Abstract

We report a continuous-wave self-Raman laser based on diode-pumped Nd:GdVO4 giving first-Stokes output at 1173 nm and intracavity frequency-doubled output at 586.5 nm. A maximum cw output power at 1173 nm of 2 W was obtained for diode pump powers of 22 W and a maximum cw power at 586 nm of 678 mW with 16.3 W pump power. Infrared and yellow powers were limited by thermal lensing in the gain medium and parasitic oscillations of weak Nd3+ transitions. Quasi-cw operation at 50% duty-cycle reduced the thermal load in the laser/Raman crystal, allowing cavity stability to be obtained near maximum available pump power (25.7 W) for which the maximum quasi-cw yellow output power was 1.88 W.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. T. T. Basiev and R. C. Powell, "Special issue on solid state Raman lasers - Introduction," Opt. Mater. 11, 301-306 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  2. H. M. Pask, "The design and operation of solid-state Raman lasers," Prog. Quantum Electron. 27, 3-56 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  3. R. P. Mildren, H. M. Pask, H. Ogilvy, and J. A. Piper, "Discretely tunable, all-solid-state laser in the green, yellow, and red," Opt. Lett. 30, 1500-1502 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. H. M. Pask, "Continuous-wave, all-solid-state, intracavity Raman laser," Opt. Lett. 30, 2454-2456 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. A. A. Demidovich, A. S. Grabtchikov, V. A. Lisinetskii, V. N. Burakevich, V. A. Orlovich and W. Kiefer, "Continuous-wave Raman generation in a diode-pumped Nd3+:KGd(WO4)2 laser," Opt. Lett. 30, 1701-1703 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. V. A. Orlovich, V. N. Burakevich, A. S. Grabtchikov, V. A. Lisinetskii, A. A. Demidovich, H. J. Eichler, and P. Y. Turpin, "Continuous-wave intracavity Raman generation in PbWO4 crystal in the Nd:YVO4 laser," Laser Phys. Lett. 3,71-74 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  7. P. Dekker, H. M. Pask and J. A. Piper, All-Solid-State 704 mW continuous-wave yellow source based on an intracavity, frequency-doubled crystalline Raman laser, Opt. Lett. 32, 1114-1117 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. Y. F. Chen, "Efficient 1521-nm Nd:GdVO4 Raman laser," Opt. Lett. 29, 2632-2634 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. Y. F. Chen, "High-power diode-pumped actively Q-switched Nd:YVO4 self-Raman laser: influence of dopant concentration," Opt. Lett. 29, 1915-1917 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. T. T. Basiev, S. V. Vassiliev, M. E. Doroshenko, V. V. Osiko, V. M. Puzikov and M. B. Kosmyna, "Laser and self-Raman-laser oscillations of PbMoO4:Nd3+ crystal under laser diode pumping," Opt. Lett. 31, 65-67 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. T. Omatsu, Y. Ojima, H. M. Pask, J. A. Piper, and P. Dekker, "Efficient 1181 nm self-stimulating Raman output from transversely diode-pumped Nd3+:KGd(WO4)2 laser," Opt. Commun. 232, 327-331 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  12. N. S. Ustimenko and E. M. Zabotin, "A small Raman laser based on a KGd(WO4)2:Nd3+ crystal (?=1.538 ?m) with passive resonator Q switching," Instrum. Exp.Tech. 48, 239-240 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  13. A. A. Kaminskii, S. N. Bagayev, K. Oka, H. Shibata, K. Ueda, K. Takaichi, H. J. Eichler, and H. Rhee, "Observation of stimulated Raman scattering in the tetragonal crystal YbVO4," Laser Phys. Lett. 3,263-267 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  14. J. T. Murray, W. L. Austin, and R. C. Powell, "Intracavity Raman conversion and Raman beam cleanup," Opt. Mater. 11, 353-371 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  15. M. E. Innocenzi, H. T. Yura, C. L. Fincher and R. A. Fields, "Thermal modeling of continuous-wave end-pumped solid-state lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1831-3 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  16. Laser cavity analysis and design, (LAS-CAD), GmbH Germany, www.las-cad.com.
  17. J. L. Blows, T. Omatsu, J. Dawes, H. Pask, and M. Tateda, "Heat generation in Nd:YVO4 with and without laser action," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 101727-1729 (1998)
    [CrossRef]

2007 (1)

2006 (3)

T. T. Basiev, S. V. Vassiliev, M. E. Doroshenko, V. V. Osiko, V. M. Puzikov and M. B. Kosmyna, "Laser and self-Raman-laser oscillations of PbMoO4:Nd3+ crystal under laser diode pumping," Opt. Lett. 31, 65-67 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. A. Orlovich, V. N. Burakevich, A. S. Grabtchikov, V. A. Lisinetskii, A. A. Demidovich, H. J. Eichler, and P. Y. Turpin, "Continuous-wave intracavity Raman generation in PbWO4 crystal in the Nd:YVO4 laser," Laser Phys. Lett. 3,71-74 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Kaminskii, S. N. Bagayev, K. Oka, H. Shibata, K. Ueda, K. Takaichi, H. J. Eichler, and H. Rhee, "Observation of stimulated Raman scattering in the tetragonal crystal YbVO4," Laser Phys. Lett. 3,263-267 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (4)

2004 (3)

T. Omatsu, Y. Ojima, H. M. Pask, J. A. Piper, and P. Dekker, "Efficient 1181 nm self-stimulating Raman output from transversely diode-pumped Nd3+:KGd(WO4)2 laser," Opt. Commun. 232, 327-331 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. F. Chen, "Efficient 1521-nm Nd:GdVO4 Raman laser," Opt. Lett. 29, 2632-2634 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. F. Chen, "High-power diode-pumped actively Q-switched Nd:YVO4 self-Raman laser: influence of dopant concentration," Opt. Lett. 29, 1915-1917 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

H. M. Pask, "The design and operation of solid-state Raman lasers," Prog. Quantum Electron. 27, 3-56 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

T. T. Basiev and R. C. Powell, "Special issue on solid state Raman lasers - Introduction," Opt. Mater. 11, 301-306 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. T. Murray, W. L. Austin, and R. C. Powell, "Intracavity Raman conversion and Raman beam cleanup," Opt. Mater. 11, 353-371 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

J. L. Blows, T. Omatsu, J. Dawes, H. Pask, and M. Tateda, "Heat generation in Nd:YVO4 with and without laser action," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 101727-1729 (1998)
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

M. E. Innocenzi, H. T. Yura, C. L. Fincher and R. A. Fields, "Thermal modeling of continuous-wave end-pumped solid-state lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1831-3 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Austin, W. L.

J. T. Murray, W. L. Austin, and R. C. Powell, "Intracavity Raman conversion and Raman beam cleanup," Opt. Mater. 11, 353-371 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bagayev, S. N.

A. A. Kaminskii, S. N. Bagayev, K. Oka, H. Shibata, K. Ueda, K. Takaichi, H. J. Eichler, and H. Rhee, "Observation of stimulated Raman scattering in the tetragonal crystal YbVO4," Laser Phys. Lett. 3,263-267 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Basiev, T. T.

Blows, J. L.

J. L. Blows, T. Omatsu, J. Dawes, H. Pask, and M. Tateda, "Heat generation in Nd:YVO4 with and without laser action," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 101727-1729 (1998)
[CrossRef]

Burakevich, V. N.

V. A. Orlovich, V. N. Burakevich, A. S. Grabtchikov, V. A. Lisinetskii, A. A. Demidovich, H. J. Eichler, and P. Y. Turpin, "Continuous-wave intracavity Raman generation in PbWO4 crystal in the Nd:YVO4 laser," Laser Phys. Lett. 3,71-74 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Demidovich, A. S. Grabtchikov, V. A. Lisinetskii, V. N. Burakevich, V. A. Orlovich and W. Kiefer, "Continuous-wave Raman generation in a diode-pumped Nd3+:KGd(WO4)2 laser," Opt. Lett. 30, 1701-1703 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, Y. F.

Dawes, J.

J. L. Blows, T. Omatsu, J. Dawes, H. Pask, and M. Tateda, "Heat generation in Nd:YVO4 with and without laser action," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 101727-1729 (1998)
[CrossRef]

Dekker, P.

P. Dekker, H. M. Pask and J. A. Piper, All-Solid-State 704 mW continuous-wave yellow source based on an intracavity, frequency-doubled crystalline Raman laser, Opt. Lett. 32, 1114-1117 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Omatsu, Y. Ojima, H. M. Pask, J. A. Piper, and P. Dekker, "Efficient 1181 nm self-stimulating Raman output from transversely diode-pumped Nd3+:KGd(WO4)2 laser," Opt. Commun. 232, 327-331 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Demidovich, A. A.

V. A. Orlovich, V. N. Burakevich, A. S. Grabtchikov, V. A. Lisinetskii, A. A. Demidovich, H. J. Eichler, and P. Y. Turpin, "Continuous-wave intracavity Raman generation in PbWO4 crystal in the Nd:YVO4 laser," Laser Phys. Lett. 3,71-74 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Demidovich, A. S. Grabtchikov, V. A. Lisinetskii, V. N. Burakevich, V. A. Orlovich and W. Kiefer, "Continuous-wave Raman generation in a diode-pumped Nd3+:KGd(WO4)2 laser," Opt. Lett. 30, 1701-1703 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Doroshenko, M. E.

Eichler, H. J.

V. A. Orlovich, V. N. Burakevich, A. S. Grabtchikov, V. A. Lisinetskii, A. A. Demidovich, H. J. Eichler, and P. Y. Turpin, "Continuous-wave intracavity Raman generation in PbWO4 crystal in the Nd:YVO4 laser," Laser Phys. Lett. 3,71-74 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Kaminskii, S. N. Bagayev, K. Oka, H. Shibata, K. Ueda, K. Takaichi, H. J. Eichler, and H. Rhee, "Observation of stimulated Raman scattering in the tetragonal crystal YbVO4," Laser Phys. Lett. 3,263-267 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fields, R. A.

M. E. Innocenzi, H. T. Yura, C. L. Fincher and R. A. Fields, "Thermal modeling of continuous-wave end-pumped solid-state lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1831-3 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Fincher, C. L.

M. E. Innocenzi, H. T. Yura, C. L. Fincher and R. A. Fields, "Thermal modeling of continuous-wave end-pumped solid-state lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1831-3 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Grabtchikov, A. S.

V. A. Orlovich, V. N. Burakevich, A. S. Grabtchikov, V. A. Lisinetskii, A. A. Demidovich, H. J. Eichler, and P. Y. Turpin, "Continuous-wave intracavity Raman generation in PbWO4 crystal in the Nd:YVO4 laser," Laser Phys. Lett. 3,71-74 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Demidovich, A. S. Grabtchikov, V. A. Lisinetskii, V. N. Burakevich, V. A. Orlovich and W. Kiefer, "Continuous-wave Raman generation in a diode-pumped Nd3+:KGd(WO4)2 laser," Opt. Lett. 30, 1701-1703 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Innocenzi, M. E.

M. E. Innocenzi, H. T. Yura, C. L. Fincher and R. A. Fields, "Thermal modeling of continuous-wave end-pumped solid-state lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1831-3 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Kaminskii, A. A.

A. A. Kaminskii, S. N. Bagayev, K. Oka, H. Shibata, K. Ueda, K. Takaichi, H. J. Eichler, and H. Rhee, "Observation of stimulated Raman scattering in the tetragonal crystal YbVO4," Laser Phys. Lett. 3,263-267 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kiefer, W.

Kosmyna, M. B.

Lisinetskii, V. A.

V. A. Orlovich, V. N. Burakevich, A. S. Grabtchikov, V. A. Lisinetskii, A. A. Demidovich, H. J. Eichler, and P. Y. Turpin, "Continuous-wave intracavity Raman generation in PbWO4 crystal in the Nd:YVO4 laser," Laser Phys. Lett. 3,71-74 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Demidovich, A. S. Grabtchikov, V. A. Lisinetskii, V. N. Burakevich, V. A. Orlovich and W. Kiefer, "Continuous-wave Raman generation in a diode-pumped Nd3+:KGd(WO4)2 laser," Opt. Lett. 30, 1701-1703 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mildren, R. P.

Murray, J. T.

J. T. Murray, W. L. Austin, and R. C. Powell, "Intracavity Raman conversion and Raman beam cleanup," Opt. Mater. 11, 353-371 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ogilvy, H.

Ojima, Y.

T. Omatsu, Y. Ojima, H. M. Pask, J. A. Piper, and P. Dekker, "Efficient 1181 nm self-stimulating Raman output from transversely diode-pumped Nd3+:KGd(WO4)2 laser," Opt. Commun. 232, 327-331 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Oka, K.

A. A. Kaminskii, S. N. Bagayev, K. Oka, H. Shibata, K. Ueda, K. Takaichi, H. J. Eichler, and H. Rhee, "Observation of stimulated Raman scattering in the tetragonal crystal YbVO4," Laser Phys. Lett. 3,263-267 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Omatsu, T.

T. Omatsu, Y. Ojima, H. M. Pask, J. A. Piper, and P. Dekker, "Efficient 1181 nm self-stimulating Raman output from transversely diode-pumped Nd3+:KGd(WO4)2 laser," Opt. Commun. 232, 327-331 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Blows, T. Omatsu, J. Dawes, H. Pask, and M. Tateda, "Heat generation in Nd:YVO4 with and without laser action," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 101727-1729 (1998)
[CrossRef]

Orlovich, V. A.

V. A. Orlovich, V. N. Burakevich, A. S. Grabtchikov, V. A. Lisinetskii, A. A. Demidovich, H. J. Eichler, and P. Y. Turpin, "Continuous-wave intracavity Raman generation in PbWO4 crystal in the Nd:YVO4 laser," Laser Phys. Lett. 3,71-74 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Demidovich, A. S. Grabtchikov, V. A. Lisinetskii, V. N. Burakevich, V. A. Orlovich and W. Kiefer, "Continuous-wave Raman generation in a diode-pumped Nd3+:KGd(WO4)2 laser," Opt. Lett. 30, 1701-1703 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Osiko, V. V.

Pask, H.

J. L. Blows, T. Omatsu, J. Dawes, H. Pask, and M. Tateda, "Heat generation in Nd:YVO4 with and without laser action," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 101727-1729 (1998)
[CrossRef]

Pask, H. M.

Piper, J. A.

Powell, R. C.

T. T. Basiev and R. C. Powell, "Special issue on solid state Raman lasers - Introduction," Opt. Mater. 11, 301-306 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. T. Murray, W. L. Austin, and R. C. Powell, "Intracavity Raman conversion and Raman beam cleanup," Opt. Mater. 11, 353-371 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Puzikov, V. M.

Rhee, H.

A. A. Kaminskii, S. N. Bagayev, K. Oka, H. Shibata, K. Ueda, K. Takaichi, H. J. Eichler, and H. Rhee, "Observation of stimulated Raman scattering in the tetragonal crystal YbVO4," Laser Phys. Lett. 3,263-267 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Shibata, H.

A. A. Kaminskii, S. N. Bagayev, K. Oka, H. Shibata, K. Ueda, K. Takaichi, H. J. Eichler, and H. Rhee, "Observation of stimulated Raman scattering in the tetragonal crystal YbVO4," Laser Phys. Lett. 3,263-267 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Takaichi, K.

A. A. Kaminskii, S. N. Bagayev, K. Oka, H. Shibata, K. Ueda, K. Takaichi, H. J. Eichler, and H. Rhee, "Observation of stimulated Raman scattering in the tetragonal crystal YbVO4," Laser Phys. Lett. 3,263-267 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tateda, M.

J. L. Blows, T. Omatsu, J. Dawes, H. Pask, and M. Tateda, "Heat generation in Nd:YVO4 with and without laser action," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 101727-1729 (1998)
[CrossRef]

Turpin, P. Y.

V. A. Orlovich, V. N. Burakevich, A. S. Grabtchikov, V. A. Lisinetskii, A. A. Demidovich, H. J. Eichler, and P. Y. Turpin, "Continuous-wave intracavity Raman generation in PbWO4 crystal in the Nd:YVO4 laser," Laser Phys. Lett. 3,71-74 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ueda, K.

A. A. Kaminskii, S. N. Bagayev, K. Oka, H. Shibata, K. Ueda, K. Takaichi, H. J. Eichler, and H. Rhee, "Observation of stimulated Raman scattering in the tetragonal crystal YbVO4," Laser Phys. Lett. 3,263-267 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ustimenko, N. S.

N. S. Ustimenko and E. M. Zabotin, "A small Raman laser based on a KGd(WO4)2:Nd3+ crystal (?=1.538 ?m) with passive resonator Q switching," Instrum. Exp.Tech. 48, 239-240 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Vassiliev, S. V.

Yura, H. T.

M. E. Innocenzi, H. T. Yura, C. L. Fincher and R. A. Fields, "Thermal modeling of continuous-wave end-pumped solid-state lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1831-3 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Zabotin, E. M.

N. S. Ustimenko and E. M. Zabotin, "A small Raman laser based on a KGd(WO4)2:Nd3+ crystal (?=1.538 ?m) with passive resonator Q switching," Instrum. Exp.Tech. 48, 239-240 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

M. E. Innocenzi, H. T. Yura, C. L. Fincher and R. A. Fields, "Thermal modeling of continuous-wave end-pumped solid-state lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1831-3 (1990).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

J. L. Blows, T. Omatsu, J. Dawes, H. Pask, and M. Tateda, "Heat generation in Nd:YVO4 with and without laser action," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 101727-1729 (1998)
[CrossRef]

Instrum. Exp.Tech. (1)

N. S. Ustimenko and E. M. Zabotin, "A small Raman laser based on a KGd(WO4)2:Nd3+ crystal (?=1.538 ?m) with passive resonator Q switching," Instrum. Exp.Tech. 48, 239-240 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Laser Phys. Lett. (2)

A. A. Kaminskii, S. N. Bagayev, K. Oka, H. Shibata, K. Ueda, K. Takaichi, H. J. Eichler, and H. Rhee, "Observation of stimulated Raman scattering in the tetragonal crystal YbVO4," Laser Phys. Lett. 3,263-267 (2006).
[CrossRef]

V. A. Orlovich, V. N. Burakevich, A. S. Grabtchikov, V. A. Lisinetskii, A. A. Demidovich, H. J. Eichler, and P. Y. Turpin, "Continuous-wave intracavity Raman generation in PbWO4 crystal in the Nd:YVO4 laser," Laser Phys. Lett. 3,71-74 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

T. Omatsu, Y. Ojima, H. M. Pask, J. A. Piper, and P. Dekker, "Efficient 1181 nm self-stimulating Raman output from transversely diode-pumped Nd3+:KGd(WO4)2 laser," Opt. Commun. 232, 327-331 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (7)

Opt. Mater. (2)

T. T. Basiev and R. C. Powell, "Special issue on solid state Raman lasers - Introduction," Opt. Mater. 11, 301-306 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. T. Murray, W. L. Austin, and R. C. Powell, "Intracavity Raman conversion and Raman beam cleanup," Opt. Mater. 11, 353-371 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Prog. Quantum Electron. (1)

H. M. Pask, "The design and operation of solid-state Raman lasers," Prog. Quantum Electron. 27, 3-56 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

Laser cavity analysis and design, (LAS-CAD), GmbH Germany, www.las-cad.com.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic of self-Raman laser including an optional LBO crystal for generating yellow emission.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Cw Raman (1173 nm) output powers as a function of incident pump power for 13 and 24 mm physical cavity lengths.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Beam quality factor (M2) of optimized fundamental, optimized Raman and residual fundamental in an optimized Raman configuration as a function of incident pump power.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Yellow power as a function of incident pump power in cw and quasi-cw operation.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Cw fundamental and Raman spectra at 16.3 W (maximum yellow output power) and 20.2 W pump power.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

(a). Near field beam profiles of quasi-cw yellow emission, with near 150 mW output [with x 2 magnification c.f Fig. 6(b)] and (b) near maximum pump with 1.88 W output.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Optimized fundamental, Raman and yellow output power as a function of incident pump power for a fixed physical cavity length of 24 mm.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Calculations of induced thermal lensing by pump loading, SRS and yellow absorption, in NdGdVO4 for the cases of fundamental operation, first Stokes operation and yellow operation with 20 W of diode pump power.

Metrics