Abstract

We report on the construction, optical alignment and performance of a receiver which is capable of recording the full polarization state of coherent terahertz radiation. The photoconductive detector was fabricated on InP which had been implanted with Fe+ ions. The device operated successfully when it was gated with near infrared femtosecond pulses from either a Ti:sapphire laser oscillator or a 1 kHz regenerative laser amplifier. When illuminated with terahertz radiation from a typical photoconductive source, the optimized device had a signal to noise figure of 100:1 with a usable spectral bandwidth of up to 4 THz. The device was shown to be very sensitive to terahertz polarization, being able to resolve changes in polarization of 0.34 degrees. Additionally, we have demonstrated the usefulness of this device for (i) polarization sensitive terahertz spectroscopy, by measuring the birefringence of quartz and (ii) terahertz emission experiments, by measuring the polarization dependence of radiation generated by optical rectification in (110)-ZnTe.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. C. A. Schmuttenmaer, "Exploring dynamics in the far-infrared with terahertz spectroscopy," Chem. Rev. 104,1759-1779 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. R. Huber, F. Tauser, A. Brodschelm, M. Bichler, G. Abstreiter, and A. Leitenstorfer, "How many-particle interactions develop after ultrafast excitation of an electron-hole plasma," Nature 414,286-289 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. J. Lloyd-Hughes, T. Richards, H. Sirringhaus, E. Castro-Camus, L. M. Herz, and M. B. Johnston, "Charge trapping in polymer transistors probed by terahertz spectroscopy and scanning probe potentiometry," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89,112101 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  4. F. Gao, J. F. Whitaker, Y. Liu, C. Uher, C. E. Platt, and M. V. Klein, "Terahertz transmission of a Ba1?xKxBiO3 film probed by coherent time-domain spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. B 52,3607-3613 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. B. Johnston, L. M. Herz, A. Khan, A. K¨ohler, A. G. Davies, and E. H. Linfield, "Low-energy vibrational modes in phenylene oligomers studied by THz time domain spectroscopy," Chem. Phys. Lett. 377,256-262 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  6. Y. Q. Chen, H. B. Liu, Y. Q. Deng, D. Schauki, M. J. Fitch, R. Osiander, C. Dodson, J. B. Spicer, M. Shur, and X. C. Zhang, "THz spectroscopic investigation of 2,4-dinitrotoluene," Chem. Phys. Lett. 400,357-361 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  7. S. Kono, M. Tani, and K. Sakai, "Ultrabroadband photoconductive detection: Comparison with free-space electro-optic sampling," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79,898-900 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  8. D. H. Auston and M. C. Nuss, "Electrooptic generation and detection of femtosecond electrical transients," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24,184-197 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  9. P. R. Smith, D. H. Auston, and M. C. Nuss, "Subpicosecond photoconducting dipole antennas," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24,255-260 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  10. Y. C. Shen, P. C. Upadhya, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, I. S. Gregory, C. Baker, W. R. Tribe, and M. J. Evans, "Generation and detection of ultrabroadband terahertz radiation using photoconductive emitters and receivers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85,164-166 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. Suzuki and M. Tonouchi, "Fe-implanted InGaAs photoconductive terahertz detectors triggered by 1.56?m femtosecond optical pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86,163504 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  12. M. Tani, K. Sakai, and H. Mimura, "Ultrafast photoconductive detectors based on semi-insulating GaAs and InP," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 2 36,L1175-L1178 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  13. J. Lloyd-Hughes, S. K. E. Merchant, L. Fu, H. H. Tan, C. Jagadish, E. Castro-Camus, and M. B. Johnston, "Influence of surface passivation on ultrafast carrier dynamics and terahertz radiation generation in GaAs," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89,232102 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  14. E. Castro-Camus, J. Lloyd-Hughes, and M. B. Johnston, "Three-dimensional carrier-dynamics simulation of terahertz emission from photoconductive switches," Phys. Rev. B 71,195301 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  15. J. Lloyd-Hughes, E. Castro-Camus, and M. B. Johnston, "Simulation and optimisation of terahertz emission from InGaAs and InP photoconductive switches," Solid State Commun. 136,595-600 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  16. A. Hussain and S. R. Andrews, "Dynamic range of ultrabroadband terahertz detection using GaAs photoconductors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88,143514 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  17. J. F. O’Hara, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, "Enhanced terahertz detection via ErAs:GaAs nanoisland superlattices," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88,251119 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  18. E. Castro-Camus, J. Lloyd-Hughes, M. B. Johnston, M. D. Fraser, H. H. Tan, and C. Jagadish, "Polarizationsensitive terahertz detection by multicontact photoconductive receivers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86,254102 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  19. F. G. Sun, G. A. Wagoner, and X. C. Zhang, "Measurement of free-space terahertz pulses via long-lifetime photoconductors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67,1656-1658 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  20. T. A. Liu, M. Tani, M. Nakajima, M. Hangyo, K. Sakai, S. Nakashima, and C. L. Pan, "Ultrabroadband terahertz field detection by proton-bombarded InP photoconductive antennas," Opt. Express 12,2954-2959 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. T. A. Liu, M. Tani, M. Nakajima, M. Hangyo, and C. L. Pan, "Ultrabroadband terahertz field detection by photoconductive antennas based on multi-energy arsenic-ion-implanted GaAs and semi-insulating GaAs," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83,1322-1324 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  22. J. B. Johnson, "Thermal Agitation of Electricity in Conductors," Phys. Rev. 32,97 (1928).
    [CrossRef]
  23. H. Nyquist, "Thermal Agitation of Electric Charge in Conductors," Phys. Rev. 32,110-113 (1928).
    [CrossRef]
  24. R. Sarpeshkar, T. Delbruck, and C. A. Mead, "White-noise in mos-transistors and resistors," IEEE Circuit Devices Mag. 9,23-29 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  25. F. N. Hooge, "1/f noise sources," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 41,1926-1935 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  26. D. Grischkowsky, S. Keiding, M. van Exter, and C. Fattinger, "Far-infrared time-domain spectroscopy with terahertz beams of dielectrics and semiconductors," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 7,2006-2015 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  27. E. Castro-Camus, D.Phil thesis, University of Oxford, 2006.
  28. G. Giraud, J. Karolin, and K. Wynne, "Low-frequency modes of peptides and globular proteins in solution observed by ultrafast OHD-RIKES Spectroscopy," Biophys. J. 85,1903-1913 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. A. Markelz, S. Whitmire, J. Hillebrecht, and R. Birge, "THz time domain spectroscopy of biomolecular conformational modes," Phys. Med. Biol. 47,3797-3805 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. J. Xu, K. W. Plaxco, and S. J. Allen, "Probing the collective vibrational dynamics of a protein in liquid water by terahertz absorption spectroscopy," Protein Sci. 15,1175-1181 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

J. Lloyd-Hughes, T. Richards, H. Sirringhaus, E. Castro-Camus, L. M. Herz, and M. B. Johnston, "Charge trapping in polymer transistors probed by terahertz spectroscopy and scanning probe potentiometry," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89,112101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Hussain and S. R. Andrews, "Dynamic range of ultrabroadband terahertz detection using GaAs photoconductors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88,143514 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. F. O’Hara, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, "Enhanced terahertz detection via ErAs:GaAs nanoisland superlattices," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88,251119 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Lloyd-Hughes, S. K. E. Merchant, L. Fu, H. H. Tan, C. Jagadish, E. Castro-Camus, and M. B. Johnston, "Influence of surface passivation on ultrafast carrier dynamics and terahertz radiation generation in GaAs," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89,232102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Xu, K. W. Plaxco, and S. J. Allen, "Probing the collective vibrational dynamics of a protein in liquid water by terahertz absorption spectroscopy," Protein Sci. 15,1175-1181 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

E. Castro-Camus, J. Lloyd-Hughes, and M. B. Johnston, "Three-dimensional carrier-dynamics simulation of terahertz emission from photoconductive switches," Phys. Rev. B 71,195301 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Lloyd-Hughes, E. Castro-Camus, and M. B. Johnston, "Simulation and optimisation of terahertz emission from InGaAs and InP photoconductive switches," Solid State Commun. 136,595-600 (2005).
[CrossRef]

E. Castro-Camus, J. Lloyd-Hughes, M. B. Johnston, M. D. Fraser, H. H. Tan, and C. Jagadish, "Polarizationsensitive terahertz detection by multicontact photoconductive receivers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86,254102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Suzuki and M. Tonouchi, "Fe-implanted InGaAs photoconductive terahertz detectors triggered by 1.56?m femtosecond optical pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86,163504 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

Y. C. Shen, P. C. Upadhya, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, I. S. Gregory, C. Baker, W. R. Tribe, and M. J. Evans, "Generation and detection of ultrabroadband terahertz radiation using photoconductive emitters and receivers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85,164-166 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. A. Schmuttenmaer, "Exploring dynamics in the far-infrared with terahertz spectroscopy," Chem. Rev. 104,1759-1779 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Q. Chen, H. B. Liu, Y. Q. Deng, D. Schauki, M. J. Fitch, R. Osiander, C. Dodson, J. B. Spicer, M. Shur, and X. C. Zhang, "THz spectroscopic investigation of 2,4-dinitrotoluene," Chem. Phys. Lett. 400,357-361 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. A. Liu, M. Tani, M. Nakajima, M. Hangyo, K. Sakai, S. Nakashima, and C. L. Pan, "Ultrabroadband terahertz field detection by proton-bombarded InP photoconductive antennas," Opt. Express 12,2954-2959 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

T. A. Liu, M. Tani, M. Nakajima, M. Hangyo, and C. L. Pan, "Ultrabroadband terahertz field detection by photoconductive antennas based on multi-energy arsenic-ion-implanted GaAs and semi-insulating GaAs," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83,1322-1324 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. Giraud, J. Karolin, and K. Wynne, "Low-frequency modes of peptides and globular proteins in solution observed by ultrafast OHD-RIKES Spectroscopy," Biophys. J. 85,1903-1913 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. B. Johnston, L. M. Herz, A. Khan, A. K¨ohler, A. G. Davies, and E. H. Linfield, "Low-energy vibrational modes in phenylene oligomers studied by THz time domain spectroscopy," Chem. Phys. Lett. 377,256-262 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

A. Markelz, S. Whitmire, J. Hillebrecht, and R. Birge, "THz time domain spectroscopy of biomolecular conformational modes," Phys. Med. Biol. 47,3797-3805 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001

S. Kono, M. Tani, and K. Sakai, "Ultrabroadband photoconductive detection: Comparison with free-space electro-optic sampling," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79,898-900 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. Huber, F. Tauser, A. Brodschelm, M. Bichler, G. Abstreiter, and A. Leitenstorfer, "How many-particle interactions develop after ultrafast excitation of an electron-hole plasma," Nature 414,286-289 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997

M. Tani, K. Sakai, and H. Mimura, "Ultrafast photoconductive detectors based on semi-insulating GaAs and InP," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 2 36,L1175-L1178 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995

F. G. Sun, G. A. Wagoner, and X. C. Zhang, "Measurement of free-space terahertz pulses via long-lifetime photoconductors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67,1656-1658 (1995).
[CrossRef]

F. Gao, J. F. Whitaker, Y. Liu, C. Uher, C. E. Platt, and M. V. Klein, "Terahertz transmission of a Ba1?xKxBiO3 film probed by coherent time-domain spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. B 52,3607-3613 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994

F. N. Hooge, "1/f noise sources," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 41,1926-1935 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993

R. Sarpeshkar, T. Delbruck, and C. A. Mead, "White-noise in mos-transistors and resistors," IEEE Circuit Devices Mag. 9,23-29 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1990

1988

D. H. Auston and M. C. Nuss, "Electrooptic generation and detection of femtosecond electrical transients," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24,184-197 (1988).
[CrossRef]

P. R. Smith, D. H. Auston, and M. C. Nuss, "Subpicosecond photoconducting dipole antennas," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24,255-260 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1928

J. B. Johnson, "Thermal Agitation of Electricity in Conductors," Phys. Rev. 32,97 (1928).
[CrossRef]

H. Nyquist, "Thermal Agitation of Electric Charge in Conductors," Phys. Rev. 32,110-113 (1928).
[CrossRef]

Abstreiter, G.

R. Huber, F. Tauser, A. Brodschelm, M. Bichler, G. Abstreiter, and A. Leitenstorfer, "How many-particle interactions develop after ultrafast excitation of an electron-hole plasma," Nature 414,286-289 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Allen, S. J.

J. Xu, K. W. Plaxco, and S. J. Allen, "Probing the collective vibrational dynamics of a protein in liquid water by terahertz absorption spectroscopy," Protein Sci. 15,1175-1181 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Andrews, S. R.

A. Hussain and S. R. Andrews, "Dynamic range of ultrabroadband terahertz detection using GaAs photoconductors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88,143514 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Auston, D. H.

P. R. Smith, D. H. Auston, and M. C. Nuss, "Subpicosecond photoconducting dipole antennas," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24,255-260 (1988).
[CrossRef]

D. H. Auston and M. C. Nuss, "Electrooptic generation and detection of femtosecond electrical transients," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24,184-197 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Averitt, R. D.

J. F. O’Hara, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, "Enhanced terahertz detection via ErAs:GaAs nanoisland superlattices," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88,251119 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Baker, C.

Y. C. Shen, P. C. Upadhya, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, I. S. Gregory, C. Baker, W. R. Tribe, and M. J. Evans, "Generation and detection of ultrabroadband terahertz radiation using photoconductive emitters and receivers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85,164-166 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Beere, H. E.

Y. C. Shen, P. C. Upadhya, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, I. S. Gregory, C. Baker, W. R. Tribe, and M. J. Evans, "Generation and detection of ultrabroadband terahertz radiation using photoconductive emitters and receivers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85,164-166 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bichler, M.

R. Huber, F. Tauser, A. Brodschelm, M. Bichler, G. Abstreiter, and A. Leitenstorfer, "How many-particle interactions develop after ultrafast excitation of an electron-hole plasma," Nature 414,286-289 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Birge, R.

A. Markelz, S. Whitmire, J. Hillebrecht, and R. Birge, "THz time domain spectroscopy of biomolecular conformational modes," Phys. Med. Biol. 47,3797-3805 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brodschelm, A.

R. Huber, F. Tauser, A. Brodschelm, M. Bichler, G. Abstreiter, and A. Leitenstorfer, "How many-particle interactions develop after ultrafast excitation of an electron-hole plasma," Nature 414,286-289 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Castro-Camus, E.

J. Lloyd-Hughes, T. Richards, H. Sirringhaus, E. Castro-Camus, L. M. Herz, and M. B. Johnston, "Charge trapping in polymer transistors probed by terahertz spectroscopy and scanning probe potentiometry," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89,112101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Lloyd-Hughes, S. K. E. Merchant, L. Fu, H. H. Tan, C. Jagadish, E. Castro-Camus, and M. B. Johnston, "Influence of surface passivation on ultrafast carrier dynamics and terahertz radiation generation in GaAs," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89,232102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. Castro-Camus, J. Lloyd-Hughes, and M. B. Johnston, "Three-dimensional carrier-dynamics simulation of terahertz emission from photoconductive switches," Phys. Rev. B 71,195301 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Lloyd-Hughes, E. Castro-Camus, and M. B. Johnston, "Simulation and optimisation of terahertz emission from InGaAs and InP photoconductive switches," Solid State Commun. 136,595-600 (2005).
[CrossRef]

E. Castro-Camus, J. Lloyd-Hughes, M. B. Johnston, M. D. Fraser, H. H. Tan, and C. Jagadish, "Polarizationsensitive terahertz detection by multicontact photoconductive receivers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86,254102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y. Q.

Y. Q. Chen, H. B. Liu, Y. Q. Deng, D. Schauki, M. J. Fitch, R. Osiander, C. Dodson, J. B. Spicer, M. Shur, and X. C. Zhang, "THz spectroscopic investigation of 2,4-dinitrotoluene," Chem. Phys. Lett. 400,357-361 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Davies, A. G.

Y. C. Shen, P. C. Upadhya, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, I. S. Gregory, C. Baker, W. R. Tribe, and M. J. Evans, "Generation and detection of ultrabroadband terahertz radiation using photoconductive emitters and receivers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85,164-166 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Delbruck, T.

R. Sarpeshkar, T. Delbruck, and C. A. Mead, "White-noise in mos-transistors and resistors," IEEE Circuit Devices Mag. 9,23-29 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Deng, Y. Q.

Y. Q. Chen, H. B. Liu, Y. Q. Deng, D. Schauki, M. J. Fitch, R. Osiander, C. Dodson, J. B. Spicer, M. Shur, and X. C. Zhang, "THz spectroscopic investigation of 2,4-dinitrotoluene," Chem. Phys. Lett. 400,357-361 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dodson, C.

Y. Q. Chen, H. B. Liu, Y. Q. Deng, D. Schauki, M. J. Fitch, R. Osiander, C. Dodson, J. B. Spicer, M. Shur, and X. C. Zhang, "THz spectroscopic investigation of 2,4-dinitrotoluene," Chem. Phys. Lett. 400,357-361 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Evans, M. J.

Y. C. Shen, P. C. Upadhya, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, I. S. Gregory, C. Baker, W. R. Tribe, and M. J. Evans, "Generation and detection of ultrabroadband terahertz radiation using photoconductive emitters and receivers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85,164-166 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fattinger, C.

Fitch, M. J.

Y. Q. Chen, H. B. Liu, Y. Q. Deng, D. Schauki, M. J. Fitch, R. Osiander, C. Dodson, J. B. Spicer, M. Shur, and X. C. Zhang, "THz spectroscopic investigation of 2,4-dinitrotoluene," Chem. Phys. Lett. 400,357-361 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fraser, M. D.

E. Castro-Camus, J. Lloyd-Hughes, M. B. Johnston, M. D. Fraser, H. H. Tan, and C. Jagadish, "Polarizationsensitive terahertz detection by multicontact photoconductive receivers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86,254102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fu, L.

J. Lloyd-Hughes, S. K. E. Merchant, L. Fu, H. H. Tan, C. Jagadish, E. Castro-Camus, and M. B. Johnston, "Influence of surface passivation on ultrafast carrier dynamics and terahertz radiation generation in GaAs," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89,232102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gao, F.

F. Gao, J. F. Whitaker, Y. Liu, C. Uher, C. E. Platt, and M. V. Klein, "Terahertz transmission of a Ba1?xKxBiO3 film probed by coherent time-domain spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. B 52,3607-3613 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Giraud, G.

G. Giraud, J. Karolin, and K. Wynne, "Low-frequency modes of peptides and globular proteins in solution observed by ultrafast OHD-RIKES Spectroscopy," Biophys. J. 85,1903-1913 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gossard, A. C.

J. F. O’Hara, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, "Enhanced terahertz detection via ErAs:GaAs nanoisland superlattices," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88,251119 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gregory, I. S.

Y. C. Shen, P. C. Upadhya, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, I. S. Gregory, C. Baker, W. R. Tribe, and M. J. Evans, "Generation and detection of ultrabroadband terahertz radiation using photoconductive emitters and receivers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85,164-166 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Grischkowsky, D.

Hangyo, M.

T. A. Liu, M. Tani, M. Nakajima, M. Hangyo, K. Sakai, S. Nakashima, and C. L. Pan, "Ultrabroadband terahertz field detection by proton-bombarded InP photoconductive antennas," Opt. Express 12,2954-2959 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. A. Liu, M. Tani, M. Nakajima, M. Hangyo, and C. L. Pan, "Ultrabroadband terahertz field detection by photoconductive antennas based on multi-energy arsenic-ion-implanted GaAs and semi-insulating GaAs," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83,1322-1324 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Herz, L. M.

J. Lloyd-Hughes, T. Richards, H. Sirringhaus, E. Castro-Camus, L. M. Herz, and M. B. Johnston, "Charge trapping in polymer transistors probed by terahertz spectroscopy and scanning probe potentiometry," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89,112101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. B. Johnston, L. M. Herz, A. Khan, A. K¨ohler, A. G. Davies, and E. H. Linfield, "Low-energy vibrational modes in phenylene oligomers studied by THz time domain spectroscopy," Chem. Phys. Lett. 377,256-262 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hillebrecht, J.

A. Markelz, S. Whitmire, J. Hillebrecht, and R. Birge, "THz time domain spectroscopy of biomolecular conformational modes," Phys. Med. Biol. 47,3797-3805 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hooge, F. N.

F. N. Hooge, "1/f noise sources," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 41,1926-1935 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Huber, R.

R. Huber, F. Tauser, A. Brodschelm, M. Bichler, G. Abstreiter, and A. Leitenstorfer, "How many-particle interactions develop after ultrafast excitation of an electron-hole plasma," Nature 414,286-289 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hussain, A.

A. Hussain and S. R. Andrews, "Dynamic range of ultrabroadband terahertz detection using GaAs photoconductors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88,143514 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jagadish, C.

J. Lloyd-Hughes, S. K. E. Merchant, L. Fu, H. H. Tan, C. Jagadish, E. Castro-Camus, and M. B. Johnston, "Influence of surface passivation on ultrafast carrier dynamics and terahertz radiation generation in GaAs," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89,232102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. Castro-Camus, J. Lloyd-Hughes, M. B. Johnston, M. D. Fraser, H. H. Tan, and C. Jagadish, "Polarizationsensitive terahertz detection by multicontact photoconductive receivers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86,254102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, J. B.

J. B. Johnson, "Thermal Agitation of Electricity in Conductors," Phys. Rev. 32,97 (1928).
[CrossRef]

Johnston, M. B.

J. Lloyd-Hughes, S. K. E. Merchant, L. Fu, H. H. Tan, C. Jagadish, E. Castro-Camus, and M. B. Johnston, "Influence of surface passivation on ultrafast carrier dynamics and terahertz radiation generation in GaAs," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89,232102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Lloyd-Hughes, T. Richards, H. Sirringhaus, E. Castro-Camus, L. M. Herz, and M. B. Johnston, "Charge trapping in polymer transistors probed by terahertz spectroscopy and scanning probe potentiometry," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89,112101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Lloyd-Hughes, E. Castro-Camus, and M. B. Johnston, "Simulation and optimisation of terahertz emission from InGaAs and InP photoconductive switches," Solid State Commun. 136,595-600 (2005).
[CrossRef]

E. Castro-Camus, J. Lloyd-Hughes, and M. B. Johnston, "Three-dimensional carrier-dynamics simulation of terahertz emission from photoconductive switches," Phys. Rev. B 71,195301 (2005).
[CrossRef]

E. Castro-Camus, J. Lloyd-Hughes, M. B. Johnston, M. D. Fraser, H. H. Tan, and C. Jagadish, "Polarizationsensitive terahertz detection by multicontact photoconductive receivers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86,254102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. B. Johnston, L. M. Herz, A. Khan, A. K¨ohler, A. G. Davies, and E. H. Linfield, "Low-energy vibrational modes in phenylene oligomers studied by THz time domain spectroscopy," Chem. Phys. Lett. 377,256-262 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Karolin, J.

G. Giraud, J. Karolin, and K. Wynne, "Low-frequency modes of peptides and globular proteins in solution observed by ultrafast OHD-RIKES Spectroscopy," Biophys. J. 85,1903-1913 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Keiding, S.

Khan, A.

M. B. Johnston, L. M. Herz, A. Khan, A. K¨ohler, A. G. Davies, and E. H. Linfield, "Low-energy vibrational modes in phenylene oligomers studied by THz time domain spectroscopy," Chem. Phys. Lett. 377,256-262 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Klein, M. V.

F. Gao, J. F. Whitaker, Y. Liu, C. Uher, C. E. Platt, and M. V. Klein, "Terahertz transmission of a Ba1?xKxBiO3 film probed by coherent time-domain spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. B 52,3607-3613 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kono, S.

S. Kono, M. Tani, and K. Sakai, "Ultrabroadband photoconductive detection: Comparison with free-space electro-optic sampling," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79,898-900 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Leitenstorfer, A.

R. Huber, F. Tauser, A. Brodschelm, M. Bichler, G. Abstreiter, and A. Leitenstorfer, "How many-particle interactions develop after ultrafast excitation of an electron-hole plasma," Nature 414,286-289 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Linfield, E. H.

Y. C. Shen, P. C. Upadhya, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, I. S. Gregory, C. Baker, W. R. Tribe, and M. J. Evans, "Generation and detection of ultrabroadband terahertz radiation using photoconductive emitters and receivers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85,164-166 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Liu, H. B.

Y. Q. Chen, H. B. Liu, Y. Q. Deng, D. Schauki, M. J. Fitch, R. Osiander, C. Dodson, J. B. Spicer, M. Shur, and X. C. Zhang, "THz spectroscopic investigation of 2,4-dinitrotoluene," Chem. Phys. Lett. 400,357-361 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Liu, T. A.

T. A. Liu, M. Tani, M. Nakajima, M. Hangyo, K. Sakai, S. Nakashima, and C. L. Pan, "Ultrabroadband terahertz field detection by proton-bombarded InP photoconductive antennas," Opt. Express 12,2954-2959 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. A. Liu, M. Tani, M. Nakajima, M. Hangyo, and C. L. Pan, "Ultrabroadband terahertz field detection by photoconductive antennas based on multi-energy arsenic-ion-implanted GaAs and semi-insulating GaAs," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83,1322-1324 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y.

F. Gao, J. F. Whitaker, Y. Liu, C. Uher, C. E. Platt, and M. V. Klein, "Terahertz transmission of a Ba1?xKxBiO3 film probed by coherent time-domain spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. B 52,3607-3613 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Lloyd-Hughes, J.

J. Lloyd-Hughes, T. Richards, H. Sirringhaus, E. Castro-Camus, L. M. Herz, and M. B. Johnston, "Charge trapping in polymer transistors probed by terahertz spectroscopy and scanning probe potentiometry," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89,112101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Lloyd-Hughes, S. K. E. Merchant, L. Fu, H. H. Tan, C. Jagadish, E. Castro-Camus, and M. B. Johnston, "Influence of surface passivation on ultrafast carrier dynamics and terahertz radiation generation in GaAs," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89,232102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Lloyd-Hughes, E. Castro-Camus, and M. B. Johnston, "Simulation and optimisation of terahertz emission from InGaAs and InP photoconductive switches," Solid State Commun. 136,595-600 (2005).
[CrossRef]

E. Castro-Camus, J. Lloyd-Hughes, and M. B. Johnston, "Three-dimensional carrier-dynamics simulation of terahertz emission from photoconductive switches," Phys. Rev. B 71,195301 (2005).
[CrossRef]

E. Castro-Camus, J. Lloyd-Hughes, M. B. Johnston, M. D. Fraser, H. H. Tan, and C. Jagadish, "Polarizationsensitive terahertz detection by multicontact photoconductive receivers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86,254102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Markelz, A.

A. Markelz, S. Whitmire, J. Hillebrecht, and R. Birge, "THz time domain spectroscopy of biomolecular conformational modes," Phys. Med. Biol. 47,3797-3805 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mead, C. A.

R. Sarpeshkar, T. Delbruck, and C. A. Mead, "White-noise in mos-transistors and resistors," IEEE Circuit Devices Mag. 9,23-29 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Merchant, S. K. E.

J. Lloyd-Hughes, S. K. E. Merchant, L. Fu, H. H. Tan, C. Jagadish, E. Castro-Camus, and M. B. Johnston, "Influence of surface passivation on ultrafast carrier dynamics and terahertz radiation generation in GaAs," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89,232102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mimura, H.

M. Tani, K. Sakai, and H. Mimura, "Ultrafast photoconductive detectors based on semi-insulating GaAs and InP," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 2 36,L1175-L1178 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Nakajima, M.

T. A. Liu, M. Tani, M. Nakajima, M. Hangyo, K. Sakai, S. Nakashima, and C. L. Pan, "Ultrabroadband terahertz field detection by proton-bombarded InP photoconductive antennas," Opt. Express 12,2954-2959 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. A. Liu, M. Tani, M. Nakajima, M. Hangyo, and C. L. Pan, "Ultrabroadband terahertz field detection by photoconductive antennas based on multi-energy arsenic-ion-implanted GaAs and semi-insulating GaAs," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83,1322-1324 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nakashima, S.

Nuss, M. C.

D. H. Auston and M. C. Nuss, "Electrooptic generation and detection of femtosecond electrical transients," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24,184-197 (1988).
[CrossRef]

P. R. Smith, D. H. Auston, and M. C. Nuss, "Subpicosecond photoconducting dipole antennas," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24,255-260 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Nyquist, H.

H. Nyquist, "Thermal Agitation of Electric Charge in Conductors," Phys. Rev. 32,110-113 (1928).
[CrossRef]

O’Hara, J. F.

J. F. O’Hara, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, "Enhanced terahertz detection via ErAs:GaAs nanoisland superlattices," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88,251119 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Osiander, R.

Y. Q. Chen, H. B. Liu, Y. Q. Deng, D. Schauki, M. J. Fitch, R. Osiander, C. Dodson, J. B. Spicer, M. Shur, and X. C. Zhang, "THz spectroscopic investigation of 2,4-dinitrotoluene," Chem. Phys. Lett. 400,357-361 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pan, C. L.

T. A. Liu, M. Tani, M. Nakajima, M. Hangyo, K. Sakai, S. Nakashima, and C. L. Pan, "Ultrabroadband terahertz field detection by proton-bombarded InP photoconductive antennas," Opt. Express 12,2954-2959 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. A. Liu, M. Tani, M. Nakajima, M. Hangyo, and C. L. Pan, "Ultrabroadband terahertz field detection by photoconductive antennas based on multi-energy arsenic-ion-implanted GaAs and semi-insulating GaAs," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83,1322-1324 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Platt, C. E.

F. Gao, J. F. Whitaker, Y. Liu, C. Uher, C. E. Platt, and M. V. Klein, "Terahertz transmission of a Ba1?xKxBiO3 film probed by coherent time-domain spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. B 52,3607-3613 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Plaxco, K. W.

J. Xu, K. W. Plaxco, and S. J. Allen, "Probing the collective vibrational dynamics of a protein in liquid water by terahertz absorption spectroscopy," Protein Sci. 15,1175-1181 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Richards, T.

J. Lloyd-Hughes, T. Richards, H. Sirringhaus, E. Castro-Camus, L. M. Herz, and M. B. Johnston, "Charge trapping in polymer transistors probed by terahertz spectroscopy and scanning probe potentiometry," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89,112101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sakai, K.

T. A. Liu, M. Tani, M. Nakajima, M. Hangyo, K. Sakai, S. Nakashima, and C. L. Pan, "Ultrabroadband terahertz field detection by proton-bombarded InP photoconductive antennas," Opt. Express 12,2954-2959 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Kono, M. Tani, and K. Sakai, "Ultrabroadband photoconductive detection: Comparison with free-space electro-optic sampling," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79,898-900 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Tani, K. Sakai, and H. Mimura, "Ultrafast photoconductive detectors based on semi-insulating GaAs and InP," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 2 36,L1175-L1178 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sarpeshkar, R.

R. Sarpeshkar, T. Delbruck, and C. A. Mead, "White-noise in mos-transistors and resistors," IEEE Circuit Devices Mag. 9,23-29 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Schauki, D.

Y. Q. Chen, H. B. Liu, Y. Q. Deng, D. Schauki, M. J. Fitch, R. Osiander, C. Dodson, J. B. Spicer, M. Shur, and X. C. Zhang, "THz spectroscopic investigation of 2,4-dinitrotoluene," Chem. Phys. Lett. 400,357-361 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Schmuttenmaer, C. A.

C. A. Schmuttenmaer, "Exploring dynamics in the far-infrared with terahertz spectroscopy," Chem. Rev. 104,1759-1779 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shen, Y. C.

Y. C. Shen, P. C. Upadhya, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, I. S. Gregory, C. Baker, W. R. Tribe, and M. J. Evans, "Generation and detection of ultrabroadband terahertz radiation using photoconductive emitters and receivers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85,164-166 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Shur, M.

Y. Q. Chen, H. B. Liu, Y. Q. Deng, D. Schauki, M. J. Fitch, R. Osiander, C. Dodson, J. B. Spicer, M. Shur, and X. C. Zhang, "THz spectroscopic investigation of 2,4-dinitrotoluene," Chem. Phys. Lett. 400,357-361 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sirringhaus, H.

J. Lloyd-Hughes, T. Richards, H. Sirringhaus, E. Castro-Camus, L. M. Herz, and M. B. Johnston, "Charge trapping in polymer transistors probed by terahertz spectroscopy and scanning probe potentiometry," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89,112101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Smith, P. R.

P. R. Smith, D. H. Auston, and M. C. Nuss, "Subpicosecond photoconducting dipole antennas," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24,255-260 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Spicer, J. B.

Y. Q. Chen, H. B. Liu, Y. Q. Deng, D. Schauki, M. J. Fitch, R. Osiander, C. Dodson, J. B. Spicer, M. Shur, and X. C. Zhang, "THz spectroscopic investigation of 2,4-dinitrotoluene," Chem. Phys. Lett. 400,357-361 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sun, F. G.

F. G. Sun, G. A. Wagoner, and X. C. Zhang, "Measurement of free-space terahertz pulses via long-lifetime photoconductors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67,1656-1658 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Suzuki, M.

M. Suzuki and M. Tonouchi, "Fe-implanted InGaAs photoconductive terahertz detectors triggered by 1.56?m femtosecond optical pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86,163504 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tan, H. H.

J. Lloyd-Hughes, S. K. E. Merchant, L. Fu, H. H. Tan, C. Jagadish, E. Castro-Camus, and M. B. Johnston, "Influence of surface passivation on ultrafast carrier dynamics and terahertz radiation generation in GaAs," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89,232102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. Castro-Camus, J. Lloyd-Hughes, M. B. Johnston, M. D. Fraser, H. H. Tan, and C. Jagadish, "Polarizationsensitive terahertz detection by multicontact photoconductive receivers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86,254102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tani, M.

T. A. Liu, M. Tani, M. Nakajima, M. Hangyo, K. Sakai, S. Nakashima, and C. L. Pan, "Ultrabroadband terahertz field detection by proton-bombarded InP photoconductive antennas," Opt. Express 12,2954-2959 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. A. Liu, M. Tani, M. Nakajima, M. Hangyo, and C. L. Pan, "Ultrabroadband terahertz field detection by photoconductive antennas based on multi-energy arsenic-ion-implanted GaAs and semi-insulating GaAs," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83,1322-1324 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Kono, M. Tani, and K. Sakai, "Ultrabroadband photoconductive detection: Comparison with free-space electro-optic sampling," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79,898-900 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Tani, K. Sakai, and H. Mimura, "Ultrafast photoconductive detectors based on semi-insulating GaAs and InP," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 2 36,L1175-L1178 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tauser, F.

R. Huber, F. Tauser, A. Brodschelm, M. Bichler, G. Abstreiter, and A. Leitenstorfer, "How many-particle interactions develop after ultrafast excitation of an electron-hole plasma," Nature 414,286-289 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Taylor, A. J.

J. F. O’Hara, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, "Enhanced terahertz detection via ErAs:GaAs nanoisland superlattices," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88,251119 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tonouchi, M.

M. Suzuki and M. Tonouchi, "Fe-implanted InGaAs photoconductive terahertz detectors triggered by 1.56?m femtosecond optical pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86,163504 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tribe, W. R.

Y. C. Shen, P. C. Upadhya, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, I. S. Gregory, C. Baker, W. R. Tribe, and M. J. Evans, "Generation and detection of ultrabroadband terahertz radiation using photoconductive emitters and receivers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85,164-166 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Uher, C.

F. Gao, J. F. Whitaker, Y. Liu, C. Uher, C. E. Platt, and M. V. Klein, "Terahertz transmission of a Ba1?xKxBiO3 film probed by coherent time-domain spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. B 52,3607-3613 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Upadhya, P. C.

Y. C. Shen, P. C. Upadhya, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, I. S. Gregory, C. Baker, W. R. Tribe, and M. J. Evans, "Generation and detection of ultrabroadband terahertz radiation using photoconductive emitters and receivers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85,164-166 (2004).
[CrossRef]

van Exter, M.

Wagoner, G. A.

F. G. Sun, G. A. Wagoner, and X. C. Zhang, "Measurement of free-space terahertz pulses via long-lifetime photoconductors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67,1656-1658 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Whitaker, J. F.

F. Gao, J. F. Whitaker, Y. Liu, C. Uher, C. E. Platt, and M. V. Klein, "Terahertz transmission of a Ba1?xKxBiO3 film probed by coherent time-domain spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. B 52,3607-3613 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Whitmire, S.

A. Markelz, S. Whitmire, J. Hillebrecht, and R. Birge, "THz time domain spectroscopy of biomolecular conformational modes," Phys. Med. Biol. 47,3797-3805 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wynne, K.

G. Giraud, J. Karolin, and K. Wynne, "Low-frequency modes of peptides and globular proteins in solution observed by ultrafast OHD-RIKES Spectroscopy," Biophys. J. 85,1903-1913 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, J.

J. Xu, K. W. Plaxco, and S. J. Allen, "Probing the collective vibrational dynamics of a protein in liquid water by terahertz absorption spectroscopy," Protein Sci. 15,1175-1181 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, X. C.

Y. Q. Chen, H. B. Liu, Y. Q. Deng, D. Schauki, M. J. Fitch, R. Osiander, C. Dodson, J. B. Spicer, M. Shur, and X. C. Zhang, "THz spectroscopic investigation of 2,4-dinitrotoluene," Chem. Phys. Lett. 400,357-361 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F. G. Sun, G. A. Wagoner, and X. C. Zhang, "Measurement of free-space terahertz pulses via long-lifetime photoconductors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67,1656-1658 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Zide, J. M. O.

J. F. O’Hara, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, "Enhanced terahertz detection via ErAs:GaAs nanoisland superlattices," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88,251119 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

J. Lloyd-Hughes, T. Richards, H. Sirringhaus, E. Castro-Camus, L. M. Herz, and M. B. Johnston, "Charge trapping in polymer transistors probed by terahertz spectroscopy and scanning probe potentiometry," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89,112101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Kono, M. Tani, and K. Sakai, "Ultrabroadband photoconductive detection: Comparison with free-space electro-optic sampling," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79,898-900 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Y. C. Shen, P. C. Upadhya, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, I. S. Gregory, C. Baker, W. R. Tribe, and M. J. Evans, "Generation and detection of ultrabroadband terahertz radiation using photoconductive emitters and receivers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85,164-166 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Suzuki and M. Tonouchi, "Fe-implanted InGaAs photoconductive terahertz detectors triggered by 1.56?m femtosecond optical pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86,163504 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Lloyd-Hughes, S. K. E. Merchant, L. Fu, H. H. Tan, C. Jagadish, E. Castro-Camus, and M. B. Johnston, "Influence of surface passivation on ultrafast carrier dynamics and terahertz radiation generation in GaAs," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89,232102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Hussain and S. R. Andrews, "Dynamic range of ultrabroadband terahertz detection using GaAs photoconductors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88,143514 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. F. O’Hara, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, "Enhanced terahertz detection via ErAs:GaAs nanoisland superlattices," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88,251119 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. Castro-Camus, J. Lloyd-Hughes, M. B. Johnston, M. D. Fraser, H. H. Tan, and C. Jagadish, "Polarizationsensitive terahertz detection by multicontact photoconductive receivers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86,254102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. G. Sun, G. A. Wagoner, and X. C. Zhang, "Measurement of free-space terahertz pulses via long-lifetime photoconductors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67,1656-1658 (1995).
[CrossRef]

T. A. Liu, M. Tani, M. Nakajima, M. Hangyo, and C. L. Pan, "Ultrabroadband terahertz field detection by photoconductive antennas based on multi-energy arsenic-ion-implanted GaAs and semi-insulating GaAs," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83,1322-1324 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Biophys. J.

G. Giraud, J. Karolin, and K. Wynne, "Low-frequency modes of peptides and globular proteins in solution observed by ultrafast OHD-RIKES Spectroscopy," Biophys. J. 85,1903-1913 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chem. Phys. Lett.

M. B. Johnston, L. M. Herz, A. Khan, A. K¨ohler, A. G. Davies, and E. H. Linfield, "Low-energy vibrational modes in phenylene oligomers studied by THz time domain spectroscopy," Chem. Phys. Lett. 377,256-262 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. Q. Chen, H. B. Liu, Y. Q. Deng, D. Schauki, M. J. Fitch, R. Osiander, C. Dodson, J. B. Spicer, M. Shur, and X. C. Zhang, "THz spectroscopic investigation of 2,4-dinitrotoluene," Chem. Phys. Lett. 400,357-361 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Rev.

C. A. Schmuttenmaer, "Exploring dynamics in the far-infrared with terahertz spectroscopy," Chem. Rev. 104,1759-1779 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE Circuit Devices Mag.

R. Sarpeshkar, T. Delbruck, and C. A. Mead, "White-noise in mos-transistors and resistors," IEEE Circuit Devices Mag. 9,23-29 (1993).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

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E. Castro-Camus, D.Phil thesis, University of Oxford, 2006.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic diagram of a terahertz time domain spectrometer. A part of the laser pulse was used to excite a biased photoconductive switch. The switch was mounted on a rotation stage to allow the angle of polarization to be adjusted. The remainder of the laser pulse formed the “gate beam”, which passed through a hole that had been drilled in an off-axis parabolic mirror, used to focus THz radiation onto the polarization sensitive THz detector. Inset: (a) Contact geometry of the polarization sensitive THz receiver, including (b) an electron micrograph of the gap region. (c) A schematic diagram of a cross section through the device, illustrating that the region of vacancies generated by ion implantation overlaps with the region of photo-excited carriers.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Current recorded through the “horizontal” contact of a 3-contact polarization sensitive receiver in a THz-TDS spectrometer driven by a laser oscillator (solid blue line) and a laser amplifier (dashed red line) as a function of gate delay time. (b) Time-domain electric field (horizontal component) of a THz transient produced in the oscillator (solid blue line) and amplifier (dashed red line) based THz-TDS systems. These data are obtained by differentiating the data shown in (a) with respect to delay time. (c) The amplitude spectrum of the electric field transients presented in (b). The dotted line indicates the noise floor for these measurements.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Signal to noise ratio measured for the three-contact photoconductive receiver as a function of gate power. The (blue) circles are the measured values, the dashed (red) line is a P 1/2 G line related to the Shot and Johnson-Nyquist noise. (b) Signal to noise ratio measured for the three-contact photoconductive receiver as a function of emitter chopping frequency. The (blue) circles are the measured values, the dashed (red) a linear function of frequency related to the 1/ f-noise. The dotted (green) line is an indication of the SNR level independent of the frequency. An additional dash-dotted line indicates the low-pass filter behavior of the high voltage amplifier driving the photoconductive emitter.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Demonstration of the measurement capability of the three contact THz receiver. Three dimensional representation of electric fields measured as a function of time with the THz emitter (and hence THz polarization) rotated to 0°, 45° and 90°. Inset: Measured electric field polarization angle as a function of the emitter rotation angle (circles). The continuous line is θmeas =θ, which is the expected behavior. The standard deviation of the measured points from the line was calculated to be 0.34° and is indicated with the dotted lines.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a) Three dimensional projection plot of a terahertz pulse after propagating through a retardation plate made of quartz (1.55mm thick). The ordinary axis is aligned in the direction of the vertical component of the THz field Ev . The pulse has non-planar polarization. (b) An analogous plot inverting the ordinary and extraordinary axes of the quartz sample. (c) Shows the ellipticity extracted from the two pulses shown in (a) (circles) and (b) (triangles), the dotted lines are the calculated ellipticity. (d) Shows polarization states extracted from the two measured pulses in (a) (blue) and (b) (red) on the Poincaré sphere. The trajectories run from 0 (light color) to 2 THz (dark color) passing through the poles (circular polarization states) at around 1 THz (The points were plotted above instead of on the surface for clarity).

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

A demonstration of polarization resolved THz emission spectroscopy. Projection plot of THz electric field emitted from (110)-ZnTe at 0° (solid blue line) and 30° (dashed red line). Inset: Peak THz electric field (horizontal: circles, vertical: triangles) components emitted by ZnTe as function of angle with respect to the pump polarization (horizontal).

Equations (1)

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I J N = 4 k B T Δ f R

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