Abstract

As part of the Worldwide Ocean Optics Database (WOOD) Project, The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory has developed and evaluated a variety of empirical models that can predict ocean optical properties, such as profiles of the beam attenuation coefficient computed from profiles of the diffuse attenuation coefficient. In this paper, we briefly summarize published empirical optical algorithms and assess their accuracy for estimating derived profiles. We also provide new algorithms and discuss their applicability for deriving optical profiles based on data collected from a variety of locations, including the Yellow Sea, the Sea of Japan, and the North Atlantic Ocean. We show that the scattering coefficient (b) can be computed from the beam attenuation coefficient (c) to about 10% accuracy. The availability of such relatively accurate predictions is important in the many situations where the set of data is incomplete.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. R. W. Austin and T. J. Petzold, "Spectral dependence of the diffuse attenuation coefficient of light in ocean waters," Opt. Eng. 25, 471-479 (1986).
  2. R. W. Austin and T. J. Petzold, "Spectral dependence of the diffuse attenuation coefficient of light in ocean waters: a re-examination using new data," Proc. SPIE 1302, 79-93 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  3. K. J. Voss, "A spectral model of the beam attenuation coefficient in the ocean and coastal areas," Limnol. Oceanogr. 37, 501-509 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. H. Barnard, W. S. Pegau, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, "Global relationships of the inherent optical properties of the oceans," J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24955-24968 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. G. Shannon, "Correlation of beam and diffuse attenuation coefficients measured in selected ocean waters," Proc. SPIE 64, 3-11 (1975).
  6. C. Moore, "In-situ, biochemical, oceanic, optical meters," Sea Technol. 35, 10-16 (1994).
  7. J. H. Smart, "Empirical relationships between optical properties in the ocean," Proc. SPIE 1750, 276-298 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  8. N. G. Jerlov, "Significant relationships between optical properties of the sea," in Optical Aspects of Oceanography, N. G. Jerlov and E. S. Nielson, eds. (Academic Press, 1974), Chap. 4.
  9. I. M. Levin, "Relation between the seawater optical properties at 550 nm: estimate of its accuracy and extension to Case 1 waters," in Proc. Third International Conference "Current Problems in Optics of Natural Waters" (ONW'2005), I. Levin and G. Gilbert, eds. (St. Petersburg, Russia, Sept 2005).
  10. A. Morel and L. Prieur, "Analysis of variations in ocean color," Limnol. Oceanogr. 22, 709-722 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. S. Schoonmaker, R. R. Hammond, A. L. Heath, and J. S. Cleveland, "A numerical model for prediction of sublittoral optical visibility," Proc. SPIE 2258, 685-702 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  12. G. C. Chang and T. D. Dickey, "Coastal mixing and optics mooring and tripod data deployments I-IV July 8, 1996-June 11, 1997," Ocean Physics Laboratory, UCSB, http://www.opl.ucsb.edu/cmo/methods.html; G. C. Chang and T. D. Dickey, "Optical and physical variability on timescales from minutes to the seasonal cycle on the New England shelf: July 1996-June 1997," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 9435-9453 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  13. K. L. Carder, "Chesapeake Bay outflow plume experiment (COPE)," Semiannual report for July-December 1996, University of South Florida, NAS5-31716, September 1996, http://modis.gsfc.nasa.gov/MODIS/OCEANS/REPORTS/carder.1996.4.pdf.
  14. C. Ashjian, R. Arnone, C. Davis, B. Jones, M. Kahru, C. Lee, and B. G. Mitchell, "Biological Structure and Seasonality in the Japan/East Sea," Oceanogr. 19, 3 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  15. J. H. Smart, "How accurately can we predict near-bottom optical clarity in the littorals?" Johns Hopkins APL Tech. Dig. 25, 2 (2004).
  16. J. H. Smart, "Regional and global empirical relationships among optical variables," in Ocean Optics XVI, 17, CD-ROM, Santa Fe, NM (November 2002).
  17. A. Morel, "Optical modeling of the upper ocean in relation to its biogenous matter content (Case I waters)," J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10,749-10,768 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  18. N. G. Jerlov, Table XXI in Marine Optics, Elsevier Oceanography Series, No. 14, (Elsevier Scientific Publishing Co. 1976).
  19. J. R. V Zaneveld, "Optical closure: from theory to measurement," in Ocean Optics, R.W. Spinrad et al, eds., (Oxford Press, 1994).
  20. A. Morel and B. Gentili, "Radiation transport within oceanic (Case 1) water," J. Geophys. Res. 109, C06008 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  21. V. N. Pelevin and V. V. Rostovtseva, "Sea water scattering and absorption models development using the classification of ocean waters on basis of contact measurements data," in Proc. D. S. Rozhdestvensky Optical Society International Conference Current Problems in Optics of Natural Waters (ONW ‘2001), I. Levin and G. Gilbert, eds. (St. Petersburg, Russia, 2001).
  22. K. J. Voss and R. W. Austin, "Beam-attenuation measurement error due to small-angle scattering acceptance," J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 10, 113-121 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  23. J. K. B. Bishop, "The correction and suspended particulate matter calibration of Sea Tech transmissometer data," Deep-Sea Res. 33, 121-134 (1986); see also http://www.ocean.tamu.edu/~pdgroup/SMP_prj/index.htm.
    [CrossRef]
  24. D. A. Kiefer, C. A. Atkinson, F. J. O'Brien, and C. Mobley, "A hydro-optical analysis system (HOPAS) for retrieving inherent optical properties from optical measurements," Ocean Optics XIII, Fremantle, Australia, October 2004.
  25. http://www.netmarkscom.com/ssa/products.html.

2006

C. Ashjian, R. Arnone, C. Davis, B. Jones, M. Kahru, C. Lee, and B. G. Mitchell, "Biological Structure and Seasonality in the Japan/East Sea," Oceanogr. 19, 3 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004

J. H. Smart, "How accurately can we predict near-bottom optical clarity in the littorals?" Johns Hopkins APL Tech. Dig. 25, 2 (2004).

A. Morel and B. Gentili, "Radiation transport within oceanic (Case 1) water," J. Geophys. Res. 109, C06008 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2001

G. C. Chang and T. D. Dickey, "Coastal mixing and optics mooring and tripod data deployments I-IV July 8, 1996-June 11, 1997," Ocean Physics Laboratory, UCSB, http://www.opl.ucsb.edu/cmo/methods.html; G. C. Chang and T. D. Dickey, "Optical and physical variability on timescales from minutes to the seasonal cycle on the New England shelf: July 1996-June 1997," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 9435-9453 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1998

A. H. Barnard, W. S. Pegau, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, "Global relationships of the inherent optical properties of the oceans," J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24955-24968 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1994

C. Moore, "In-situ, biochemical, oceanic, optical meters," Sea Technol. 35, 10-16 (1994).

J. S. Schoonmaker, R. R. Hammond, A. L. Heath, and J. S. Cleveland, "A numerical model for prediction of sublittoral optical visibility," Proc. SPIE 2258, 685-702 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993

K. J. Voss and R. W. Austin, "Beam-attenuation measurement error due to small-angle scattering acceptance," J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 10, 113-121 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992

K. J. Voss, "A spectral model of the beam attenuation coefficient in the ocean and coastal areas," Limnol. Oceanogr. 37, 501-509 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Smart, "Empirical relationships between optical properties in the ocean," Proc. SPIE 1750, 276-298 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1990

R. W. Austin and T. J. Petzold, "Spectral dependence of the diffuse attenuation coefficient of light in ocean waters: a re-examination using new data," Proc. SPIE 1302, 79-93 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1988

A. Morel, "Optical modeling of the upper ocean in relation to its biogenous matter content (Case I waters)," J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10,749-10,768 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1986

R. W. Austin and T. J. Petzold, "Spectral dependence of the diffuse attenuation coefficient of light in ocean waters," Opt. Eng. 25, 471-479 (1986).

1977

A. Morel and L. Prieur, "Analysis of variations in ocean color," Limnol. Oceanogr. 22, 709-722 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1975

J. G. Shannon, "Correlation of beam and diffuse attenuation coefficients measured in selected ocean waters," Proc. SPIE 64, 3-11 (1975).

Arnone, R.

C. Ashjian, R. Arnone, C. Davis, B. Jones, M. Kahru, C. Lee, and B. G. Mitchell, "Biological Structure and Seasonality in the Japan/East Sea," Oceanogr. 19, 3 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ashjian, C.

C. Ashjian, R. Arnone, C. Davis, B. Jones, M. Kahru, C. Lee, and B. G. Mitchell, "Biological Structure and Seasonality in the Japan/East Sea," Oceanogr. 19, 3 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Austin, R. W.

K. J. Voss and R. W. Austin, "Beam-attenuation measurement error due to small-angle scattering acceptance," J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 10, 113-121 (1993).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Austin and T. J. Petzold, "Spectral dependence of the diffuse attenuation coefficient of light in ocean waters: a re-examination using new data," Proc. SPIE 1302, 79-93 (1990).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Austin and T. J. Petzold, "Spectral dependence of the diffuse attenuation coefficient of light in ocean waters," Opt. Eng. 25, 471-479 (1986).

Barnard, A. H.

A. H. Barnard, W. S. Pegau, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, "Global relationships of the inherent optical properties of the oceans," J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24955-24968 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chang, G. C.

G. C. Chang and T. D. Dickey, "Coastal mixing and optics mooring and tripod data deployments I-IV July 8, 1996-June 11, 1997," Ocean Physics Laboratory, UCSB, http://www.opl.ucsb.edu/cmo/methods.html; G. C. Chang and T. D. Dickey, "Optical and physical variability on timescales from minutes to the seasonal cycle on the New England shelf: July 1996-June 1997," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 9435-9453 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Cleveland, J. S.

J. S. Schoonmaker, R. R. Hammond, A. L. Heath, and J. S. Cleveland, "A numerical model for prediction of sublittoral optical visibility," Proc. SPIE 2258, 685-702 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Davis, C.

C. Ashjian, R. Arnone, C. Davis, B. Jones, M. Kahru, C. Lee, and B. G. Mitchell, "Biological Structure and Seasonality in the Japan/East Sea," Oceanogr. 19, 3 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dickey, T. D.

G. C. Chang and T. D. Dickey, "Coastal mixing and optics mooring and tripod data deployments I-IV July 8, 1996-June 11, 1997," Ocean Physics Laboratory, UCSB, http://www.opl.ucsb.edu/cmo/methods.html; G. C. Chang and T. D. Dickey, "Optical and physical variability on timescales from minutes to the seasonal cycle on the New England shelf: July 1996-June 1997," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 9435-9453 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Gentili, B.

A. Morel and B. Gentili, "Radiation transport within oceanic (Case 1) water," J. Geophys. Res. 109, C06008 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hammond, R. R.

J. S. Schoonmaker, R. R. Hammond, A. L. Heath, and J. S. Cleveland, "A numerical model for prediction of sublittoral optical visibility," Proc. SPIE 2258, 685-702 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Heath, A. L.

J. S. Schoonmaker, R. R. Hammond, A. L. Heath, and J. S. Cleveland, "A numerical model for prediction of sublittoral optical visibility," Proc. SPIE 2258, 685-702 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Jones, B.

C. Ashjian, R. Arnone, C. Davis, B. Jones, M. Kahru, C. Lee, and B. G. Mitchell, "Biological Structure and Seasonality in the Japan/East Sea," Oceanogr. 19, 3 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kahru, M.

C. Ashjian, R. Arnone, C. Davis, B. Jones, M. Kahru, C. Lee, and B. G. Mitchell, "Biological Structure and Seasonality in the Japan/East Sea," Oceanogr. 19, 3 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C.

C. Ashjian, R. Arnone, C. Davis, B. Jones, M. Kahru, C. Lee, and B. G. Mitchell, "Biological Structure and Seasonality in the Japan/East Sea," Oceanogr. 19, 3 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mitchell, B. G.

C. Ashjian, R. Arnone, C. Davis, B. Jones, M. Kahru, C. Lee, and B. G. Mitchell, "Biological Structure and Seasonality in the Japan/East Sea," Oceanogr. 19, 3 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Moore, C.

C. Moore, "In-situ, biochemical, oceanic, optical meters," Sea Technol. 35, 10-16 (1994).

Morel, A.

A. Morel and B. Gentili, "Radiation transport within oceanic (Case 1) water," J. Geophys. Res. 109, C06008 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel, "Optical modeling of the upper ocean in relation to its biogenous matter content (Case I waters)," J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10,749-10,768 (1988).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel and L. Prieur, "Analysis of variations in ocean color," Limnol. Oceanogr. 22, 709-722 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Pegau, W. S.

A. H. Barnard, W. S. Pegau, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, "Global relationships of the inherent optical properties of the oceans," J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24955-24968 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Petzold, T. J.

R. W. Austin and T. J. Petzold, "Spectral dependence of the diffuse attenuation coefficient of light in ocean waters: a re-examination using new data," Proc. SPIE 1302, 79-93 (1990).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Austin and T. J. Petzold, "Spectral dependence of the diffuse attenuation coefficient of light in ocean waters," Opt. Eng. 25, 471-479 (1986).

Prieur, L.

A. Morel and L. Prieur, "Analysis of variations in ocean color," Limnol. Oceanogr. 22, 709-722 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Schoonmaker, J. S.

J. S. Schoonmaker, R. R. Hammond, A. L. Heath, and J. S. Cleveland, "A numerical model for prediction of sublittoral optical visibility," Proc. SPIE 2258, 685-702 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Shannon, J. G.

J. G. Shannon, "Correlation of beam and diffuse attenuation coefficients measured in selected ocean waters," Proc. SPIE 64, 3-11 (1975).

Smart, J. H.

J. H. Smart, "How accurately can we predict near-bottom optical clarity in the littorals?" Johns Hopkins APL Tech. Dig. 25, 2 (2004).

J. H. Smart, "Empirical relationships between optical properties in the ocean," Proc. SPIE 1750, 276-298 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Voss, K. J.

K. J. Voss and R. W. Austin, "Beam-attenuation measurement error due to small-angle scattering acceptance," J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 10, 113-121 (1993).
[CrossRef]

K. J. Voss, "A spectral model of the beam attenuation coefficient in the ocean and coastal areas," Limnol. Oceanogr. 37, 501-509 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Zaneveld, J. R. V.

A. H. Barnard, W. S. Pegau, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, "Global relationships of the inherent optical properties of the oceans," J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24955-24968 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol.

K. J. Voss and R. W. Austin, "Beam-attenuation measurement error due to small-angle scattering acceptance," J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 10, 113-121 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res.

A. Morel and B. Gentili, "Radiation transport within oceanic (Case 1) water," J. Geophys. Res. 109, C06008 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. H. Barnard, W. S. Pegau, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, "Global relationships of the inherent optical properties of the oceans," J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24955-24968 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. C. Chang and T. D. Dickey, "Coastal mixing and optics mooring and tripod data deployments I-IV July 8, 1996-June 11, 1997," Ocean Physics Laboratory, UCSB, http://www.opl.ucsb.edu/cmo/methods.html; G. C. Chang and T. D. Dickey, "Optical and physical variability on timescales from minutes to the seasonal cycle on the New England shelf: July 1996-June 1997," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 9435-9453 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel, "Optical modeling of the upper ocean in relation to its biogenous matter content (Case I waters)," J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10,749-10,768 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Johns Hopkins APL Tech. Dig.

J. H. Smart, "How accurately can we predict near-bottom optical clarity in the littorals?" Johns Hopkins APL Tech. Dig. 25, 2 (2004).

Limnol. Oceanogr.

K. J. Voss, "A spectral model of the beam attenuation coefficient in the ocean and coastal areas," Limnol. Oceanogr. 37, 501-509 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel and L. Prieur, "Analysis of variations in ocean color," Limnol. Oceanogr. 22, 709-722 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Oceanogr.

C. Ashjian, R. Arnone, C. Davis, B. Jones, M. Kahru, C. Lee, and B. G. Mitchell, "Biological Structure and Seasonality in the Japan/East Sea," Oceanogr. 19, 3 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng.

R. W. Austin and T. J. Petzold, "Spectral dependence of the diffuse attenuation coefficient of light in ocean waters," Opt. Eng. 25, 471-479 (1986).

Proc. SPIE

R. W. Austin and T. J. Petzold, "Spectral dependence of the diffuse attenuation coefficient of light in ocean waters: a re-examination using new data," Proc. SPIE 1302, 79-93 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. G. Shannon, "Correlation of beam and diffuse attenuation coefficients measured in selected ocean waters," Proc. SPIE 64, 3-11 (1975).

J. S. Schoonmaker, R. R. Hammond, A. L. Heath, and J. S. Cleveland, "A numerical model for prediction of sublittoral optical visibility," Proc. SPIE 2258, 685-702 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Smart, "Empirical relationships between optical properties in the ocean," Proc. SPIE 1750, 276-298 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Sea Technol.

C. Moore, "In-situ, biochemical, oceanic, optical meters," Sea Technol. 35, 10-16 (1994).

Other

N. G. Jerlov, "Significant relationships between optical properties of the sea," in Optical Aspects of Oceanography, N. G. Jerlov and E. S. Nielson, eds. (Academic Press, 1974), Chap. 4.

I. M. Levin, "Relation between the seawater optical properties at 550 nm: estimate of its accuracy and extension to Case 1 waters," in Proc. Third International Conference "Current Problems in Optics of Natural Waters" (ONW'2005), I. Levin and G. Gilbert, eds. (St. Petersburg, Russia, Sept 2005).

K. L. Carder, "Chesapeake Bay outflow plume experiment (COPE)," Semiannual report for July-December 1996, University of South Florida, NAS5-31716, September 1996, http://modis.gsfc.nasa.gov/MODIS/OCEANS/REPORTS/carder.1996.4.pdf.

J. H. Smart, "Regional and global empirical relationships among optical variables," in Ocean Optics XVI, 17, CD-ROM, Santa Fe, NM (November 2002).

N. G. Jerlov, Table XXI in Marine Optics, Elsevier Oceanography Series, No. 14, (Elsevier Scientific Publishing Co. 1976).

J. R. V Zaneveld, "Optical closure: from theory to measurement," in Ocean Optics, R.W. Spinrad et al, eds., (Oxford Press, 1994).

V. N. Pelevin and V. V. Rostovtseva, "Sea water scattering and absorption models development using the classification of ocean waters on basis of contact measurements data," in Proc. D. S. Rozhdestvensky Optical Society International Conference Current Problems in Optics of Natural Waters (ONW ‘2001), I. Levin and G. Gilbert, eds. (St. Petersburg, Russia, 2001).

J. K. B. Bishop, "The correction and suspended particulate matter calibration of Sea Tech transmissometer data," Deep-Sea Res. 33, 121-134 (1986); see also http://www.ocean.tamu.edu/~pdgroup/SMP_prj/index.htm.
[CrossRef]

D. A. Kiefer, C. A. Atkinson, F. J. O'Brien, and C. Mobley, "A hydro-optical analysis system (HOPAS) for retrieving inherent optical properties from optical measurements," Ocean Optics XIII, Fremantle, Australia, October 2004.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Plot of minimum, average, and maximum least squares fits to (bbw )/(ccw ) for the data given in Table 1.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Beam attenuation coefficient profiles in the Yellow Sea: (a) June 2001, (b) July 2001. The red and orange colors denote profiles with extremely high near-bottom turbidity, yellow denotes an intermediate level of turbidity, and cyan/blue indicate the least turbidity.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Yellow Sea variability in (bbw )/(ccw ) by depth off seafloor, degree of attenuation, and month. Note that the y-axis scale is greatly expanded compared with Fig. 1.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Median errors in estimating c from K for various empirical methods in (a) trans-Atlantic Ocean dataset, and (b) U.S. (CMO) continental shelf data.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Shannon method applied to Yellow Sea “south/central” region: (a) plot of calculated vs. measured c532 nm, (b) measured K532 profiles, (c) histogram of errors in calculated c532, (d) measured c532 profiles.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Median c:K ratio profiles by location. Note that c:K is plotted versus optical attenuation lengths (i.e. n/K), not depth.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Median June-July 1999 average cosine (a:K ratio) profiles for the Sea of Japan by wavelength: (a) average cosine = a:K, where a(λ) is from an AC9 and K(λ) is computed from downwelling irradiance (values may be affected by issues related to ship shadowing, particle contamination, sensor noise, and/or Raman scattering); (b) a:K = 1 - 0.185 (Eu /Ed )1/2.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Least squares fits of (bbw )/(ccw ) for datasets from the continental shelf off New Jersey and Virginia Beach, Virginia; the Sea of Japan, and the Yellow Sea

Tables Icon

Table 2. Yellow Sea (bbw )/(c -cw ) June 2001 values as a function of altitude off seafloor (magenta) and maximum observed c (blue; turbid versus less turbid locations).

Equations (9)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

K ( λ 2 ) = M ( λ 2 ) M ( λ 1 ) * [ K ( λ 1 ) K w ( λ 1 ) ] + K w ( λ 2 ) , …………………………
c ( λ ) c w ( λ ) = [ c ( 490 nm ) c w ( 490 nm ) ] * ( 1.563 1.149 E 3 λ ) ………………
K = 0.2 c + 0.04 m 1
c = 1.74 K ( for K < 0.06 m 1 )
( b b w ) = 0.86 ( c c w )
b = c ω 0 = 0.944 c 0.048
ω 0 = 0.944 0.048 c
a = μ ̄ * K
a K = 1 0.185 R

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