Abstract

A packaged liquid lens driven by the dielectric force was demonstrated. The liquid lens consisted of a low dielectric constant droplet and a high dielectric constant sealing liquid. The two non-conductive liquids were sealed in a chamber under the condition of iso-density. Focal length of a liquid lens with an aperture of 3mm changed from 34mm to 12mm in the range of 0-200V. Hysteresis was observed in the liquid lens, with a maximum value measured of 12.5° at 120 volts in terms of droplet’s contact angle. The focal spot size measured approximately 80μm. Rise and fall times were 650ms and 300ms, respectively. The lens consumed 1mW of power when applying a 200 volt, 1 kHz signal. The longitudinal and transverse spherical aberrations were estimated to be nearly invariant when the focal length exceeded 20mm.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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References

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2006

2005

F. Mugele and J-C Baret, "Electrowetting: from basics to applications," J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 17, R705-R774 (2005).
[CrossRef]

W. Wang, J. Fang and K. Varahramyan, "Compact variable-focusing microlens with integrated thermal actuator and sensor," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2643-2645 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

H. Ren, Y-H Fan and S-T Wu, "Liquid-crystal microlens arrays using patterned polymer networks," Opt. Lett. 29, 1608-1610 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Kuiper and B. H. W. Hendriks, "Variable-focus liquid lens for miniature cameras," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1128-1130 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

2001

2000

B. Berge and J. Peseux, "Variable focal lens controlled by an external voltage - An application of electrowetting," Eur. Phys. J. E 3, 159-163 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1993

1992

T. Nose, S. Masuda and S. Sato, "A liquid crystal microlens with hole-patterned electrodes on both substrates," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31, 1643-1646 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Baret, J-C

F. Mugele and J-C Baret, "Electrowetting: from basics to applications," J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 17, R705-R774 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Berge, B.

B. Berge and J. Peseux, "Variable focal lens controlled by an external voltage - An application of electrowetting," Eur. Phys. J. E 3, 159-163 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chang, C. A.

C-C Cheng, C. A. Chang, C-H Liu and J. A. Yeh, "A tunable liquid-crystal microlens with hybrid alignment," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 8, S365-S369 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C.-C. Cheng, C. A. Chang and J. A. Yeh, "Variable focus dielectric liquid lens," Opt. Express 14, 4101-4106 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cheng, C.-C.

Cheng, C-C

C-C Cheng, C. A. Chang, C-H Liu and J. A. Yeh, "A tunable liquid-crystal microlens with hybrid alignment," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 8, S365-S369 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chronis, N.

Fan, Y-H

Fang, J.

W. Wang, J. Fang and K. Varahramyan, "Compact variable-focusing microlens with integrated thermal actuator and sensor," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2643-2645 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gvozdarev, A. Y.

Hendriks, B. H. W.

S. Kuiper and B. H. W. Hendriks, "Variable-focus liquid lens for miniature cameras," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1128-1130 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Huang, J. -Y.

Jeong, K-H

Ji, H. S.

Kim, J. H.

Krupenkin, T.

T. Krupenkin, S. Yang and P. Mach, "Tunable liquid microlens," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 316-318 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kuiper, S.

S. Kuiper and B. H. W. Hendriks, "Variable-focus liquid lens for miniature cameras," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1128-1130 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kumar, S.

Lee, L. P.

Liu, C-H

C-C Cheng, C. A. Chang, C-H Liu and J. A. Yeh, "A tunable liquid-crystal microlens with hybrid alignment," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 8, S365-S369 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Liu, G. L.

Lu, Y. S.

Mach, P.

T. Krupenkin, S. Yang and P. Mach, "Tunable liquid microlens," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 316-318 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Masuda, S.

T. Nose, S. Masuda and S. Sato, "A liquid crystal microlens with hole-patterned electrodes on both substrates," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31, 1643-1646 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Morita, S.

Mugele, F.

F. Mugele and J-C Baret, "Electrowetting: from basics to applications," J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 17, R705-R774 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nevskaya, G. E.

Nose, T.

T. Nose, S. Masuda and S. Sato, "A liquid crystal microlens with hole-patterned electrodes on both substrates," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31, 1643-1646 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Peseux, J.

B. Berge and J. Peseux, "Variable focal lens controlled by an external voltage - An application of electrowetting," Eur. Phys. J. E 3, 159-163 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Quinn, A.

A. Quinn, R. Sedev and J. Ralston, "Influence of the electrical double layer in electrowetting," J. Phys. Chem. B 107, 1163-1169 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ralston, J.

A. Quinn, R. Sedev and J. Ralston, "Influence of the electrical double layer in electrowetting," J. Phys. Chem. B 107, 1163-1169 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ren, H.

Sato, S.

T. Nose, S. Masuda and S. Sato, "A liquid crystal microlens with hole-patterned electrodes on both substrates," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31, 1643-1646 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Sedev, R.

A. Quinn, R. Sedev and J. Ralston, "Influence of the electrical double layer in electrowetting," J. Phys. Chem. B 107, 1163-1169 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sugiura, N.

Varahramyan, K.

W. Wang, J. Fang and K. Varahramyan, "Compact variable-focusing microlens with integrated thermal actuator and sensor," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2643-2645 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wang, W.

W. Wang, J. Fang and K. Varahramyan, "Compact variable-focusing microlens with integrated thermal actuator and sensor," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2643-2645 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wu, S-T

Yang, S.

T. Krupenkin, S. Yang and P. Mach, "Tunable liquid microlens," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 316-318 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yeh, J. A.

Yudin, I. B.

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

S. Kuiper and B. H. W. Hendriks, "Variable-focus liquid lens for miniature cameras," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1128-1130 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Krupenkin, S. Yang and P. Mach, "Tunable liquid microlens," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 316-318 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Eur. Phys. J. E

B. Berge and J. Peseux, "Variable focal lens controlled by an external voltage - An application of electrowetting," Eur. Phys. J. E 3, 159-163 (2000).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

W. Wang, J. Fang and K. Varahramyan, "Compact variable-focusing microlens with integrated thermal actuator and sensor," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2643-2645 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt.

C-C Cheng, C. A. Chang, C-H Liu and J. A. Yeh, "A tunable liquid-crystal microlens with hybrid alignment," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 8, S365-S369 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Technol.

J. Phys. Chem. B

A. Quinn, R. Sedev and J. Ralston, "Influence of the electrical double layer in electrowetting," J. Phys. Chem. B 107, 1163-1169 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys.: Condens. Matter

F. Mugele and J-C Baret, "Electrowetting: from basics to applications," J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 17, R705-R774 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.

T. Nose, S. Masuda and S. Sato, "A liquid crystal microlens with hole-patterned electrodes on both substrates," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31, 1643-1646 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Supplementary Material (1)

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a). Illustration of a dielectric liquid lens. The droplet shrunk to a new state (dashed line) due to the dielectric force. (b). The captured images of an actuated liquid lens at the rest state (left) and at 75 volts (right). (c). (5.3MB) A movie of focal tuning using the dielectric liquid lens. The object was a doll of the “Snoopy ” dog placed a distance of 50mm from the lens. [Media 1]

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a). The measured receding contact angles and advancing contact angles of the droplet in a liquid lens versus the applied voltages. The insets in (a) show the droplets actuated at various voltages. Left: the droplet was at the rest state. Right: the droplet was actuated at 200V. (b) Conic constants of the droplet varied with voltages.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

The focal lengths of the dielectric liquid lens versus applied voltages. Black triangles and red diamonds indicate the measurement results and paraxial approximation, respectively.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

The focal spot size of the dielectric liquid lens determined using a laser with a wavelength of 532nm at various focal lengths. Both the measured results (black diamond) and the simulated results (red square) indicate a nearly constant focal spot size. The two insets on this diagram show intensity distribution of the laser spot at focal lengths of 12mm and 34mm.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Spherical aberration varies with focal length. The solid lines are the longitudinal spherical aberration and the dash lines are the transverse spherical aberration. The radiuses of aperture stop are 2.5mm, 2.0mm, 1.5mm and 1.0mm for red, green, blue and black lines, respectively.

Equations (1)

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f = ε 0 2 [ ( ε 1 ε 2 ) E 2 ]

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