Abstract

Line-field spectral domain optical coherence tomography (LF-SDOCT) has been developed for very high-speed three-dimensional (3D) retinal imaging. By this technique, the A-line rate significantly improved to 823,200 A-lines/s for single frame imaging and 51,500 A-lines/s for continues frame imaging. The frame rate at continues frame imaging is 201 fps. This 3D acquisition speed is more than two fold higher acquisition speed than the standard flying spot SD-OCT. In this paper, the integration time of the camera was optimized for the in vivo retinal measurement and the degradation of the lateral resolution due to the ocular aberrations was suppressed by introducing the pupil stop. Owing to an optimal integration time, the motion artifact can be significantly suppressed. Also a pupil stop was employed in order to enhance the contrast of the OCT image for the effect of ocular aberrations. The in vivo 3D retinal imaging with 256 cross-sectional images (256 A-lines/image) was successfully performed in 1.3 seconds, corresponding to 0.8 volume/s. The maximum on-axis system sensitivity was measured to be 89.4 dB at a depth of 112 μm with an axial resolution of 7.4 μm in tissue. It is shown that LF-SDOCT might have a sensitivity advantage in comparison to the flying spot SD-OCT in the ultra high-speed acquisition mode.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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2006 (6)

2005 (7)

B. Grajciar, M. Pircher, A. Fercher, and R. Leitgeb, "Parallel Fourier domain optical coherence tomography for in vivo measurement of the human eye," Opt. Express 13, 1131-1137 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Endo, Y. Yasuno, S. Makita, M. Itoh, and T. Yatagai, "Profilometry with line-field Fourier-domain interferometry," Opt. Express 13, 695-701 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Yasuno, V. D. Madjarova, S. Makita, M. Akiba, A. Morosawa, C. Chong, T. Sakai, K. -P. Chan, M. Itoh, and T. Yatagai,"Three-dimensional and high-speed swept-source optical coherence tomography for in vivo investigation of human anterior eye segments," Opt. Express 13, 10652-10664 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Zawadzki, S. Jones, S. Olivier, M. Zhao, B. Bower, J. Izatt, S. Choi, S. Laut, and J. Werner, "Adaptive-optics optical coherence tomography for high-resolution and high-speed 3D retinal in vivo imaging," Opt. Express 13, 8532-8546 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wojtkowski, V. Srinivasan, J. G. Fujimoto, T. Ko, J. S. Schuman, A. Kowalczyk and J. S. Duker, "Three dimensional retinal imaging with high-speed ultrahigh-resolution Optical Coherence Tomography," Ophthalmology 112, 1734-1746 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Mujat, R. Chan, B. Cense, B. Park, Chulmin Joo, T. Akkin, T. Chen, and J. de Boer, "Retinal nerve fiber layer thickness map determined from optical coherence tomography images," Opt. Express 13, 9480-9491 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (5)

2003 (4)

2002 (1)

2001 (1)

1999 (1)

1998 (3)

1991 (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1982 (1)

Akiba, M.

Alfano, R. R.

Aoki, G.

Y. Yasuno, T. Endo, S. Makita, G. Aoki, M. Itoh, and T. Yatagai, "Three-dimensional line-field Fourier domain optical coherence tomography for in vivo dermatological investigation," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 014014-014020 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Artal, P.

Bajraszewski, T.

Beaurepaire, E.

Blanchot, L.

Boccara, A. C.

Bouma, B.

Bouma, B. E.

Bourquin, S.

Bower, B.

Cense, B.

Chan, K. P.

Chan, K. -P.

Chan, R.

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, T.

Choi, S.

Chong, C.

Chulmin Joo, B.

de Boer, J.

de Boer, J. F.

Drexler, W.

Ducros, M.

Duker, J. S.

M. Wojtkowski, V. Srinivasan, J. G. Fujimoto, T. Ko, J. S. Schuman, A. Kowalczyk and J. S. Duker, "Three dimensional retinal imaging with high-speed ultrahigh-resolution Optical Coherence Tomography," Ophthalmology 112, 1734-1746 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Endo, T.

Y. Yasuno, T. Endo, S. Makita, G. Aoki, M. Itoh, and T. Yatagai, "Three-dimensional line-field Fourier domain optical coherence tomography for in vivo dermatological investigation," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 014014-014020 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Endo, Y. Yasuno, S. Makita, M. Itoh, and T. Yatagai, "Profilometry with line-field Fourier-domain interferometry," Opt. Express 13, 695-701 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fercher, A.

Fercher, A. F.

Fernandez, E. J.

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J. G.

M. Wojtkowski, V. Srinivasan, J. G. Fujimoto, T. Ko, J. S. Schuman, A. Kowalczyk and J. S. Duker, "Three dimensional retinal imaging with high-speed ultrahigh-resolution Optical Coherence Tomography," Ophthalmology 112, 1734-1746 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gilerson, A.

Grajciar, B.

Gregori, G.

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hausler, G.

G. Hausler and M. W. Lindner, "Coherence radar" and "spectral radar"-new tools for dermatological diagnosis," J. Biomed. Opt. 3, 21-31 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hee, M. R.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hermann, B.

Hitzenberger, C.

Hong, Y.

Huang, D.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Iftimia, N.

Ina, H.

Itoh, M.

Izatt, J.

Jiao, S.

Jones, S.

Jonnal, R.

Karamata, B.

Knighton, R. W.

Ko, T.

M. Wojtkowski, V. Srinivasan, J. G. Fujimoto, T. Ko, J. S. Schuman, A. Kowalczyk and J. S. Duker, "Three dimensional retinal imaging with high-speed ultrahigh-resolution Optical Coherence Tomography," Ophthalmology 112, 1734-1746 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kobayashi, S.

Kowalczyk, A.

M. Wojtkowski, V. Srinivasan, J. G. Fujimoto, T. Ko, J. S. Schuman, A. Kowalczyk and J. S. Duker, "Three dimensional retinal imaging with high-speed ultrahigh-resolution Optical Coherence Tomography," Ophthalmology 112, 1734-1746 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wojtkowski, T. Bajraszewski, P. Targowski, and A. Kowalczyk, "Real-time in vivo imaging by high-speed spectral optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 28, 1745-1747 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lasser, T.

Laubscher, M.

Laut, S.

Le, T.

Lebec, M.

Leitgeb, R.

Lin, C. P.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lindner, M. W.

G. Hausler and M. W. Lindner, "Coherence radar" and "spectral radar"-new tools for dermatological diagnosis," J. Biomed. Opt. 3, 21-31 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Madjarova, V. D.

Makita, S.

Miller, D.

Morosawa, A.

Mujat, M.

Nassif, N.

Oh, W. Y.

Olivier, S.

Park, B.

Park, B. H.

Pierce, M.

Pierce, M. C.

Pircher, M.

Prieto, P. M.

Puliafito, C. A.

S. Jiao, C. Wu, R. W. Knighton, G. Gregori, and C. A. Puliafito, "Registration of high-density cross sectional images to the fundus image in spectral-domain ophthalmic optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 14, 3368-3376 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rha, J.

Richards-Kortum, R.

Saint-Jalmes, H.

Sakai, T.

Salathe, R.

Salathe, R. P.

Sato, M.

Y. Watanabe, K. Yamada, and M. Sato, "Three-dimensional imaging by ultrahigh-speed axial-lateral parallel time domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 14, 5201-5209 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Watanabe, K. Yamada, and M. Sato, "In vivo nonmechanical scanning grating-generated optical coherence tomography using an InGaAs digital camera," Opt. Commun. 261, 376-380 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sattmann, H.

Schuman, J. S.

M. Wojtkowski, V. Srinivasan, J. G. Fujimoto, T. Ko, J. S. Schuman, A. Kowalczyk and J. S. Duker, "Three dimensional retinal imaging with high-speed ultrahigh-resolution Optical Coherence Tomography," Ophthalmology 112, 1734-1746 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Seitz, P.

Srinivasan, V.

M. Wojtkowski, V. Srinivasan, J. G. Fujimoto, T. Ko, J. S. Schuman, A. Kowalczyk and J. S. Duker, "Three dimensional retinal imaging with high-speed ultrahigh-resolution Optical Coherence Tomography," Ophthalmology 112, 1734-1746 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stingl, A.

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Swanson, E. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Takeda, M.

Tanno, N.

Targowski, P.

Tearney, G.

Tearney, G. J.

Unterhuber, A.

Watanabe, Y.

Y. Watanabe, K. Yamada, and M. Sato, "Three-dimensional imaging by ultrahigh-speed axial-lateral parallel time domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 14, 5201-5209 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Watanabe, K. Yamada, and M. Sato, "In vivo nonmechanical scanning grating-generated optical coherence tomography using an InGaAs digital camera," Opt. Commun. 261, 376-380 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Werner, J.

Wojtkowski, M.

M. Wojtkowski, V. Srinivasan, J. G. Fujimoto, T. Ko, J. S. Schuman, A. Kowalczyk and J. S. Duker, "Three dimensional retinal imaging with high-speed ultrahigh-resolution Optical Coherence Tomography," Ophthalmology 112, 1734-1746 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wojtkowski, T. Bajraszewski, P. Targowski, and A. Kowalczyk, "Real-time in vivo imaging by high-speed spectral optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 28, 1745-1747 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, C.

Yamada, K.

Y. Watanabe, K. Yamada, and M. Sato, "In vivo nonmechanical scanning grating-generated optical coherence tomography using an InGaAs digital camera," Opt. Commun. 261, 376-380 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Watanabe, K. Yamada, and M. Sato, "Three-dimensional imaging by ultrahigh-speed axial-lateral parallel time domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 14, 5201-5209 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yamanari, M.

Yasuno, Y.

Yatagai, T.

Yelin, R.

Yun, S.

Yun, S. H.

Zawadzki, R.

Zeylikovich, I.

Zhang, Y.

Zhao, M.

Zuluaga, A.

J. Biomed. Opt. (2)

G. Hausler and M. W. Lindner, "Coherence radar" and "spectral radar"-new tools for dermatological diagnosis," J. Biomed. Opt. 3, 21-31 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Y. Yasuno, T. Endo, S. Makita, G. Aoki, M. Itoh, and T. Yatagai, "Three-dimensional line-field Fourier domain optical coherence tomography for in vivo dermatological investigation," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 014014-014020 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

Ophthalmology (1)

M. Wojtkowski, V. Srinivasan, J. G. Fujimoto, T. Ko, J. S. Schuman, A. Kowalczyk and J. S. Duker, "Three dimensional retinal imaging with high-speed ultrahigh-resolution Optical Coherence Tomography," Ophthalmology 112, 1734-1746 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun. (1)

Y. Watanabe, K. Yamada, and M. Sato, "In vivo nonmechanical scanning grating-generated optical coherence tomography using an InGaAs digital camera," Opt. Commun. 261, 376-380 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (16)

Y. Watanabe, K. Yamada, and M. Sato, "Three-dimensional imaging by ultrahigh-speed axial-lateral parallel time domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 14, 5201-5209 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Grajciar, M. Pircher, A. Fercher, and R. Leitgeb, "Parallel Fourier domain optical coherence tomography for in vivo measurement of the human eye," Opt. Express 13, 1131-1137 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Zhang, J. Rha, R. Jonnal, and D. Miller, "Adaptive optics parallel spectral domain optical coherence tomography for imaging the living retina," Opt. Express 13, 4792-4811 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Science (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
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Other (1)

American National Standards Institute, American National Standard for Safe Use of Lasers: ANSI Z136.1 (Laser Institute of America, Orlando, Florida, 2000).

Supplementary Material (4)

» Media 1: AVI (8182 KB)     
» Media 2: AVI (2160 KB)     
» Media 3: AVI (2270 KB)     
» Media 4: AVI (12323 KB)     

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Optical scheme of LF-SDOCT. SLD, superluminescent diode; L, Lens (L1, L2, L3, L4, and L5 are 60, 60, 100, 150, and 60 mm.); CL, cylindrical lens (CL1 and CL2 are 100 and 60 mm); Ch1 and Ch2, optical chopper; ND, nutral density filter.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Horizontal (a) and vertical (b) perspectives of the optical system. The two L1s and 78D lenses are identical. Cylindrical lens (L1) produces the line illumination on the sample. The sample plane is vertically conjugated with the detection plane.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Schematic representation of the synchronization time chart of LF-SDOCT. Both choppers are open, i.e., the sample is illuminated only during the integration time of the camera.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Plot of the sensitivity with and without axial motion versus the integration time of the camera. Although the sensitivity without axial motion monotonously increases with the integration time, the maximum sensitivity with axial motion is obtained at an integration time of 311 μs.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Image comparison between the integration times of (a) 1 ms and (b) 311 μs. The fringe washout affects the entire cross-sectional image. The shown representative image is 29th one in 256 successively captured cross-sectional image. A movie of the time sequence of the images are available for the comparison between with integration times of 1 ms and 311 μs (2.1 MB movie). Also, a version of 8.0 MB is available.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Evaluation function of each frame for the integration times of (a) 1 ms and (b) 311 μs. The result obtained for 1ms shows a lot of missing frames due to the motion artifact in quantitative comparison to that for 311 μs.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Qualitative image comparison between the (a) absence and (b) presence of the pupil stop.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Time sequence of the cross-sectional image for the macula of an in vivo human healthy volunteer (2.2 MB movie). Also, the version of 12.0 MB is available.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Volume rendering image of the retina. The original data set is same as Fig. 8.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Lateral position dependence of the sensitivity. Theoretical distribution of the sensitivity calculated from the Gaussian intensity profile of the line illumination on the sample (blue line). Experimental distribution of the sensitivity obtained using an achromatic lens and a mirror (red line).

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

Change in the sensitivity property with the increase in the A-line rate. The sensitivity for the flying spot SD-OCT that attains a 100 % duty cycle (green line). LF-SDOCT has a constant sensitivity until the system attains a 100 % duty cycle (red line). The flying spot SD-OCT used in this simulation is standard one which has the center wavelength of 840 nm, the probing power of 733 μW , the splitting ratio from the sample arm to the spectrometer of 0.8, and the spectrometer efficiency of 0.3. The degraded sensitivities of LF-SDOCT at lateral 50 and 100 pixels are also plotted.

Equations (2)

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S ( k ) = S 0 ( k ) sin 2 ( k v z τ ) ( k v z τ ) 2 ,
E = z , y ( I ( z , y ) I ( z , y ) ) log 2 ( I ( z , y ) I ( z , y ) ) ,

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