Abstract

We show that the performance of a 1310-nm quantum key distribution (QKD) system with up-conversion detectors pumped at 1550 nm is comparable with or better than that of current 1550-nm QKD systems with a pump at shorter wavelength. The nonlinearly-induced dark counts are reduced when the wavelength of the pump light is longer than that of the quantum signal. We have developed a 1550-nm pump up-conversion detector for a 1310-nm QKD system, and we experimentally study the polarization sensitivity, pump-signal format, and various influences on the dark count rate. Using this detector in a proof-of-principle experiment, we have achieved a secure key rate of 500 kbit/s at 10 km and 9.1 kbit/s at 50 km in a 625-MHz, B92, polarization-coding QKD system, and we expect that the system performance could be improved further.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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2006 (4)

R. T.  Thew, S.  Tanzilli, L.  Krainer, S. C.  Zeller, A.  Rochas, I.  Rech, S.  Cova, H  Zbinden and N.  Gisin, "Low jitter up-conversion detectors for telecom wavelength GHz QKD," New J. Phys. 8, 1-12 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Takesue, T. Honjo, and H. Kamada, "Differential phase shift quantum key distribution using 1.3- m up-conversion detectors," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 5757-5760 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Mink, X. Tang, L. Ma, T. Nakassis, B. Hershman, J. C. Bienfang, D. Su, R. Boisvert, C. W. Clark and C. J. Williams, "High speed quantum key distribution system supports one-time pad encryption of real-time video," Proc. SPIE 6244, 62440M (2006).
[CrossRef]

X. Tang, L. Ma, A. Mink, A. Nakassis, H. Xu, B. Hershman, J. C. Bienfang, D. Su, R. F. Boisvert, C. W. Clark, and C. J. Williams, "Experimental study of high speed polarization-coding quantum key distribution with sifted-key rates over Mbit/s," Opt. Express 14, 2062-2070 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (5)

K. Gordon, V. Fernandez, G. Buller, I. Rech, S. Cova, and P. Townsend, "Quantum key distribution system clocked at 2 GHz," Opt. Express 13, 3015-3020 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Langrock, E. Diamanti, R. V. Roussev, Y. Yamamoto, M. M. Fejer, and H. Takesue, "Highly efficient single-photon detection at communication wavelengths by use of upconversion in reverse-proton-exchanged periodically poled LiNbO3 waveguides," Opt. Lett. 30, 1725-1727 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. F. Mo, B. Zhu, Z. F. Han, Y. Z. Gui, G. C. Guo, "Faraday-Michelson system for quantum cryptography," Opt. Lett. 30, 2632 - 2634 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H.  Takesue, E.  Diamanti, T.  Honjo, C.  Langrock, M. M.  Fejer, K  Inoue and Y.  Yamamoto, "Differential phase shift quantum key distribution experiment over 105 km fibre," New J. Phys. 7, 1-12 (2005).
[CrossRef]

N. I. Nweke, P. Toliver, R. J. Runser, S. R. McNown, J. B. Khurgin, T. E. Chapuran, M. S. Goodman, R. J. Hughes, C. G. Peterson, K. McCabe, J. E. Nordholt, K. Tyagi, P. Hiskett, N. Dallmann, "Experimental characterization of the separation between wavelength-multiplexed quantum and classical communication channels," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 1-3 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (3)

A. Nakassis, J. Bienfang, and C. Williams, "Expeditious reconciliation for practical quantum key distribution," in Defense and Security Symposium: Quantum Information and Computation II, Proc. SPIE 5436, 28-35 (2004).

J. Bienfang, A. Gross, A. Mink, B. Hershman, A. Nakassis, X. Tang, R. Lu, D. Su, C. Clark, C. Williams, E. Hagley, and J. Wen, "Quantum key distribution with 1.25 Gbps clock synchronization," Opt. Express 12, 2011-2016, (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Gobby, Z. L. Yuan, and A. J. Shields, "Unconditionally secure key distribution over 50 km of standard telecom fiber," Electron. Lett. 40, 1603- 1605 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, "Quantum cryptography," Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 145-195 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

N. Lütkenhaus, "Security against individual attacks for realistic quantum key distribution," Phys. Rev. A 61, 052304, 1-10 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bienfang, J.

J. Bienfang, A. Gross, A. Mink, B. Hershman, A. Nakassis, X. Tang, R. Lu, D. Su, C. Clark, C. Williams, E. Hagley, and J. Wen, "Quantum key distribution with 1.25 Gbps clock synchronization," Opt. Express 12, 2011-2016, (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Nakassis, J. Bienfang, and C. Williams, "Expeditious reconciliation for practical quantum key distribution," in Defense and Security Symposium: Quantum Information and Computation II, Proc. SPIE 5436, 28-35 (2004).

Bienfang, J. C.

A. Mink, X. Tang, L. Ma, T. Nakassis, B. Hershman, J. C. Bienfang, D. Su, R. Boisvert, C. W. Clark and C. J. Williams, "High speed quantum key distribution system supports one-time pad encryption of real-time video," Proc. SPIE 6244, 62440M (2006).
[CrossRef]

X. Tang, L. Ma, A. Mink, A. Nakassis, H. Xu, B. Hershman, J. C. Bienfang, D. Su, R. F. Boisvert, C. W. Clark, and C. J. Williams, "Experimental study of high speed polarization-coding quantum key distribution with sifted-key rates over Mbit/s," Opt. Express 14, 2062-2070 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boisvert, R.

A. Mink, X. Tang, L. Ma, T. Nakassis, B. Hershman, J. C. Bienfang, D. Su, R. Boisvert, C. W. Clark and C. J. Williams, "High speed quantum key distribution system supports one-time pad encryption of real-time video," Proc. SPIE 6244, 62440M (2006).
[CrossRef]

Boisvert, R. F.

Buller, G.

Chapuran, T. E.

N. I. Nweke, P. Toliver, R. J. Runser, S. R. McNown, J. B. Khurgin, T. E. Chapuran, M. S. Goodman, R. J. Hughes, C. G. Peterson, K. McCabe, J. E. Nordholt, K. Tyagi, P. Hiskett, N. Dallmann, "Experimental characterization of the separation between wavelength-multiplexed quantum and classical communication channels," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 1-3 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Clark, C.

Clark, C. W.

A. Mink, X. Tang, L. Ma, T. Nakassis, B. Hershman, J. C. Bienfang, D. Su, R. Boisvert, C. W. Clark and C. J. Williams, "High speed quantum key distribution system supports one-time pad encryption of real-time video," Proc. SPIE 6244, 62440M (2006).
[CrossRef]

X. Tang, L. Ma, A. Mink, A. Nakassis, H. Xu, B. Hershman, J. C. Bienfang, D. Su, R. F. Boisvert, C. W. Clark, and C. J. Williams, "Experimental study of high speed polarization-coding quantum key distribution with sifted-key rates over Mbit/s," Opt. Express 14, 2062-2070 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cova, S.

R. T.  Thew, S.  Tanzilli, L.  Krainer, S. C.  Zeller, A.  Rochas, I.  Rech, S.  Cova, H  Zbinden and N.  Gisin, "Low jitter up-conversion detectors for telecom wavelength GHz QKD," New J. Phys. 8, 1-12 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. Gordon, V. Fernandez, G. Buller, I. Rech, S. Cova, and P. Townsend, "Quantum key distribution system clocked at 2 GHz," Opt. Express 13, 3015-3020 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dallmann, N.

N. I. Nweke, P. Toliver, R. J. Runser, S. R. McNown, J. B. Khurgin, T. E. Chapuran, M. S. Goodman, R. J. Hughes, C. G. Peterson, K. McCabe, J. E. Nordholt, K. Tyagi, P. Hiskett, N. Dallmann, "Experimental characterization of the separation between wavelength-multiplexed quantum and classical communication channels," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 1-3 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Diamanti, E.

H.  Takesue, E.  Diamanti, T.  Honjo, C.  Langrock, M. M.  Fejer, K  Inoue and Y.  Yamamoto, "Differential phase shift quantum key distribution experiment over 105 km fibre," New J. Phys. 7, 1-12 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Langrock, E. Diamanti, R. V. Roussev, Y. Yamamoto, M. M. Fejer, and H. Takesue, "Highly efficient single-photon detection at communication wavelengths by use of upconversion in reverse-proton-exchanged periodically poled LiNbO3 waveguides," Opt. Lett. 30, 1725-1727 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fejer, M. M.

C. Langrock, E. Diamanti, R. V. Roussev, Y. Yamamoto, M. M. Fejer, and H. Takesue, "Highly efficient single-photon detection at communication wavelengths by use of upconversion in reverse-proton-exchanged periodically poled LiNbO3 waveguides," Opt. Lett. 30, 1725-1727 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H.  Takesue, E.  Diamanti, T.  Honjo, C.  Langrock, M. M.  Fejer, K  Inoue and Y.  Yamamoto, "Differential phase shift quantum key distribution experiment over 105 km fibre," New J. Phys. 7, 1-12 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fernandez, V.

Gisin, N.

R. T.  Thew, S.  Tanzilli, L.  Krainer, S. C.  Zeller, A.  Rochas, I.  Rech, S.  Cova, H  Zbinden and N.  Gisin, "Low jitter up-conversion detectors for telecom wavelength GHz QKD," New J. Phys. 8, 1-12 (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, "Quantum cryptography," Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 145-195 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Gobby, C.

C. Gobby, Z. L. Yuan, and A. J. Shields, "Unconditionally secure key distribution over 50 km of standard telecom fiber," Electron. Lett. 40, 1603- 1605 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Goodman, M. S.

N. I. Nweke, P. Toliver, R. J. Runser, S. R. McNown, J. B. Khurgin, T. E. Chapuran, M. S. Goodman, R. J. Hughes, C. G. Peterson, K. McCabe, J. E. Nordholt, K. Tyagi, P. Hiskett, N. Dallmann, "Experimental characterization of the separation between wavelength-multiplexed quantum and classical communication channels," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 1-3 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gordon, K.

Gross, A.

Gui, Y. Z.

Guo, G. C.

Hagley, E.

Han, Z. F.

Hershman, B.

Hiskett, P.

N. I. Nweke, P. Toliver, R. J. Runser, S. R. McNown, J. B. Khurgin, T. E. Chapuran, M. S. Goodman, R. J. Hughes, C. G. Peterson, K. McCabe, J. E. Nordholt, K. Tyagi, P. Hiskett, N. Dallmann, "Experimental characterization of the separation between wavelength-multiplexed quantum and classical communication channels," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 1-3 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Honjo, T.

H. Takesue, T. Honjo, and H. Kamada, "Differential phase shift quantum key distribution using 1.3- m up-conversion detectors," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 5757-5760 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H.  Takesue, E.  Diamanti, T.  Honjo, C.  Langrock, M. M.  Fejer, K  Inoue and Y.  Yamamoto, "Differential phase shift quantum key distribution experiment over 105 km fibre," New J. Phys. 7, 1-12 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hughes, R. J.

N. I. Nweke, P. Toliver, R. J. Runser, S. R. McNown, J. B. Khurgin, T. E. Chapuran, M. S. Goodman, R. J. Hughes, C. G. Peterson, K. McCabe, J. E. Nordholt, K. Tyagi, P. Hiskett, N. Dallmann, "Experimental characterization of the separation between wavelength-multiplexed quantum and classical communication channels," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 1-3 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Inoue, K

H.  Takesue, E.  Diamanti, T.  Honjo, C.  Langrock, M. M.  Fejer, K  Inoue and Y.  Yamamoto, "Differential phase shift quantum key distribution experiment over 105 km fibre," New J. Phys. 7, 1-12 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kamada, H.

H. Takesue, T. Honjo, and H. Kamada, "Differential phase shift quantum key distribution using 1.3- m up-conversion detectors," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 5757-5760 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Khurgin, J. B.

N. I. Nweke, P. Toliver, R. J. Runser, S. R. McNown, J. B. Khurgin, T. E. Chapuran, M. S. Goodman, R. J. Hughes, C. G. Peterson, K. McCabe, J. E. Nordholt, K. Tyagi, P. Hiskett, N. Dallmann, "Experimental characterization of the separation between wavelength-multiplexed quantum and classical communication channels," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 1-3 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Krainer, L.

R. T.  Thew, S.  Tanzilli, L.  Krainer, S. C.  Zeller, A.  Rochas, I.  Rech, S.  Cova, H  Zbinden and N.  Gisin, "Low jitter up-conversion detectors for telecom wavelength GHz QKD," New J. Phys. 8, 1-12 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Langrock, C.

C. Langrock, E. Diamanti, R. V. Roussev, Y. Yamamoto, M. M. Fejer, and H. Takesue, "Highly efficient single-photon detection at communication wavelengths by use of upconversion in reverse-proton-exchanged periodically poled LiNbO3 waveguides," Opt. Lett. 30, 1725-1727 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H.  Takesue, E.  Diamanti, T.  Honjo, C.  Langrock, M. M.  Fejer, K  Inoue and Y.  Yamamoto, "Differential phase shift quantum key distribution experiment over 105 km fibre," New J. Phys. 7, 1-12 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lu, R.

Lütkenhaus, N.

N. Lütkenhaus, "Security against individual attacks for realistic quantum key distribution," Phys. Rev. A 61, 052304, 1-10 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ma, L.

A. Mink, X. Tang, L. Ma, T. Nakassis, B. Hershman, J. C. Bienfang, D. Su, R. Boisvert, C. W. Clark and C. J. Williams, "High speed quantum key distribution system supports one-time pad encryption of real-time video," Proc. SPIE 6244, 62440M (2006).
[CrossRef]

X. Tang, L. Ma, A. Mink, A. Nakassis, H. Xu, B. Hershman, J. C. Bienfang, D. Su, R. F. Boisvert, C. W. Clark, and C. J. Williams, "Experimental study of high speed polarization-coding quantum key distribution with sifted-key rates over Mbit/s," Opt. Express 14, 2062-2070 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McCabe, K.

N. I. Nweke, P. Toliver, R. J. Runser, S. R. McNown, J. B. Khurgin, T. E. Chapuran, M. S. Goodman, R. J. Hughes, C. G. Peterson, K. McCabe, J. E. Nordholt, K. Tyagi, P. Hiskett, N. Dallmann, "Experimental characterization of the separation between wavelength-multiplexed quantum and classical communication channels," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 1-3 (2005).
[CrossRef]

McNown, S. R.

N. I. Nweke, P. Toliver, R. J. Runser, S. R. McNown, J. B. Khurgin, T. E. Chapuran, M. S. Goodman, R. J. Hughes, C. G. Peterson, K. McCabe, J. E. Nordholt, K. Tyagi, P. Hiskett, N. Dallmann, "Experimental characterization of the separation between wavelength-multiplexed quantum and classical communication channels," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 1-3 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mink, A.

Mo, X. F.

Nakassis, A.

Nakassis, T.

A. Mink, X. Tang, L. Ma, T. Nakassis, B. Hershman, J. C. Bienfang, D. Su, R. Boisvert, C. W. Clark and C. J. Williams, "High speed quantum key distribution system supports one-time pad encryption of real-time video," Proc. SPIE 6244, 62440M (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nordholt, J. E.

N. I. Nweke, P. Toliver, R. J. Runser, S. R. McNown, J. B. Khurgin, T. E. Chapuran, M. S. Goodman, R. J. Hughes, C. G. Peterson, K. McCabe, J. E. Nordholt, K. Tyagi, P. Hiskett, N. Dallmann, "Experimental characterization of the separation between wavelength-multiplexed quantum and classical communication channels," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 1-3 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nweke, N. I.

N. I. Nweke, P. Toliver, R. J. Runser, S. R. McNown, J. B. Khurgin, T. E. Chapuran, M. S. Goodman, R. J. Hughes, C. G. Peterson, K. McCabe, J. E. Nordholt, K. Tyagi, P. Hiskett, N. Dallmann, "Experimental characterization of the separation between wavelength-multiplexed quantum and classical communication channels," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 1-3 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Peterson, C. G.

N. I. Nweke, P. Toliver, R. J. Runser, S. R. McNown, J. B. Khurgin, T. E. Chapuran, M. S. Goodman, R. J. Hughes, C. G. Peterson, K. McCabe, J. E. Nordholt, K. Tyagi, P. Hiskett, N. Dallmann, "Experimental characterization of the separation between wavelength-multiplexed quantum and classical communication channels," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 1-3 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rech, I.

R. T.  Thew, S.  Tanzilli, L.  Krainer, S. C.  Zeller, A.  Rochas, I.  Rech, S.  Cova, H  Zbinden and N.  Gisin, "Low jitter up-conversion detectors for telecom wavelength GHz QKD," New J. Phys. 8, 1-12 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. Gordon, V. Fernandez, G. Buller, I. Rech, S. Cova, and P. Townsend, "Quantum key distribution system clocked at 2 GHz," Opt. Express 13, 3015-3020 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ribordy, G.

N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, "Quantum cryptography," Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 145-195 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rochas, A.

R. T.  Thew, S.  Tanzilli, L.  Krainer, S. C.  Zeller, A.  Rochas, I.  Rech, S.  Cova, H  Zbinden and N.  Gisin, "Low jitter up-conversion detectors for telecom wavelength GHz QKD," New J. Phys. 8, 1-12 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Roussev, R. V.

Runser, R. J.

N. I. Nweke, P. Toliver, R. J. Runser, S. R. McNown, J. B. Khurgin, T. E. Chapuran, M. S. Goodman, R. J. Hughes, C. G. Peterson, K. McCabe, J. E. Nordholt, K. Tyagi, P. Hiskett, N. Dallmann, "Experimental characterization of the separation between wavelength-multiplexed quantum and classical communication channels," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 1-3 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shields, A. J.

C. Gobby, Z. L. Yuan, and A. J. Shields, "Unconditionally secure key distribution over 50 km of standard telecom fiber," Electron. Lett. 40, 1603- 1605 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Su, D.

Takesue, H.

H. Takesue, T. Honjo, and H. Kamada, "Differential phase shift quantum key distribution using 1.3- m up-conversion detectors," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 5757-5760 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H.  Takesue, E.  Diamanti, T.  Honjo, C.  Langrock, M. M.  Fejer, K  Inoue and Y.  Yamamoto, "Differential phase shift quantum key distribution experiment over 105 km fibre," New J. Phys. 7, 1-12 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Langrock, E. Diamanti, R. V. Roussev, Y. Yamamoto, M. M. Fejer, and H. Takesue, "Highly efficient single-photon detection at communication wavelengths by use of upconversion in reverse-proton-exchanged periodically poled LiNbO3 waveguides," Opt. Lett. 30, 1725-1727 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tang, X.

Tanzilli, S.

R. T.  Thew, S.  Tanzilli, L.  Krainer, S. C.  Zeller, A.  Rochas, I.  Rech, S.  Cova, H  Zbinden and N.  Gisin, "Low jitter up-conversion detectors for telecom wavelength GHz QKD," New J. Phys. 8, 1-12 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Thew, R. T.

R. T.  Thew, S.  Tanzilli, L.  Krainer, S. C.  Zeller, A.  Rochas, I.  Rech, S.  Cova, H  Zbinden and N.  Gisin, "Low jitter up-conversion detectors for telecom wavelength GHz QKD," New J. Phys. 8, 1-12 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tittel, W.

N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, "Quantum cryptography," Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 145-195 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Toliver, P.

N. I. Nweke, P. Toliver, R. J. Runser, S. R. McNown, J. B. Khurgin, T. E. Chapuran, M. S. Goodman, R. J. Hughes, C. G. Peterson, K. McCabe, J. E. Nordholt, K. Tyagi, P. Hiskett, N. Dallmann, "Experimental characterization of the separation between wavelength-multiplexed quantum and classical communication channels," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 1-3 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Townsend, P.

Tyagi, K.

N. I. Nweke, P. Toliver, R. J. Runser, S. R. McNown, J. B. Khurgin, T. E. Chapuran, M. S. Goodman, R. J. Hughes, C. G. Peterson, K. McCabe, J. E. Nordholt, K. Tyagi, P. Hiskett, N. Dallmann, "Experimental characterization of the separation between wavelength-multiplexed quantum and classical communication channels," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 1-3 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wen, J.

Williams, C.

J. Bienfang, A. Gross, A. Mink, B. Hershman, A. Nakassis, X. Tang, R. Lu, D. Su, C. Clark, C. Williams, E. Hagley, and J. Wen, "Quantum key distribution with 1.25 Gbps clock synchronization," Opt. Express 12, 2011-2016, (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Nakassis, J. Bienfang, and C. Williams, "Expeditious reconciliation for practical quantum key distribution," in Defense and Security Symposium: Quantum Information and Computation II, Proc. SPIE 5436, 28-35 (2004).

Williams, C. J.

A. Mink, X. Tang, L. Ma, T. Nakassis, B. Hershman, J. C. Bienfang, D. Su, R. Boisvert, C. W. Clark and C. J. Williams, "High speed quantum key distribution system supports one-time pad encryption of real-time video," Proc. SPIE 6244, 62440M (2006).
[CrossRef]

X. Tang, L. Ma, A. Mink, A. Nakassis, H. Xu, B. Hershman, J. C. Bienfang, D. Su, R. F. Boisvert, C. W. Clark, and C. J. Williams, "Experimental study of high speed polarization-coding quantum key distribution with sifted-key rates over Mbit/s," Opt. Express 14, 2062-2070 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, H.

Yamamoto, Y.

H.  Takesue, E.  Diamanti, T.  Honjo, C.  Langrock, M. M.  Fejer, K  Inoue and Y.  Yamamoto, "Differential phase shift quantum key distribution experiment over 105 km fibre," New J. Phys. 7, 1-12 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Langrock, E. Diamanti, R. V. Roussev, Y. Yamamoto, M. M. Fejer, and H. Takesue, "Highly efficient single-photon detection at communication wavelengths by use of upconversion in reverse-proton-exchanged periodically poled LiNbO3 waveguides," Opt. Lett. 30, 1725-1727 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yuan, Z. L.

C. Gobby, Z. L. Yuan, and A. J. Shields, "Unconditionally secure key distribution over 50 km of standard telecom fiber," Electron. Lett. 40, 1603- 1605 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zbinden, H

R. T.  Thew, S.  Tanzilli, L.  Krainer, S. C.  Zeller, A.  Rochas, I.  Rech, S.  Cova, H  Zbinden and N.  Gisin, "Low jitter up-conversion detectors for telecom wavelength GHz QKD," New J. Phys. 8, 1-12 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zbinden, H.

N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, "Quantum cryptography," Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 145-195 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zeller, S. C.

R. T.  Thew, S.  Tanzilli, L.  Krainer, S. C.  Zeller, A.  Rochas, I.  Rech, S.  Cova, H  Zbinden and N.  Gisin, "Low jitter up-conversion detectors for telecom wavelength GHz QKD," New J. Phys. 8, 1-12 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, B.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

N. I. Nweke, P. Toliver, R. J. Runser, S. R. McNown, J. B. Khurgin, T. E. Chapuran, M. S. Goodman, R. J. Hughes, C. G. Peterson, K. McCabe, J. E. Nordholt, K. Tyagi, P. Hiskett, N. Dallmann, "Experimental characterization of the separation between wavelength-multiplexed quantum and classical communication channels," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 1-3 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

C. Gobby, Z. L. Yuan, and A. J. Shields, "Unconditionally secure key distribution over 50 km of standard telecom fiber," Electron. Lett. 40, 1603- 1605 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

H. Takesue, T. Honjo, and H. Kamada, "Differential phase shift quantum key distribution using 1.3- m up-conversion detectors," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 5757-5760 (2006).
[CrossRef]

New J. Phys. (2)

H.  Takesue, E.  Diamanti, T.  Honjo, C.  Langrock, M. M.  Fejer, K  Inoue and Y.  Yamamoto, "Differential phase shift quantum key distribution experiment over 105 km fibre," New J. Phys. 7, 1-12 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. T.  Thew, S.  Tanzilli, L.  Krainer, S. C.  Zeller, A.  Rochas, I.  Rech, S.  Cova, H  Zbinden and N.  Gisin, "Low jitter up-conversion detectors for telecom wavelength GHz QKD," New J. Phys. 8, 1-12 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

N. Lütkenhaus, "Security against individual attacks for realistic quantum key distribution," Phys. Rev. A 61, 052304, 1-10 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (2)

A. Mink, X. Tang, L. Ma, T. Nakassis, B. Hershman, J. C. Bienfang, D. Su, R. Boisvert, C. W. Clark and C. J. Williams, "High speed quantum key distribution system supports one-time pad encryption of real-time video," Proc. SPIE 6244, 62440M (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Nakassis, J. Bienfang, and C. Williams, "Expeditious reconciliation for practical quantum key distribution," in Defense and Security Symposium: Quantum Information and Computation II, Proc. SPIE 5436, 28-35 (2004).

Rev. Mod. Phys. (1)

N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, "Quantum cryptography," Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 145-195 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Other (7)

C. H. Bennett and G. Brassard, "Quantum cryptography: Public key distribution and coin tossing," in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Comput. Syst. Signal Process, Bangalore, India, 1984, pp. 175-179.

http://www.hcphotonics.com/waveguide.htm.

http://www.idquantique.com

R. H. Hadfield, J. L. Habif, J. Schlafer, L. Ma, A. Mink, X. Tang, S. Nam, "Quantum key distribution with high-speed superconducting single-photon detectors," submitted to CLEO/QELs 2007.

H. Xu, L. Ma, J. C. Bienfang, and X. Tang, "Influence of avalanche-photodiode dead time on the security of high-speed quantum-key distribution systems," CLEO/QELs 2006, Long Beach, CA, May 21-26, 2006, paper JTuH3.

http://optoelectronics.perkinelmer.com/catalog/Product.aspx?ProductID=SPCM-AQR-14.

http://www.picoquant.com/getfs.htm?products/pdm/pdmseries.htm.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a). The optimal secure key rate at various propagation distances. (b) The secure key rate, (c) the error rate, and (d) the sifted-key rate as a function of pump power at 25 km. Red solid line, 1310-nm pump scheme. Blue dashed line, 1550-nm pump scheme.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Configuration of the 1550-nm pump up-conversion detectors. LD: Laser diode; EOM: Electric-optic modulator (LiNbO3); EDFA: Erbium-doped fiber amplifier; FLT: Optical filter; PC: Polarization controller; WDM: Wavelength-division multiplexer for 1306 nm and 1550 nm; PPLN: Periodically-poled LiNbO3 module.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

The normalized conversion efficiency as a function of deviation angle of the input 1306-nm signal of the PPLN1. The x-axis shows the deviation angle in unit of π-rad. The deviation angle is the angle between the given polarization state and the state at which the conversion efficiency is maximized. Open circle: Measurement results; Solid line: cos2 curve. The polarization sensitivity of PPLN2 is similar.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

The detection efficiency (a) and dark count rate (b) as a function of pump power at the PPLN input. Four cases are studied: two up-conversion detectors, each with CW and pulsed pump, as shown in the inset of Fig. 4(b). (c) The conversion efficiency vs the dark count rate in PPLN2.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a). The optical spectrum of the pump light immediately after the EDFA and at the input of the PPLNs, each measured with and without FLT0. (b) The photon counts over time collected by a photon counting card at the output of two up-conversion detectors, each with and without FLT0. During the measurement, no signal at 1306 nm was present and only the pump light was sent to the PPLNs. The pump power was approximately 40 mW before each PPLN.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

The B92 polarization coding QKD system. LD: Laser diode; EOM: Electric-optic modulator (LiNbO3); PC: Polarization controller; PMC-45°: Polarization maintaining combiner that combines two light signals that are separated by 45 degrees; ATTN: Optical attenuator; WDM: Wavelength-division multiplexer; SMF: Standard single-mode fiber; TRCV: Optical transceiver; CR: Clock recovery module; FPGA: Custom printed circuit board controlled by a field-programmable gate array; PCI: PCI connection; Up-conversion detector: See Fig. 2; Dotted line: Electric cable; Solid line: Optical fiber.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

The extra dark count rate induced by the classical channel in the PPLN1 detector in three cases: square, only transceiver at Alice is on; diamond, only transceiver at Bob is on; circle, both transceivers are on. The PPLN2 detector exhibits similar behaviors.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

The system performance of the B92 polarization-coding QKD system with the 1557-nm up-conversion detector. (a) Left blue line: the sifted-key rate calculated in Eq. (1); Left blue square: the sifted-key rate measured in the experiment; Right green line: the error rate calculated in Eq. (2); Right green circle: the error rate measured in the experiment. (b) The secure-key rate calculated using algorithm 1 [20, 21] and algorithm 2 [16]. The calculation is coded on the sifted-key rate and error rate measured in the experiment.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Transmittance of different components and overall detection efficiencies of the 1550-nm pump up-conversion detectors

Equations (2)

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SKR ( P pump ) = f data × μ × α fiber × α extra × α protocol × η det ( P pump ) × k dead
ER ( P pump ) = f dark ( P pump ) × N APD SKR ( P pump ) × P ER + ER 0

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