Abstract

A packaged liquid lens driven by the dielectric force was demonstrated. The liquid lens consisted of a low dielectric constant droplet and a high dielectric constant sealing liquid. The two non-conductive liquids were sealed in a chamber under the condition of iso-density. Focal length of a liquid lens with an aperture of 3mm changed from 34mm to 12mm in the range of 0-200V. Hysteresis was observed in the liquid lens, with a maximum value measured of 12.5° at 120 volts in terms of droplet's contact angle. The focal spot size measured approximately 80μm. Rise and fall times were 650ms and 300ms, respectively. The lens consumed 1mW of power when applying a 200 volt, 1 kHz signal. The longitudinal and transverse spherical aberrations were estimated to be nearly invariant when the focal length exceeded 20mm.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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2006 (3)

2005 (2)

F. Mugele and J-C Baret, "Electrowetting: from basics to applications," J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 17, R705-R774 (2005).
[CrossRef]

W. Wang, J. Fang and K. Varahramyan, "Compact variable-focusing microlens with integrated thermal actuator and sensor," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2643-2645 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

S. Kuiper and B. H. W. Hendriks, "Variable-focus liquid lens for miniature cameras," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1128-1130 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Ren, Y-H Fan and S-T Wu, "Liquid-crystal microlens arrays using patterned polymer networks," Opt. Lett. 29, 1608-1610 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (4)

2001 (1)

2000 (1)

B. Berge and J. Peseux, "Variable focal lens controlled by an external voltage - An application of electrowetting," Eur. Phys. J. E 3, 159-163 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

1992 (1)

T. Nose, S. Masuda and S. Sato, "A liquid crystal microlens with hole-patterned electrodes on both substrates," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31, 1643-1646 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Baret, J-C

F. Mugele and J-C Baret, "Electrowetting: from basics to applications," J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 17, R705-R774 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Berge, B.

B. Berge and J. Peseux, "Variable focal lens controlled by an external voltage - An application of electrowetting," Eur. Phys. J. E 3, 159-163 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chang, C. A.

C-C Cheng, C. A. Chang, C-H Liu and J. A. Yeh, "A tunable liquid-crystal microlens with hybrid alignment," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 8, S365-S369 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C.-C. Cheng, C. A. Chang and J. A. Yeh, "Variable focus dielectric liquid lens," Opt. Express 14, 4101-4106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, C.-C.

Cheng, C-C

C-C Cheng, C. A. Chang, C-H Liu and J. A. Yeh, "A tunable liquid-crystal microlens with hybrid alignment," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 8, S365-S369 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chronis, N.

Fan, Y-H

Fang, J.

W. Wang, J. Fang and K. Varahramyan, "Compact variable-focusing microlens with integrated thermal actuator and sensor," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2643-2645 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gvozdarev, A. Y.

Hendriks, B. H. W.

S. Kuiper and B. H. W. Hendriks, "Variable-focus liquid lens for miniature cameras," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1128-1130 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Huang, J. -Y.

Jeong, K-H

Ji, H. S.

Kim, J. H.

Krupenkin, T.

T. Krupenkin, S. Yang and P. Mach, "Tunable liquid microlens," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 316-318 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kuiper, S.

S. Kuiper and B. H. W. Hendriks, "Variable-focus liquid lens for miniature cameras," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1128-1130 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kumar, S.

Lee, L. P.

Liu, C-H

C-C Cheng, C. A. Chang, C-H Liu and J. A. Yeh, "A tunable liquid-crystal microlens with hybrid alignment," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 8, S365-S369 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Liu, G. L.

Lu, Y. S.

Mach, P.

T. Krupenkin, S. Yang and P. Mach, "Tunable liquid microlens," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 316-318 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Masuda, S.

T. Nose, S. Masuda and S. Sato, "A liquid crystal microlens with hole-patterned electrodes on both substrates," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31, 1643-1646 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Morita, S.

Mugele, F.

F. Mugele and J-C Baret, "Electrowetting: from basics to applications," J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 17, R705-R774 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nevskaya, G. E.

Nose, T.

T. Nose, S. Masuda and S. Sato, "A liquid crystal microlens with hole-patterned electrodes on both substrates," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31, 1643-1646 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Peseux, J.

B. Berge and J. Peseux, "Variable focal lens controlled by an external voltage - An application of electrowetting," Eur. Phys. J. E 3, 159-163 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Quinn, A.

A. Quinn, R. Sedev and J. Ralston, "Influence of the electrical double layer in electrowetting," J. Phys. Chem. B 107, 1163-1169 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ralston, J.

A. Quinn, R. Sedev and J. Ralston, "Influence of the electrical double layer in electrowetting," J. Phys. Chem. B 107, 1163-1169 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ren, H.

Sato, S.

T. Nose, S. Masuda and S. Sato, "A liquid crystal microlens with hole-patterned electrodes on both substrates," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31, 1643-1646 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Sedev, R.

A. Quinn, R. Sedev and J. Ralston, "Influence of the electrical double layer in electrowetting," J. Phys. Chem. B 107, 1163-1169 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sugiura, N.

Varahramyan, K.

W. Wang, J. Fang and K. Varahramyan, "Compact variable-focusing microlens with integrated thermal actuator and sensor," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2643-2645 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wang, W.

W. Wang, J. Fang and K. Varahramyan, "Compact variable-focusing microlens with integrated thermal actuator and sensor," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2643-2645 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wu, S-T

Yang, S.

T. Krupenkin, S. Yang and P. Mach, "Tunable liquid microlens," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 316-318 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yeh, J. A.

Yudin, I. B.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

S. Kuiper and B. H. W. Hendriks, "Variable-focus liquid lens for miniature cameras," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1128-1130 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Krupenkin, S. Yang and P. Mach, "Tunable liquid microlens," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 316-318 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Eur. Phys. J. E (1)

B. Berge and J. Peseux, "Variable focal lens controlled by an external voltage - An application of electrowetting," Eur. Phys. J. E 3, 159-163 (2000).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

W. Wang, J. Fang and K. Varahramyan, "Compact variable-focusing microlens with integrated thermal actuator and sensor," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2643-2645 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. (1)

C-C Cheng, C. A. Chang, C-H Liu and J. A. Yeh, "A tunable liquid-crystal microlens with hybrid alignment," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 8, S365-S369 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Technol. (1)

J. Phys. Chem. B (1)

A. Quinn, R. Sedev and J. Ralston, "Influence of the electrical double layer in electrowetting," J. Phys. Chem. B 107, 1163-1169 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys.: Condens. Matter (1)

F. Mugele and J-C Baret, "Electrowetting: from basics to applications," J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 17, R705-R774 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

T. Nose, S. Masuda and S. Sato, "A liquid crystal microlens with hole-patterned electrodes on both substrates," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31, 1643-1646 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Supplementary Material (1)

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