Abstract

A technique to perform two-wavelengths digital holographic microscopy (DHM) measurements with a single hologram acquisition is presented. The vertical measurement range without phase ambiguity is extended to the micron-range, thanks to the resulting synthetic wavelength defined by the beating of two wavelengths with a separation of about 80nm. Real-time dual-wavelength imaging is made possible by using two reference waves having different wavelengths and propagation directions for the hologram recording. The principle of the method is exposed and experimental results concerning a 1.2μm m high test sample as well as a moving micro-mirror are presented. To the extent of our knowledge, this is the first time that real-time synthetic beat-wavelength digital holography measurements are reported.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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2006 (9)

R. J. Mahon, J. A. Murphy, and W. Lanigan, "Digital holography at millimetre wavelengths," Opt. Commun. 260, 469-473 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. T. Saucedo, F. M. Santoyo, M. D. l. Torre-Ibarra, G. Pedrini, and W. Osten, "Endoscopic pulsed digital holography for 3d measurements," Opt. Lett. 14, 1468-1475 (2006).

Y. Emery, E. Cuche, F. Marquet, N. Aspert, P. Marquet, J. Kühn, M. Botkine, T. Colomb, F. Montfort, F. Charrière, C. Depeursinge, P. Debergh, and R. Conde, "Digital holographic microscopy (DHM) for metrology and dynamic characterization of MEMS and MOEMS," Proc. SPIE 6186, N1860-N1860 (2006).

D. Parshall and M. Kim, "Digital holographic microscopy with dual wavelength phase unwrapping," Appl. Opt. 45, 451-459 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Colomb, E. Cuche, F. Charrière, J. K¨uhn, N. Aspert, F. Montfort, P. Marquet, and C. Depeursinge, "Automatic procedure for aberration compensation in digital holographic microscopy and applications to specimen shape compensation," Appl. Opt. 45, 851-863 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Yamaguchi, K. Yamamoto, G. A. Mills, and M. Yokota, "Image reconstruction only by phase data in phaseshifting digital holography," Appl. Opt. 45, 975-983 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Zhang, G. Pedrini, and W. Osten, "Reconstruction algorithm for high-numerical-aperture holograms with diffraction-limited resolution," Opt. Lett. 31, 1633-1635 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Saucedo A., F. M. Santoyo, M. D. l. T. Ibarra, G. Pedrini, and W. Osten, "Simultaneous two-dimensional endoscopic pulsed digital holography for evaluation of dynamic displacements," Appl. Opt. 45, 4534-4539 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Colomb, F. Montfort, J. Kühn, N. Aspert, E. Cuche, A. Marian, F. Charrière, S. Bourquin, P. Marquet, and C. Depeursinge, "Numerical parametric lens for shifting, magnification and complete aberration compensation in digital holographic microscopy," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23, 3177-3190 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

2004 (1)

T. Colomb, E. Cuche, F. Montfort, P. Marquet, and C. Depeursinge, "Jones vector imaging by use of digital holography: simulation and experimentation," Opt. Commun. 231, 137-147 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

2002 (1)

2000 (2)

E. Cuche, P. Marquet, and C. Depeursinge, "Spatial filtering for zero-order and twin-image elimination in digital off-axis holography," Appl. Opt. 39, 4070-4075 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. Wagner, W. Osten, and S. Seebacher, "Direct shape measurement by digital wavefront reconstruction and multiwavelength contouring," Opt. Eng. 39, 79-85 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (3)

1998 (1)

1994 (1)

1991 (1)

1988 (1)

1981 (1)

1973 (1)

1971 (1)

1968 (1)

1967 (2)

J. W. Goodman and R. W. Lawrence, "Digital image formation from electronically detected holograms," Appl. Phys. Lett. 11, 77-79 (1967).
[CrossRef]

B. P. Hildebrand and K. A. Haines, "Multiple-wavelength and multiple-source holography applied to contour generation," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 57, 155-162 (1967).
[CrossRef]

1965 (2)

A. W. Lohmann, "Reconstruction of vectorial wavefronts," Appl. Opt. 4, 1667-1668 (1965).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Armitage and A. W. Lohmann, "Theta modulation in optics," Appl. Opt. 4, 400-403 (1965).
[CrossRef]

1964 (1)

1948 (1)

D. Gabor, "A new microscopic principle," Nature 161, 777-778 (1948).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1947 (1)

A. T. Forrester, W. E. Parkins, and E. Gerjuoy, "On the possibility of observing beat frequencies between lines in the visible spectrum," Phys. Rev. 72, 728-728 (1947).
[CrossRef]

Alfieri, D.

Armitage, J. D.

J. D. Armitage and A. W. Lohmann, "Theta modulation in optics," Appl. Opt. 4, 400-403 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Aspert, N.

Y. Emery, E. Cuche, F. Marquet, N. Aspert, P. Marquet, J. Kühn, M. Botkine, T. Colomb, F. Montfort, F. Charrière, C. Depeursinge, P. Debergh, and R. Conde, "Digital holographic microscopy (DHM) for metrology and dynamic characterization of MEMS and MOEMS," Proc. SPIE 6186, N1860-N1860 (2006).

T. Colomb, F. Montfort, J. Kühn, N. Aspert, E. Cuche, A. Marian, F. Charrière, S. Bourquin, P. Marquet, and C. Depeursinge, "Numerical parametric lens for shifting, magnification and complete aberration compensation in digital holographic microscopy," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23, 3177-3190 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Beghuin, D.

T. Colomb, P. Dahlgren, D. Beghuin, E. Cuche, P. Marquet, and C. Depeursinge, "Polarization imaging by use of digital holography," Appl. Opt. 41, 27-37 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Beghuin, E. Cuche, P. Dahlgren, C. Depeursinge, G. Delacretaz, and R. P. Salathe, "Single acquisition polarization imaging with digital holography," Electron. Lett. 35, 2053-2055 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bevilacqua, F.

Bien, F.

Botkine, M.

Y. Emery, E. Cuche, F. Marquet, N. Aspert, P. Marquet, J. Kühn, M. Botkine, T. Colomb, F. Montfort, F. Charrière, C. Depeursinge, P. Debergh, and R. Conde, "Digital holographic microscopy (DHM) for metrology and dynamic characterization of MEMS and MOEMS," Proc. SPIE 6186, N1860-N1860 (2006).

Bourquin, S.

Camac, M.

Caulfield, H. J.

Charrière, F.

Colomb, T.

Conde, R.

Y. Emery, E. Cuche, F. Marquet, N. Aspert, P. Marquet, J. Kühn, M. Botkine, T. Colomb, F. Montfort, F. Charrière, C. Depeursinge, P. Debergh, and R. Conde, "Digital holographic microscopy (DHM) for metrology and dynamic characterization of MEMS and MOEMS," Proc. SPIE 6186, N1860-N1860 (2006).

Cuche, E.

Y. Emery, E. Cuche, F. Marquet, N. Aspert, P. Marquet, J. Kühn, M. Botkine, T. Colomb, F. Montfort, F. Charrière, C. Depeursinge, P. Debergh, and R. Conde, "Digital holographic microscopy (DHM) for metrology and dynamic characterization of MEMS and MOEMS," Proc. SPIE 6186, N1860-N1860 (2006).

T. Colomb, E. Cuche, F. Charrière, J. K¨uhn, N. Aspert, F. Montfort, P. Marquet, and C. Depeursinge, "Automatic procedure for aberration compensation in digital holographic microscopy and applications to specimen shape compensation," Appl. Opt. 45, 851-863 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Colomb, F. Montfort, J. Kühn, N. Aspert, E. Cuche, A. Marian, F. Charrière, S. Bourquin, P. Marquet, and C. Depeursinge, "Numerical parametric lens for shifting, magnification and complete aberration compensation in digital holographic microscopy," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23, 3177-3190 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Colomb, E. Cuche, F. Montfort, P. Marquet, and C. Depeursinge, "Jones vector imaging by use of digital holography: simulation and experimentation," Opt. Commun. 231, 137-147 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Colomb, P. Dahlgren, D. Beghuin, E. Cuche, P. Marquet, and C. Depeursinge, "Polarization imaging by use of digital holography," Appl. Opt. 41, 27-37 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Cuche, P. Marquet, and C. Depeursinge, "Spatial filtering for zero-order and twin-image elimination in digital off-axis holography," Appl. Opt. 39, 4070-4075 (2000).
[CrossRef]

E. Cuche, F. Bevilacqua, and C. Depeursinge, "Digital holography for quantitative phase-contrast imaging," Opt. Lett. 24, 291-293 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. Beghuin, E. Cuche, P. Dahlgren, C. Depeursinge, G. Delacretaz, and R. P. Salathe, "Single acquisition polarization imaging with digital holography," Electron. Lett. 35, 2053-2055 (1999).
[CrossRef]

E. Cuche, P. Marquet, and C. Depeursinge, "Simultaneous amplitude-contrast and quantitative phase-contrast microscopy by numerical reconstruction of fresnel off-axis holograms," Appl. Opt. 38, 6994-7001 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Dahlgren, P.

T. Colomb, P. Dahlgren, D. Beghuin, E. Cuche, P. Marquet, and C. Depeursinge, "Polarization imaging by use of digital holography," Appl. Opt. 41, 27-37 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Beghuin, E. Cuche, P. Dahlgren, C. Depeursinge, G. Delacretaz, and R. P. Salathe, "Single acquisition polarization imaging with digital holography," Electron. Lett. 35, 2053-2055 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Dakoff, A.

Dändliker, R.

de Groot, P.

de Nicola, S.

Debergh, P.

Y. Emery, E. Cuche, F. Marquet, N. Aspert, P. Marquet, J. Kühn, M. Botkine, T. Colomb, F. Montfort, F. Charrière, C. Depeursinge, P. Debergh, and R. Conde, "Digital holographic microscopy (DHM) for metrology and dynamic characterization of MEMS and MOEMS," Proc. SPIE 6186, N1860-N1860 (2006).

Delacretaz, G.

D. Beghuin, E. Cuche, P. Dahlgren, C. Depeursinge, G. Delacretaz, and R. P. Salathe, "Single acquisition polarization imaging with digital holography," Electron. Lett. 35, 2053-2055 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Depeursinge, C.

T. Colomb, F. Montfort, J. Kühn, N. Aspert, E. Cuche, A. Marian, F. Charrière, S. Bourquin, P. Marquet, and C. Depeursinge, "Numerical parametric lens for shifting, magnification and complete aberration compensation in digital holographic microscopy," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23, 3177-3190 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Emery, E. Cuche, F. Marquet, N. Aspert, P. Marquet, J. Kühn, M. Botkine, T. Colomb, F. Montfort, F. Charrière, C. Depeursinge, P. Debergh, and R. Conde, "Digital holographic microscopy (DHM) for metrology and dynamic characterization of MEMS and MOEMS," Proc. SPIE 6186, N1860-N1860 (2006).

T. Colomb, E. Cuche, F. Montfort, P. Marquet, and C. Depeursinge, "Jones vector imaging by use of digital holography: simulation and experimentation," Opt. Commun. 231, 137-147 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Colomb, P. Dahlgren, D. Beghuin, E. Cuche, P. Marquet, and C. Depeursinge, "Polarization imaging by use of digital holography," Appl. Opt. 41, 27-37 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Cuche, P. Marquet, and C. Depeursinge, "Spatial filtering for zero-order and twin-image elimination in digital off-axis holography," Appl. Opt. 39, 4070-4075 (2000).
[CrossRef]

E. Cuche, F. Bevilacqua, and C. Depeursinge, "Digital holography for quantitative phase-contrast imaging," Opt. Lett. 24, 291-293 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. Beghuin, E. Cuche, P. Dahlgren, C. Depeursinge, G. Delacretaz, and R. P. Salathe, "Single acquisition polarization imaging with digital holography," Electron. Lett. 35, 2053-2055 (1999).
[CrossRef]

E. Cuche, P. Marquet, and C. Depeursinge, "Simultaneous amplitude-contrast and quantitative phase-contrast microscopy by numerical reconstruction of fresnel off-axis holograms," Appl. Opt. 38, 6994-7001 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Emery, Y.

Y. Emery, E. Cuche, F. Marquet, N. Aspert, P. Marquet, J. Kühn, M. Botkine, T. Colomb, F. Montfort, F. Charrière, C. Depeursinge, P. Debergh, and R. Conde, "Digital holographic microscopy (DHM) for metrology and dynamic characterization of MEMS and MOEMS," Proc. SPIE 6186, N1860-N1860 (2006).

Ezekiel, S.

Ferraro, P.

Finizio, A.

Forrester, A. T.

A. T. Forrester, W. E. Parkins, and E. Gerjuoy, "On the possibility of observing beat frequencies between lines in the visible spectrum," Phys. Rev. 72, 728-728 (1947).
[CrossRef]

Gabor, D.

D. Gabor, "A new microscopic principle," Nature 161, 777-778 (1948).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gass, J.

Gerjuoy, E.

A. T. Forrester, W. E. Parkins, and E. Gerjuoy, "On the possibility of observing beat frequencies between lines in the visible spectrum," Phys. Rev. 72, 728-728 (1947).
[CrossRef]

Goodman, J. W.

J. W. Goodman and R. W. Lawrence, "Digital image formation from electronically detected holograms," Appl. Phys. Lett. 11, 77-79 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Grilli, S.

Haines, K. A.

Hildebrand, B. P.

Ishii, Y.

Jüptner, W.

Kim, M.

Kim, M. K.

Kishner, S.

Kühn, J.

T. Colomb, F. Montfort, J. Kühn, N. Aspert, E. Cuche, A. Marian, F. Charrière, S. Bourquin, P. Marquet, and C. Depeursinge, "Numerical parametric lens for shifting, magnification and complete aberration compensation in digital holographic microscopy," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23, 3177-3190 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Emery, E. Cuche, F. Marquet, N. Aspert, P. Marquet, J. Kühn, M. Botkine, T. Colomb, F. Montfort, F. Charrière, C. Depeursinge, P. Debergh, and R. Conde, "Digital holographic microscopy (DHM) for metrology and dynamic characterization of MEMS and MOEMS," Proc. SPIE 6186, N1860-N1860 (2006).

Lanigan, W.

R. J. Mahon, J. A. Murphy, and W. Lanigan, "Digital holography at millimetre wavelengths," Opt. Commun. 260, 469-473 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lawrence, R. W.

J. W. Goodman and R. W. Lawrence, "Digital image formation from electronically detected holograms," Appl. Phys. Lett. 11, 77-79 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Leith, E. N.

Lohmann, A. W.

A. W. Lohmann, "Reconstruction of vectorial wavefronts," Appl. Opt. 4, 1667-1668 (1965).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Armitage and A. W. Lohmann, "Theta modulation in optics," Appl. Opt. 4, 400-403 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Mahon, R. J.

R. J. Mahon, J. A. Murphy, and W. Lanigan, "Digital holography at millimetre wavelengths," Opt. Commun. 260, 469-473 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Marian, A.

Marquet, F.

Y. Emery, E. Cuche, F. Marquet, N. Aspert, P. Marquet, J. Kühn, M. Botkine, T. Colomb, F. Montfort, F. Charrière, C. Depeursinge, P. Debergh, and R. Conde, "Digital holographic microscopy (DHM) for metrology and dynamic characterization of MEMS and MOEMS," Proc. SPIE 6186, N1860-N1860 (2006).

Marquet, P.

Mills, G. A.

Montfort, F.

T. Colomb, F. Montfort, J. Kühn, N. Aspert, E. Cuche, A. Marian, F. Charrière, S. Bourquin, P. Marquet, and C. Depeursinge, "Numerical parametric lens for shifting, magnification and complete aberration compensation in digital holographic microscopy," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23, 3177-3190 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Emery, E. Cuche, F. Marquet, N. Aspert, P. Marquet, J. Kühn, M. Botkine, T. Colomb, F. Montfort, F. Charrière, C. Depeursinge, P. Debergh, and R. Conde, "Digital holographic microscopy (DHM) for metrology and dynamic characterization of MEMS and MOEMS," Proc. SPIE 6186, N1860-N1860 (2006).

T. Colomb, E. Cuche, F. Montfort, P. Marquet, and C. Depeursinge, "Jones vector imaging by use of digital holography: simulation and experimentation," Opt. Commun. 231, 137-147 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Murphy, J. A.

R. J. Mahon, J. A. Murphy, and W. Lanigan, "Digital holography at millimetre wavelengths," Opt. Commun. 260, 469-473 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Onodera, R.

Osten, W.

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Supplementary Material (5)

» Media 1: MOV (2693 KB)     
» Media 2: MOV (3264 KB)     
» Media 3: MOV (2866 KB)     
» Media 4: MOV (1769 KB)     
» Media 5: MOV (2671 KB)     

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Two-wavelengths DHM setup. λ/2: half-waveplate, M: mirrors, PBS: polarizing beamsplitter, BS: non-polarizing beamsplitter, DL: delay line, BE: beam-expander, L: lens, CL: condenser lens, MO: x3 achromatic microscope objective, 0.1 NA, S: specimen, TL: tube lens; Inset: 3D distribution of the incident waves propagation directions upon the CCD plane, k R1 and k R2 are the propagation direction vector of the reference waves R 1 for wavelength λ 1 and R 2 for λ 2.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Two-wavelengths hologram with the inset representing a zoom on the central fringes, where the orthogonal spatial frequencies can be seen; (b) Fourier-spectrum of (a) (the zero order is filtered to enhance visibility), where the virtual images for each wavelength are easily separately spatial-filtered (red = 760nm, green = 680nm)

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Schematic of the investigated staircase test-sample; (b,c) amplitude and (d,e) phase of respectively the reconstructed wavefront O 1 (λ 1 = 680nm, d 1 = 5cm) and O 2 (λ 2 = 760nm, d 2 = 5.05cm) obtained from the same hologram presented in Fig. 2 (grayscale: black = -180, white = +180 for the phase; field-of-view: 1×1mm2)

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Single-hologram beat-wavelength conjugated phase map of the sample of Fig. 3 at Λ = 6.428μm (grayscale: black = -180, white = +180). (a) Synthetic phase-contrast image of the Si staircase sample at Λ = 6.428μm; (b) 3D perspective of (a).

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a) Profile line taken along the white line in Fig. 4(a) superposed with a profile obtained with a commercial white light interferometer; (b) spatial average of about 100 profiles taken perpendicular to the small edge of the white rectangle defined in Fig. 4(a) compared with the average profile measured with the white light interferometer.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Real-time beat-wavelength phase imaging by DHM. (a) Scanning orientation map on the micro-structures array; (b) 40s movie of the Λ = 6.428μm phase-contrast image at 25 images/s (test_target_ph.mov, 2.62 MB) [Media 1]; (c) 3D perspective view of (b) (test_target_3D.mov, 2.6 MB) [Media 2]

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Dual-wavelength phase measurements on a moving micro-mirror oscillating at 1Hz during 6s at 25 frames/s. (grayscale: black = -180 white = +180; field-of-view: 1×1mm2) (a) Phase movie at the wavelength λ 1 = 680nm (mems_680nm.mov, 2.79 MB) [Media 3]; (b) Phase movie at the beat wavelength Λ = 6.428μm (mems_beat_wav.mov, 1.72 MB) [Media 4]; (c) 3-D perspective of (b) (mems_3D.mov, 2.6 MB [Media 5]

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Half-a-period monitoring of micro-mirror movements at the synthetic wavelength Λ = 6.428μm

Equations (4)

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I H ( x , y ) = R 1 2 + O 1 2 + R 2 2 + O 2 2 + R 1 O 1 * + R 1 * O 1 + R 2 O 2 * + R 2 * O 2 ,
Ψ CF , i ( m , n ) = Γ i I ( m , n ) exp ( i 2 π d i λ i ) i λ i d i FFT 1 { FFT [ Γ i H ( k , l ) I H , i F ( k , l ) ] exp { i π λ i d i [ ( k N Δ x ) 2 + ( l N Δ y ) 2 ] } } ,
Φ = arg ( O 1 O 2 * ) = ϕ 1 ϕ 2 = 2 π x λ 1 2 π x λ 2 = 2 πx ( λ 2 λ 1 λ 1 λ 2 ) = 2 π x Λ ,
Λ = λ 1 λ 2 λ 2 λ 1 .

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