Abstract

A polarization insensitive technique for highly efficient coupling between SOI waveguides and high mode field diameter single-mode fibers is reported. The proposed coupling structure is based on an inverted taper structure coupled to a fiber-adapted waveguide. The fiber-adapted waveguide is made by using the SiO2 layer under the Si waveguiding layer of the SOI wafer thus avoiding the use of extra materials such as polymers. The proposed coupling structure is aimed for being integrated with V-groove auto-alignment techniques. Coupling losses of 3.5dB and 3.7dB to 8μm mode field diameter single-mode fibers have been estimated by means of 3D-BPM simulations for TE and TM polarizations respectively and a 1550nm input signal wavelength.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. Sure, T. Dillon, J. Murakowski, C. Lin, D. Pustai and D. W. Prather, "Fabrication and characterization of three-dimensional silicon tapers," Opt. Express 26, 3555-3561 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  2. D. Dai, S. He, and H. K. Tsang, "Bilevel mode converter between a silicon nanowire waveguide and a larger waveguide," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 242418-2433 (2006).
  3. T. Shoji, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada and H. Morita, "Low loss mode size converter from 0.3?m square Si wire waveguides to singlemode fibres," Electron. Lett. 38, 1669-1670 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  4. L. Vivien, S. Laval, E. Cassan, X. Le Roux, and D. Pascal, "2-D Taper for low-loss coupling between polarization-insensitive microwaveguides and single-mode optical fibers," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 1-5 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  5. V. R. Almeida, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, "Nanotaper for compact mode conversion," Opt. Lett. 28, 1302-1304 (2003)
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. S. J. McNab, N. Moll, and Y. A. Vlasov, "Ultra-low loss photonic integrated circuit with membrane-type photonic crystal waveguides," Opt. Express 11, 2927-2939 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. K. Yamada, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, E. Tamechika, M. Takahashi, S. Uchiyama, H. Fukuda, T. Shoji, S. Itabashi and H. Morita, "Microphotonics devices based on silicon wire waveguiding system," IEICE Trans. Electron E 87-C, 351-358 (2004).
  8. K. K. Lee, D. R. Lim, D. Pan, C. Hoepfner, W.Y. Oh, K. Wada, L. C. Kimerling, K. P. Yap, and M. T. Doan, "Mode transformer for miniaturized optical circuits," Opt. Lett. 30, 498-500 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. G. Roelkens, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, "Efficient silicon-on-insulator fiber coupler fabricated using 248nm deep UV lithography," Photon. Technol. Lett.  17, 2613-2615 (2005) .
    [CrossRef]
  10. S. Park, J. M Lee, and S. C. Ko, "Fabrication method for passive alignment in polymer PLCs with U-grooves," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1444-1446 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  11. G. T. Reed, A. P. Knights, Silicon Photonics, an introduction (John Wiley & Sons, 2004).
    [CrossRef]

2006

D. Dai, S. He, and H. K. Tsang, "Bilevel mode converter between a silicon nanowire waveguide and a larger waveguide," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 242418-2433 (2006).

2005

K. K. Lee, D. R. Lim, D. Pan, C. Hoepfner, W.Y. Oh, K. Wada, L. C. Kimerling, K. P. Yap, and M. T. Doan, "Mode transformer for miniaturized optical circuits," Opt. Lett. 30, 498-500 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Roelkens, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, "Efficient silicon-on-insulator fiber coupler fabricated using 248nm deep UV lithography," Photon. Technol. Lett.  17, 2613-2615 (2005) .
[CrossRef]

S. Park, J. M Lee, and S. C. Ko, "Fabrication method for passive alignment in polymer PLCs with U-grooves," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1444-1446 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

K. Yamada, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, E. Tamechika, M. Takahashi, S. Uchiyama, H. Fukuda, T. Shoji, S. Itabashi and H. Morita, "Microphotonics devices based on silicon wire waveguiding system," IEICE Trans. Electron E 87-C, 351-358 (2004).

2003

A. Sure, T. Dillon, J. Murakowski, C. Lin, D. Pustai and D. W. Prather, "Fabrication and characterization of three-dimensional silicon tapers," Opt. Express 26, 3555-3561 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L. Vivien, S. Laval, E. Cassan, X. Le Roux, and D. Pascal, "2-D Taper for low-loss coupling between polarization-insensitive microwaveguides and single-mode optical fibers," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 1-5 (2003).
[CrossRef]

V. R. Almeida, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, "Nanotaper for compact mode conversion," Opt. Lett. 28, 1302-1304 (2003)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. J. McNab, N. Moll, and Y. A. Vlasov, "Ultra-low loss photonic integrated circuit with membrane-type photonic crystal waveguides," Opt. Express 11, 2927-2939 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

T. Shoji, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada and H. Morita, "Low loss mode size converter from 0.3?m square Si wire waveguides to singlemode fibres," Electron. Lett. 38, 1669-1670 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Almeida, V. R.

Baets, R.

G. Roelkens, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, "Efficient silicon-on-insulator fiber coupler fabricated using 248nm deep UV lithography," Photon. Technol. Lett.  17, 2613-2615 (2005) .
[CrossRef]

Bogaerts, W.

G. Roelkens, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, "Efficient silicon-on-insulator fiber coupler fabricated using 248nm deep UV lithography," Photon. Technol. Lett.  17, 2613-2615 (2005) .
[CrossRef]

Cassan, E.

L. Vivien, S. Laval, E. Cassan, X. Le Roux, and D. Pascal, "2-D Taper for low-loss coupling between polarization-insensitive microwaveguides and single-mode optical fibers," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 1-5 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dai, D.

D. Dai, S. He, and H. K. Tsang, "Bilevel mode converter between a silicon nanowire waveguide and a larger waveguide," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 242418-2433 (2006).

Dillon, T.

A. Sure, T. Dillon, J. Murakowski, C. Lin, D. Pustai and D. W. Prather, "Fabrication and characterization of three-dimensional silicon tapers," Opt. Express 26, 3555-3561 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Doan, M. T.

Dumon, P.

G. Roelkens, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, "Efficient silicon-on-insulator fiber coupler fabricated using 248nm deep UV lithography," Photon. Technol. Lett.  17, 2613-2615 (2005) .
[CrossRef]

Fukuda, H.

K. Yamada, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, E. Tamechika, M. Takahashi, S. Uchiyama, H. Fukuda, T. Shoji, S. Itabashi and H. Morita, "Microphotonics devices based on silicon wire waveguiding system," IEICE Trans. Electron E 87-C, 351-358 (2004).

He, S.

D. Dai, S. He, and H. K. Tsang, "Bilevel mode converter between a silicon nanowire waveguide and a larger waveguide," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 242418-2433 (2006).

Hoepfner, C.

Itabashi, S.

K. Yamada, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, E. Tamechika, M. Takahashi, S. Uchiyama, H. Fukuda, T. Shoji, S. Itabashi and H. Morita, "Microphotonics devices based on silicon wire waveguiding system," IEICE Trans. Electron E 87-C, 351-358 (2004).

Kimerling, L. C.

Ko, S. C.

S. Park, J. M Lee, and S. C. Ko, "Fabrication method for passive alignment in polymer PLCs with U-grooves," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1444-1446 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Laval, S.

L. Vivien, S. Laval, E. Cassan, X. Le Roux, and D. Pascal, "2-D Taper for low-loss coupling between polarization-insensitive microwaveguides and single-mode optical fibers," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 1-5 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Le Roux, X.

L. Vivien, S. Laval, E. Cassan, X. Le Roux, and D. Pascal, "2-D Taper for low-loss coupling between polarization-insensitive microwaveguides and single-mode optical fibers," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 1-5 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J. M

S. Park, J. M Lee, and S. C. Ko, "Fabrication method for passive alignment in polymer PLCs with U-grooves," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1444-1446 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lee, K. K.

Lim, D. R.

Lin, C.

A. Sure, T. Dillon, J. Murakowski, C. Lin, D. Pustai and D. W. Prather, "Fabrication and characterization of three-dimensional silicon tapers," Opt. Express 26, 3555-3561 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lipson, M.

McNab, S. J.

Moll, N.

Morita, H.

K. Yamada, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, E. Tamechika, M. Takahashi, S. Uchiyama, H. Fukuda, T. Shoji, S. Itabashi and H. Morita, "Microphotonics devices based on silicon wire waveguiding system," IEICE Trans. Electron E 87-C, 351-358 (2004).

T. Shoji, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada and H. Morita, "Low loss mode size converter from 0.3?m square Si wire waveguides to singlemode fibres," Electron. Lett. 38, 1669-1670 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Murakowski, J.

A. Sure, T. Dillon, J. Murakowski, C. Lin, D. Pustai and D. W. Prather, "Fabrication and characterization of three-dimensional silicon tapers," Opt. Express 26, 3555-3561 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Oh, W.Y.

Pan, D.

Panepucci, R. R.

Park, S.

S. Park, J. M Lee, and S. C. Ko, "Fabrication method for passive alignment in polymer PLCs with U-grooves," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1444-1446 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pascal, D.

L. Vivien, S. Laval, E. Cassan, X. Le Roux, and D. Pascal, "2-D Taper for low-loss coupling between polarization-insensitive microwaveguides and single-mode optical fibers," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 1-5 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Prather, D. W.

A. Sure, T. Dillon, J. Murakowski, C. Lin, D. Pustai and D. W. Prather, "Fabrication and characterization of three-dimensional silicon tapers," Opt. Express 26, 3555-3561 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Pustai, D.

A. Sure, T. Dillon, J. Murakowski, C. Lin, D. Pustai and D. W. Prather, "Fabrication and characterization of three-dimensional silicon tapers," Opt. Express 26, 3555-3561 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Roelkens, G.

G. Roelkens, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, "Efficient silicon-on-insulator fiber coupler fabricated using 248nm deep UV lithography," Photon. Technol. Lett.  17, 2613-2615 (2005) .
[CrossRef]

Shoji, T.

K. Yamada, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, E. Tamechika, M. Takahashi, S. Uchiyama, H. Fukuda, T. Shoji, S. Itabashi and H. Morita, "Microphotonics devices based on silicon wire waveguiding system," IEICE Trans. Electron E 87-C, 351-358 (2004).

T. Shoji, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada and H. Morita, "Low loss mode size converter from 0.3?m square Si wire waveguides to singlemode fibres," Electron. Lett. 38, 1669-1670 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sure, A.

A. Sure, T. Dillon, J. Murakowski, C. Lin, D. Pustai and D. W. Prather, "Fabrication and characterization of three-dimensional silicon tapers," Opt. Express 26, 3555-3561 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Takahashi, J.

K. Yamada, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, E. Tamechika, M. Takahashi, S. Uchiyama, H. Fukuda, T. Shoji, S. Itabashi and H. Morita, "Microphotonics devices based on silicon wire waveguiding system," IEICE Trans. Electron E 87-C, 351-358 (2004).

Takahashi, M.

K. Yamada, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, E. Tamechika, M. Takahashi, S. Uchiyama, H. Fukuda, T. Shoji, S. Itabashi and H. Morita, "Microphotonics devices based on silicon wire waveguiding system," IEICE Trans. Electron E 87-C, 351-358 (2004).

Tamechika, E.

K. Yamada, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, E. Tamechika, M. Takahashi, S. Uchiyama, H. Fukuda, T. Shoji, S. Itabashi and H. Morita, "Microphotonics devices based on silicon wire waveguiding system," IEICE Trans. Electron E 87-C, 351-358 (2004).

Tsang, H. K.

D. Dai, S. He, and H. K. Tsang, "Bilevel mode converter between a silicon nanowire waveguide and a larger waveguide," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 242418-2433 (2006).

Tsuchizawa, T.

K. Yamada, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, E. Tamechika, M. Takahashi, S. Uchiyama, H. Fukuda, T. Shoji, S. Itabashi and H. Morita, "Microphotonics devices based on silicon wire waveguiding system," IEICE Trans. Electron E 87-C, 351-358 (2004).

T. Shoji, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada and H. Morita, "Low loss mode size converter from 0.3?m square Si wire waveguides to singlemode fibres," Electron. Lett. 38, 1669-1670 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Uchiyama, S.

K. Yamada, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, E. Tamechika, M. Takahashi, S. Uchiyama, H. Fukuda, T. Shoji, S. Itabashi and H. Morita, "Microphotonics devices based on silicon wire waveguiding system," IEICE Trans. Electron E 87-C, 351-358 (2004).

Van Thourhout, D.

G. Roelkens, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, "Efficient silicon-on-insulator fiber coupler fabricated using 248nm deep UV lithography," Photon. Technol. Lett.  17, 2613-2615 (2005) .
[CrossRef]

Vivien, L.

L. Vivien, S. Laval, E. Cassan, X. Le Roux, and D. Pascal, "2-D Taper for low-loss coupling between polarization-insensitive microwaveguides and single-mode optical fibers," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 1-5 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Vlasov, Y. A.

Wada, K.

Watanabe, T.

K. Yamada, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, E. Tamechika, M. Takahashi, S. Uchiyama, H. Fukuda, T. Shoji, S. Itabashi and H. Morita, "Microphotonics devices based on silicon wire waveguiding system," IEICE Trans. Electron E 87-C, 351-358 (2004).

T. Shoji, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada and H. Morita, "Low loss mode size converter from 0.3?m square Si wire waveguides to singlemode fibres," Electron. Lett. 38, 1669-1670 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yamada, K.

K. Yamada, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, E. Tamechika, M. Takahashi, S. Uchiyama, H. Fukuda, T. Shoji, S. Itabashi and H. Morita, "Microphotonics devices based on silicon wire waveguiding system," IEICE Trans. Electron E 87-C, 351-358 (2004).

T. Shoji, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada and H. Morita, "Low loss mode size converter from 0.3?m square Si wire waveguides to singlemode fibres," Electron. Lett. 38, 1669-1670 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yap, K. P.

Electron. Lett.

T. Shoji, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada and H. Morita, "Low loss mode size converter from 0.3?m square Si wire waveguides to singlemode fibres," Electron. Lett. 38, 1669-1670 (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Lightwave Technol.

L. Vivien, S. Laval, E. Cassan, X. Le Roux, and D. Pascal, "2-D Taper for low-loss coupling between polarization-insensitive microwaveguides and single-mode optical fibers," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 1-5 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. Dai, S. He, and H. K. Tsang, "Bilevel mode converter between a silicon nanowire waveguide and a larger waveguide," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 242418-2433 (2006).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

S. Park, J. M Lee, and S. C. Ko, "Fabrication method for passive alignment in polymer PLCs with U-grooves," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1444-1446 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEICE Trans. Electron E

K. Yamada, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, E. Tamechika, M. Takahashi, S. Uchiyama, H. Fukuda, T. Shoji, S. Itabashi and H. Morita, "Microphotonics devices based on silicon wire waveguiding system," IEICE Trans. Electron E 87-C, 351-358 (2004).

Opt. Express

A. Sure, T. Dillon, J. Murakowski, C. Lin, D. Pustai and D. W. Prather, "Fabrication and characterization of three-dimensional silicon tapers," Opt. Express 26, 3555-3561 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. J. McNab, N. Moll, and Y. A. Vlasov, "Ultra-low loss photonic integrated circuit with membrane-type photonic crystal waveguides," Opt. Express 11, 2927-2939 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett.

Photon. Technol. Lett.

G. Roelkens, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, "Efficient silicon-on-insulator fiber coupler fabricated using 248nm deep UV lithography," Photon. Technol. Lett.  17, 2613-2615 (2005) .
[CrossRef]

Other

G. T. Reed, A. P. Knights, Silicon Photonics, an introduction (John Wiley & Sons, 2004).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Proposed inverted taper-based structure and its main design parameters. (b) Detail of the integration of the proposed structure with the V-groove auto-alignment structure.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Coupling losses between the SiO2 waveguide and the optical fiber as a function of the fiber mode field diameter for different waveguide widths, λ=1550nm and both TE and TM polarizations.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Detail of the interface between the fiber-adapted SiO2 waveguide with and without the inverted taper on top. (b) Procedure to evaluate the coupling losses of the interface depicted in Fig. 3(a).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Coupling losses between the SiO2 waveguide with and without the inverted taper on top as a function of the inverted taper tip width, λ=1550nm and for both TE and TM polarizations.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Field distribution in a 400μm long inverted taper obtained by means of a 3D-BPM simulation.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Coupling losses as a function of the inverted taper length for both TE and TM polarizations and a 1550nm input signal wavelength.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Top (a) and side (b) views of the simulated structure to analyze the influence on the coupling performance of the position of the inverted taper (d parameter) on the SiO2 waveguide.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Coupling losses as a function of the d parameter depicted in Fig. 7 for both TE and TM polarizations.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Spectral response of the coupling losses between a 500nm wide single-mode SOI waveguide and a 8μm MFD single-mode fiber by means of the proposed coupling structure.

Equations (1)

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L C = 20 log 10 [ F 1 F 2 dx dy F 1 2 dx dy F 2 2 dx dy ]

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