, H.

G. G. Paulus, F. Grasbon, H. Walther, P. Villoresi,M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, E. Priori, S. De Silvestri, "Absolute-phase phenomena in photoionization with few-cycle laser pulses," Nature (London) 414, 182 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, Z.

X. Zhang, J. Zhang, R. Li, Q. Gong, and Z. Xu, "Photoionization of H atoms in few-cycle laser pulses," Eur. Phys. J. D 37, 457-462 (2006).
[CrossRef]

X. Zhang, J. Zhang, L. Bai, Q. Gong, and Z. Xu, "Verification of a scaling law in few-cycle laser pulses," Opt. Exp. 13, 8708-8716 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yakovlev, V.S.

A. Baltuska, Th. Udem,M. Uibereacker,M. Henstchel, E. Goullelmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V.S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hansch, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields," Nature (London) 421, 611-615 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, J.

X. Zhang, J. Zhang, R. Li, Q. Gong, and Z. Xu, "Photoionization of H atoms in few-cycle laser pulses," Eur. Phys. J. D 37, 457-462 (2006).
[CrossRef]

X. Zhang, J. Zhang, L. Bai, Q. Gong, and Z. Xu, "Verification of a scaling law in few-cycle laser pulses," Opt. Exp. 13, 8708-8716 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.

X. Zhang, J. Zhang, R. Li, Q. Gong, and Z. Xu, "Photoionization of H atoms in few-cycle laser pulses," Eur. Phys. J. D 37, 457-462 (2006).
[CrossRef]

X. Zhang, J. Zhang, L. Bai, Q. Gong, and Z. Xu, "Verification of a scaling law in few-cycle laser pulses," Opt. Exp. 13, 8708-8716 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Eur. Phys. J. D (1)

X. Zhang, J. Zhang, R. Li, Q. Gong, and Z. Xu, "Photoionization of H atoms in few-cycle laser pulses," Eur. Phys. J. D 37, 457-462 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. B (1)

D. B. Milosevic, G. G. Paulus, D. Bauer and W. Becker, "Above-threshold ionization by few-cycle pulses," J. Phys. B 39, R203-262 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nature (London) (2)

A. Baltuska, Th. Udem,M. Uibereacker,M. Henstchel, E. Goullelmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V.S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hansch, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields," Nature (London) 421, 611-615 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. G. Paulus, F. Grasbon, H. Walther, P. Villoresi,M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, E. Priori, S. De Silvestri, "Absolute-phase phenomena in photoionization with few-cycle laser pulses," Nature (London) 414, 182 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Exp. (3)

X. Zhang, J. Zhang, L. Bai, Q. Gong, and Z. Xu, "Verification of a scaling law in few-cycle laser pulses," Opt. Exp. 13, 8708-8716 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. B. Milosevic, G. G. Paulus, and W. Becker, "High-order above-threshold ionization with few-cycle pulse: a meter of the absolute phase," Opt. Exp. 11, 1418-1429 (2003).

A. Gordon and F. Kartner, "Scaling of keV HHG photon yield with drive wavelength," Opt. Exp. 13, 2941-2947 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (4)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

D.-S. Guo, T. °Aberg and B. Crasemann, "Scattering theory of multiphoton ionization in strong fields," Phys. Rev. A 40, 4997-5005(1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

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J. Zhang and Z. Xu, "Above-threshold ionization of Kr atoms in an infinite sequence of circularly polarized few-cycle pulses," Phys. Rev. A 68, 013402(5) (2003).
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J. Zhang, X. Feng, Z. Xu, and D.-S. Guo, "Phase-dependent angular distributions of photoelectrons in an infinite sequence of linearly polarized few-cycle pulses," Phys. Rev. A 69,043409 (2004).
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F. Linder, G. G. Paulus, H. Walther, A. Baltuska, E. Goulielmakis, M. Lezius, and F. Krausz, "Gouy phase shift for few-cycle laser pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett.  92, 113001 (2004).
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D.-S. Guo, J. Zhang, Z. Xu, X. Li, P. Fu, and R. R. Freeman, "Practical scaling law for photoelectron angular distributions," Phys. Rev. A 68, 043404(5) (2003).
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A. Gurtler, E. Robicheaux,W. J. Zande and L. D. Noordam, "Asymmetry in the strong-field ionization of Rydberg atoms by few-cycle pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 033002 (4) (2004).
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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(Color online) The variation of the photoelectron rates in a pair of opposite directions along the CE phase (a) ϕf = 0; (b) ϕf = π. The linearly polarized laser pulse is of five-cycle duration and of peak intensity 4 × 1013 W/cm2 and the target atom is xenon.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(Color online) The polar plots of PADs for the second ATI peak (q = 9) in linearly polarized 5-cycle laser pulses: (a) for xenon atom with Eb , = 12.1 eV, λ = 800 nm, I = 5 × 1013 W/cm2; (b) for argon atom with Eb = 15.76 eV, λ = 616 nm, I = 11.5 × 1013 W/cm2. The two calculated PADs, each was normalized by its maximum, with same CE phases (ϕ = 0), but with different pulse intensities and frequencies for atoms with different binding energies show identical angular distributions, verifying the scaling law.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(Color online) The dependence on the CE phase of the asymmetric degree is calculated by the TDSE method: (a) Eb = 13.6 eV, λ = 800 nm, Ia = 3.5 × 1014 W/cm2; (b)-(e) are of double binding energy, double frequency to that in (a), but of different pulse intensities: (b) I = 2Ia ; (c) I = 22 Ia ;(d) I = 23 Ia ; and (e) I = 24 Ia . In all the calculations, five-cycle pulses are used. The similarity in (a) and (d) verifies the scaling law.

Equations (17)

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E ( t ) = E 0 cos ( ω t + ϕ 0 ) sin 2 ( ω 2 n t + π 2 ) ,
ω 1 = ω ; ω 2 = ω ( 1 + 1 n ) ; ω 3 = ω ( 1 1 n )
d W d Ω p f = ( 2 m e 3 ω 5 ) 1 2 ( 2 π ) 2 ( q ε b ) 1 2 ( q u p ) 2 Φ i ( P f q k ) 2
× q i , j i χ j 1 q 1 , j 2 q 2 , j 3 q 3 ( z f ) χ j 1 , j 2 , j 3 ( z f ) * 2 ,
E k P f 2 2 m e = q ω E b .
q = q 1 + q 2 + q 3 + ( q 2 q 3 ) n ,
χ j 1 , j 2 , j 3 ( z f ) = m i X j 1 + 2 m 1 + m 4 + m 5 + m 6 + m 7 ( ζ 1 f ) X j 2 + 2 m 2 + m 4 m 5 + m 8 + m 9 ( ζ 2 f )
× X j 3 + 2 m 3 + m 6 + m 7 + m 8 m 9 ( ζ 3 f ) X m 1 ( z 1 ) X m 9 ( z 9 ) ,
X n ( z ) = J n ( z ) exp ( in arg ( z ) ) .
ζ 1 f = 2 e Λ 1 m e ω 1 P f ε 1 , ζ 2 f = 2 e Λ 2 m e ω 2 P f ε 2 , ζ 3 f = 2 e Λ 3 m e ω 3 P f ε 3 , z 1 = e 2 Λ 1 2 2 m e ω 1 ε 1 ε 1 , z 2 = e 2 Λ 2 2 2 m e ω 2 ε 2 ε 2 , z 3 = e 2 Λ 3 2 2 m e ω 3 ε 3 ε 3 , z 4 = 2 e 2 Λ 1 Λ 2 ε 1 ε 2 m e ( ω 1 + ω 2 ) , z 5 = 2 e 2 Λ 1 Λ 2 ε 1 ε 2 * m e ( ω 2 ω 1 ) , z 6 = 2 e 2 Λ 1 Λ 2 ε 1 ε 3 m e ( ω 1 + ω 3 ) , z 7 = 2 e 2 Λ 1 Λ 3 ε 1 ε 3 * m e ( ω 3 ω 1 ) , z 8 = 2 e 2 Λ 2 Λ 3 ε 2 ε 3 m e ( ω 2 + ω 3 ) , z 9 = 2 e 2 Λ 2 Λ 3 ε 2 ε 3 * m e ( ω 3 ω 2 ) .
ε j = [ ε x cos ( ξ / 2 ) + i ε y sin ( ξ / 2 ) ] e i ϕ j ,
ϕ 1 = 0 , ϕ 2 = ϕ 0 n , ϕ 3 = ϕ 0 n .
Λ 1 = m e ω u p 2 e ; Λ 2 = n Λ 1 2 ( n + 1 ) ; Λ 3 = n Λ 1 2 ( n 1 ) .
P f ω i = 2 m e ( q ε b ) ω ω i ,
e Λ 1 ω 1 = m e u p 2 , e Λ 2 ω 2 = m e u p 4 ( n n + 1 ) 3 2 , e Λ 3 ω 3 = m e u p 4 ( n n 1 ) 3 2 ,
ε j ε k = cos ξ e i ( ϕ j + ϕ k ) , ε j ε k * = e i ( ϕ j + ϕ k ) ,
n > q ,

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