Abstract

The spectral dependency of the particulate backscattering ratio is relevant in the fields of ocean color inversion, light field modeling, and inferring particle properties from optical measurements. Aside from theoretical predictions for spherical, homogeneous particles, we have very limited knowledge of the actual in situ spectral variability of the particulate backscattering ratio. This work presents results from five research cruises that were conducted over a three-year period. Water column profiles of physical and optical properties were conducted across diverse aquatic environments that offered a wide range of particle populations. The main objective of this research was to examine the behavior of the spectral particulate backscattering ratio in situ, both in terms of its absolute magnitude and its variability across visible wavelengths, using over nine thousand 1-meter binned data points for each of five wavelengths of the spectral particulate backscattering ratio. Our analysis reveals no spectral dependence of the particulate backscattering ratio within our measurement certainty, and a geometric mean value of 0.013 for this dataset. This is lower than the commonly used value of 0.0183 from Petzold’s integrated volume scattering data. Within the first optical depth of the water column, the mean particulate backscattering ratio was 0.010.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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2007 (1)

E. Boss, R. Collier, G. Larson, K. Fennel, and W. S. Pegau. "Measurements of spectral optical properties and their relation to biogeochemical variables and processes in Crater Lake National Park, OR," Hydrobiologia,  574, 149-159 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

M. Chami, E. Marken, J. J. Stamnes, G. Khomenko, and G. Korotaev, "Variability of the relationship between the particulate backscattering coefficient and the volume scattering function measured at fixed angles," J. Geophys. Res. 111, doi:10.1029/2005JC003230 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, "Backscattering of light from disklike particles: is fine-scale structure or gross morphology more important?," Appl. Opt. 45, 7166-7173 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (3)

2004 (2)

E. Boss, W. S. Pegau, M. Lee, M. S. Twardowski, E. Shybanov, G. Korotaev, and F. Baratange, "The particulate backscattering ratio at LEO-15 and its use to study particle composition and distribution," J. Geophys. Res. 109, C0101410.1029/2002JC001514 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Stramski, E. Boss, D. Bogucki, and K. J. Voss, "The role of seawater constituents in light backscattering in the ocean," Prog. Oceanogr. 61, 27-56 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

C. S. Roesler and E. Boss, "A novel ocean color inversion model: retrieval of beam attenuation and particle size distribution," Geophys. Res. Lett. 30, 10.1029/2002GL016366 (2003).

2002 (1)

2001 (3)

M. S. Twardowski, E. Boss, J. B. Macdonald, W. S. Pegau, A. H. Barnard, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, "A model for estimating bulk refractive index from the optical backscattering ratio and the implications for understanding particle composition in case I and case II waters," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 14,129-14,142 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. Boss and W. Scott Pegau, "The relationship of light scattering at an angle in the backward direction to the backscattering coefficient," Appl. Opt. 40, 5503-5507 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel and S. Maritorena, Bio-optical properties of oceanic waters: A reappraisal.Journal of Geophysical research,  106, 7763-7780 (2001).

1998 (1)

A. H. Barnard, W. S. Pegau, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, "Global relationships of the inherent optical properties of the oceans," J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24,955 - 24,968, (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (3)

1996 (1)

E. Aas, "Refractive index of phytoplankton derived from its metabolite composition," J. Plankt. Res. 18, 2223-2249 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (4)

H. M. Sosik and B. G. Mitchell, "Light absorption by phytoplankton, photosynthetic pigments and detritus in the California Current System," Deep Sea-Res. 42, 1717-1748 (1995).
[CrossRef]

W. S. Pegau, J. R. V. Zaneveld, and K. J. Voss, "Toward closure of the inherent optical properties of natural waters," J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13,193-13,199 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Campbell, "The lognormal distribution as a model for bio-optical variability in the sea," J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13237-13254 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. Bricaud, C. Roesler, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, "In situ methods for measuring the inherent optical properties of ocean waters," Limnol. Oceanogr. 40, 393-410 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (2)

J. R. V. Zaneveld, J. C. Kitchen, and C. C. Moore, "Scattering error correction of reflecting tube absorption meter," Proc. SPIE 2258, 44-55 (1994).
[CrossRef]

O. Ulloa, S. Sathyendranath, and T. Platt, "Effect of the particle size-distribution on the backscattering ratio in seawater," Appl. Opt. 33, 7070-7077 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992 (2)

J. C. Kitchen and J. R. V. Zaneveld, "A three-layered sphere model of the optical properties of phytoplankton," Limnol. Oceanogr. 37, 1680-1690 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Y.-H. Ahn, A. Bricaud, and A. Morel, "Light backscattering efficiency and related properties of some phytoplankters," Deep-Sea Res.Part A 39, 1835-1855 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

1988 (2)

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, and D. K. Clarks, "A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color," J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10,909-10,924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel, "Optical modeling of the upper ocean in relation to its biogenous matter content (Case I waters)," J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10,749 - 10,768 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

A. Bricaud, A. Morel, and L. Prieur, "Optical efficiency factors of some phytoplankters," Limnol. Oceanogr. 28, 816-832 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Aas, E.

E. Aas, "Refractive index of phytoplankton derived from its metabolite composition," J. Plankt. Res. 18, 2223-2249 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ahn, Y.-H.

Y.-H. Ahn, A. Bricaud, and A. Morel, "Light backscattering efficiency and related properties of some phytoplankters," Deep-Sea Res.Part A 39, 1835-1855 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Baker, K. S.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, and D. K. Clarks, "A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color," J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10,909-10,924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Baratange, F.

E. Boss, W. S. Pegau, M. Lee, M. S. Twardowski, E. Shybanov, G. Korotaev, and F. Baratange, "The particulate backscattering ratio at LEO-15 and its use to study particle composition and distribution," J. Geophys. Res. 109, C0101410.1029/2002JC001514 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Barnard, A. H.

M. S. Twardowski, E. Boss, J. B. Macdonald, W. S. Pegau, A. H. Barnard, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, "A model for estimating bulk refractive index from the optical backscattering ratio and the implications for understanding particle composition in case I and case II waters," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 14,129-14,142 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. H. Barnard, W. S. Pegau, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, "Global relationships of the inherent optical properties of the oceans," J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24,955 - 24,968, (1998).
[CrossRef]

Berseneva, G. A.

M. Chami, E. B. Shybanov, T. Y. Churilova, G. A. Khomenko, M. E.-G. Lee, O. V. Martynov, G. A. Berseneva, and G. K. Korotaev, "Optical properties of the particles in the Crimea coastal waters (Black Sea),: J. Geophys. Res. 110, doi:10.1029/2005JC003008 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bogucki, D.

D. Stramski, E. Boss, D. Bogucki, and K. J. Voss, "The role of seawater constituents in light backscattering in the ocean," Prog. Oceanogr. 61, 27-56 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Boss, E.

E. Boss, R. Collier, G. Larson, K. Fennel, and W. S. Pegau. "Measurements of spectral optical properties and their relation to biogeochemical variables and processes in Crater Lake National Park, OR," Hydrobiologia,  574, 149-159 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Stramski, E. Boss, D. Bogucki, and K. J. Voss, "The role of seawater constituents in light backscattering in the ocean," Prog. Oceanogr. 61, 27-56 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. Boss, W. S. Pegau, M. Lee, M. S. Twardowski, E. Shybanov, G. Korotaev, and F. Baratange, "The particulate backscattering ratio at LEO-15 and its use to study particle composition and distribution," J. Geophys. Res. 109, C0101410.1029/2002JC001514 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Roesler and E. Boss, "A novel ocean color inversion model: retrieval of beam attenuation and particle size distribution," Geophys. Res. Lett. 30, 10.1029/2002GL016366 (2003).

C. D. Mobley, L. K. Sundman, and E. Boss, "Phase function effects on oceanic light fields," Appl. Opt. 41, 1035-1050 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Boss and W. Scott Pegau, "The relationship of light scattering at an angle in the backward direction to the backscattering coefficient," Appl. Opt. 40, 5503-5507 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Twardowski, E. Boss, J. B. Macdonald, W. S. Pegau, A. H. Barnard, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, "A model for estimating bulk refractive index from the optical backscattering ratio and the implications for understanding particle composition in case I and case II waters," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 14,129-14,142 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bricaud, A.

A. Bricaud, C. Roesler, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, "In situ methods for measuring the inherent optical properties of ocean waters," Limnol. Oceanogr. 40, 393-410 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Y.-H. Ahn, A. Bricaud, and A. Morel, "Light backscattering efficiency and related properties of some phytoplankters," Deep-Sea Res.Part A 39, 1835-1855 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. Bricaud, A. Morel, and L. Prieur, "Optical efficiency factors of some phytoplankters," Limnol. Oceanogr. 28, 816-832 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Brown, J. W.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, and D. K. Clarks, "A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color," J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10,909-10,924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Brown, O. B.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, and D. K. Clarks, "A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color," J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10,909-10,924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Campbell, J. W.

J. W. Campbell, "The lognormal distribution as a model for bio-optical variability in the sea," J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13237-13254 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Chami, M.

M. Chami, E. Marken, J. J. Stamnes, G. Khomenko, and G. Korotaev, "Variability of the relationship between the particulate backscattering coefficient and the volume scattering function measured at fixed angles," J. Geophys. Res. 111, doi:10.1029/2005JC003230 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Chami, E. B. Shybanov, T. Y. Churilova, G. A. Khomenko, M. E.-G. Lee, O. V. Martynov, G. A. Berseneva, and G. K. Korotaev, "Optical properties of the particles in the Crimea coastal waters (Black Sea),: J. Geophys. Res. 110, doi:10.1029/2005JC003008 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Churilova, T. Y.

M. Chami, E. B. Shybanov, T. Y. Churilova, G. A. Khomenko, M. E.-G. Lee, O. V. Martynov, G. A. Berseneva, and G. K. Korotaev, "Optical properties of the particles in the Crimea coastal waters (Black Sea),: J. Geophys. Res. 110, doi:10.1029/2005JC003008 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Clarks, D. K.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, and D. K. Clarks, "A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color," J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10,909-10,924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Collier, R.

E. Boss, R. Collier, G. Larson, K. Fennel, and W. S. Pegau. "Measurements of spectral optical properties and their relation to biogeochemical variables and processes in Crater Lake National Park, OR," Hydrobiologia,  574, 149-159 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cunningham, A.

Dana, D. R.

Davis, R. F.

R. F. Davis, C. C. Moore, J. R. V. Zaneveld, and J. M. Napp, "Reducing the effects of fouling on chlorophyll estimates derived from long-term deployments of optical instruments," J. Geophys. Res.,  102, 5851-5855 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Donaghay, P. L.

Evans, R. H.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, and D. K. Clarks, "A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color," J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10,909-10,924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Fennel, K.

E. Boss, R. Collier, G. Larson, K. Fennel, and W. S. Pegau. "Measurements of spectral optical properties and their relation to biogeochemical variables and processes in Crater Lake National Park, OR," Hydrobiologia,  574, 149-159 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Freeman, S. A.

Gordon, H. R.

H. R. Gordon, "Backscattering of light from disklike particles: is fine-scale structure or gross morphology more important?," Appl. Opt. 45, 7166-7173 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, and D. K. Clarks, "A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color," J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10,909-10,924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Gray, D.

Khomenko, G.

M. Chami, E. Marken, J. J. Stamnes, G. Khomenko, and G. Korotaev, "Variability of the relationship between the particulate backscattering coefficient and the volume scattering function measured at fixed angles," J. Geophys. Res. 111, doi:10.1029/2005JC003230 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Khomenko, G. A.

M. Chami, E. B. Shybanov, T. Y. Churilova, G. A. Khomenko, M. E.-G. Lee, O. V. Martynov, G. A. Berseneva, and G. K. Korotaev, "Optical properties of the particles in the Crimea coastal waters (Black Sea),: J. Geophys. Res. 110, doi:10.1029/2005JC003008 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kitchen, J. C.

J. R. V. Zaneveld, J. C. Kitchen, and C. C. Moore, "Scattering error correction of reflecting tube absorption meter," Proc. SPIE 2258, 44-55 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Kitchen and J. R. V. Zaneveld, "A three-layered sphere model of the optical properties of phytoplankton," Limnol. Oceanogr. 37, 1680-1690 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Korotaev, G.

M. Chami, E. Marken, J. J. Stamnes, G. Khomenko, and G. Korotaev, "Variability of the relationship between the particulate backscattering coefficient and the volume scattering function measured at fixed angles," J. Geophys. Res. 111, doi:10.1029/2005JC003230 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. Boss, W. S. Pegau, M. Lee, M. S. Twardowski, E. Shybanov, G. Korotaev, and F. Baratange, "The particulate backscattering ratio at LEO-15 and its use to study particle composition and distribution," J. Geophys. Res. 109, C0101410.1029/2002JC001514 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Korotaev, G. K.

M. Chami, E. B. Shybanov, T. Y. Churilova, G. A. Khomenko, M. E.-G. Lee, O. V. Martynov, G. A. Berseneva, and G. K. Korotaev, "Optical properties of the particles in the Crimea coastal waters (Black Sea),: J. Geophys. Res. 110, doi:10.1029/2005JC003008 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Larson, G.

E. Boss, R. Collier, G. Larson, K. Fennel, and W. S. Pegau. "Measurements of spectral optical properties and their relation to biogeochemical variables and processes in Crater Lake National Park, OR," Hydrobiologia,  574, 149-159 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lee, M.

E. Boss, W. S. Pegau, M. Lee, M. S. Twardowski, E. Shybanov, G. Korotaev, and F. Baratange, "The particulate backscattering ratio at LEO-15 and its use to study particle composition and distribution," J. Geophys. Res. 109, C0101410.1029/2002JC001514 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lee, M. E.-G.

M. Chami, E. B. Shybanov, T. Y. Churilova, G. A. Khomenko, M. E.-G. Lee, O. V. Martynov, G. A. Berseneva, and G. K. Korotaev, "Optical properties of the particles in the Crimea coastal waters (Black Sea),: J. Geophys. Res. 110, doi:10.1029/2005JC003008 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Macdonald, J. B.

M. S. Twardowski, E. Boss, J. B. Macdonald, W. S. Pegau, A. H. Barnard, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, "A model for estimating bulk refractive index from the optical backscattering ratio and the implications for understanding particle composition in case I and case II waters," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 14,129-14,142 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Maffione, R. A.

Maritorena, S.

A. Morel and S. Maritorena, Bio-optical properties of oceanic waters: A reappraisal.Journal of Geophysical research,  106, 7763-7780 (2001).

Marken, E.

M. Chami, E. Marken, J. J. Stamnes, G. Khomenko, and G. Korotaev, "Variability of the relationship between the particulate backscattering coefficient and the volume scattering function measured at fixed angles," J. Geophys. Res. 111, doi:10.1029/2005JC003230 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Martynov, O. V.

M. Chami, E. B. Shybanov, T. Y. Churilova, G. A. Khomenko, M. E.-G. Lee, O. V. Martynov, G. A. Berseneva, and G. K. Korotaev, "Optical properties of the particles in the Crimea coastal waters (Black Sea),: J. Geophys. Res. 110, doi:10.1029/2005JC003008 (2005).
[CrossRef]

McKee, D.

Mitchell, B. G.

H. M. Sosik and B. G. Mitchell, "Light absorption by phytoplankton, photosynthetic pigments and detritus in the California Current System," Deep Sea-Res. 42, 1717-1748 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Mobley, C. D.

Moore, C. C.

R. F. Davis, C. C. Moore, J. R. V. Zaneveld, and J. M. Napp, "Reducing the effects of fouling on chlorophyll estimates derived from long-term deployments of optical instruments," J. Geophys. Res.,  102, 5851-5855 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. R. V. Zaneveld, J. C. Kitchen, and C. C. Moore, "Scattering error correction of reflecting tube absorption meter," Proc. SPIE 2258, 44-55 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Morel, A.

A. Morel and S. Maritorena, Bio-optical properties of oceanic waters: A reappraisal.Journal of Geophysical research,  106, 7763-7780 (2001).

Y.-H. Ahn, A. Bricaud, and A. Morel, "Light backscattering efficiency and related properties of some phytoplankters," Deep-Sea Res.Part A 39, 1835-1855 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel, "Optical modeling of the upper ocean in relation to its biogenous matter content (Case I waters)," J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10,749 - 10,768 (1988).
[CrossRef]

A. Bricaud, A. Morel, and L. Prieur, "Optical efficiency factors of some phytoplankters," Limnol. Oceanogr. 28, 816-832 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Napp, J. M.

R. F. Davis, C. C. Moore, J. R. V. Zaneveld, and J. M. Napp, "Reducing the effects of fouling on chlorophyll estimates derived from long-term deployments of optical instruments," J. Geophys. Res.,  102, 5851-5855 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Oishi, T.

Pegau, W. S.

E. Boss, R. Collier, G. Larson, K. Fennel, and W. S. Pegau. "Measurements of spectral optical properties and their relation to biogeochemical variables and processes in Crater Lake National Park, OR," Hydrobiologia,  574, 149-159 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. Boss, W. S. Pegau, M. Lee, M. S. Twardowski, E. Shybanov, G. Korotaev, and F. Baratange, "The particulate backscattering ratio at LEO-15 and its use to study particle composition and distribution," J. Geophys. Res. 109, C0101410.1029/2002JC001514 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Twardowski, E. Boss, J. B. Macdonald, W. S. Pegau, A. H. Barnard, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, "A model for estimating bulk refractive index from the optical backscattering ratio and the implications for understanding particle composition in case I and case II waters," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 14,129-14,142 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. H. Barnard, W. S. Pegau, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, "Global relationships of the inherent optical properties of the oceans," J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24,955 - 24,968, (1998).
[CrossRef]

W. S. Pegau, D. Gray, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, "Absorption and attenuation of visible and near-infrared light in the water: Dependence on temperature and salinity," Appl. Opt. 36, 6035-6046 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. S. Pegau, J. R. V. Zaneveld, and K. J. Voss, "Toward closure of the inherent optical properties of natural waters," J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13,193-13,199 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Platt, T.

Prieur, L.

A. Bricaud, A. Morel, and L. Prieur, "Optical efficiency factors of some phytoplankters," Limnol. Oceanogr. 28, 816-832 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Roesler, C.

A. Bricaud, C. Roesler, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, "In situ methods for measuring the inherent optical properties of ocean waters," Limnol. Oceanogr. 40, 393-410 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Roesler, C. S.

C. S. Roesler and E. Boss, "A novel ocean color inversion model: retrieval of beam attenuation and particle size distribution," Geophys. Res. Lett. 30, 10.1029/2002GL016366 (2003).

Sathyendranath, S.

Scott Pegau, W.

Shybanov, E.

E. Boss, W. S. Pegau, M. Lee, M. S. Twardowski, E. Shybanov, G. Korotaev, and F. Baratange, "The particulate backscattering ratio at LEO-15 and its use to study particle composition and distribution," J. Geophys. Res. 109, C0101410.1029/2002JC001514 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Shybanov, E. B.

M. Chami, E. B. Shybanov, T. Y. Churilova, G. A. Khomenko, M. E.-G. Lee, O. V. Martynov, G. A. Berseneva, and G. K. Korotaev, "Optical properties of the particles in the Crimea coastal waters (Black Sea),: J. Geophys. Res. 110, doi:10.1029/2005JC003008 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Smith, R. C.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, and D. K. Clarks, "A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color," J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10,909-10,924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Sosik, H. M.

H. M. Sosik and B. G. Mitchell, "Light absorption by phytoplankton, photosynthetic pigments and detritus in the California Current System," Deep Sea-Res. 42, 1717-1748 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Stamnes, J. J.

M. Chami, E. Marken, J. J. Stamnes, G. Khomenko, and G. Korotaev, "Variability of the relationship between the particulate backscattering coefficient and the volume scattering function measured at fixed angles," J. Geophys. Res. 111, doi:10.1029/2005JC003230 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Stramski, D.

D. Stramski, E. Boss, D. Bogucki, and K. J. Voss, "The role of seawater constituents in light backscattering in the ocean," Prog. Oceanogr. 61, 27-56 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sullivan, J. M.

Sundman, L. K.

Twardowski, M. S.

J. M. Sullivan, M. S. Twardowski, P. L. Donaghay, and S. A. Freeman, "Use of optical scattering to discriminate particle types in coastal waters," Appl. Opt. 44, 1667-1680 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Boss, W. S. Pegau, M. Lee, M. S. Twardowski, E. Shybanov, G. Korotaev, and F. Baratange, "The particulate backscattering ratio at LEO-15 and its use to study particle composition and distribution," J. Geophys. Res. 109, C0101410.1029/2002JC001514 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Twardowski, E. Boss, J. B. Macdonald, W. S. Pegau, A. H. Barnard, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, "A model for estimating bulk refractive index from the optical backscattering ratio and the implications for understanding particle composition in case I and case II waters," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 14,129-14,142 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ulloa, O.

Voss, K. J.

D. Stramski, E. Boss, D. Bogucki, and K. J. Voss, "The role of seawater constituents in light backscattering in the ocean," Prog. Oceanogr. 61, 27-56 (2004).
[CrossRef]

W. S. Pegau, J. R. V. Zaneveld, and K. J. Voss, "Toward closure of the inherent optical properties of natural waters," J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13,193-13,199 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Zaneveld, J. R. V.

M. S. Twardowski, E. Boss, J. B. Macdonald, W. S. Pegau, A. H. Barnard, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, "A model for estimating bulk refractive index from the optical backscattering ratio and the implications for understanding particle composition in case I and case II waters," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 14,129-14,142 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. H. Barnard, W. S. Pegau, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, "Global relationships of the inherent optical properties of the oceans," J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24,955 - 24,968, (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. F. Davis, C. C. Moore, J. R. V. Zaneveld, and J. M. Napp, "Reducing the effects of fouling on chlorophyll estimates derived from long-term deployments of optical instruments," J. Geophys. Res.,  102, 5851-5855 (1997).
[CrossRef]

W. S. Pegau, D. Gray, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, "Absorption and attenuation of visible and near-infrared light in the water: Dependence on temperature and salinity," Appl. Opt. 36, 6035-6046 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Bricaud, C. Roesler, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, "In situ methods for measuring the inherent optical properties of ocean waters," Limnol. Oceanogr. 40, 393-410 (1995).
[CrossRef]

W. S. Pegau, J. R. V. Zaneveld, and K. J. Voss, "Toward closure of the inherent optical properties of natural waters," J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13,193-13,199 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. R. V. Zaneveld, J. C. Kitchen, and C. C. Moore, "Scattering error correction of reflecting tube absorption meter," Proc. SPIE 2258, 44-55 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Kitchen and J. R. V. Zaneveld, "A three-layered sphere model of the optical properties of phytoplankton," Limnol. Oceanogr. 37, 1680-1690 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (9)

C. D. Mobley, L. K. Sundman, and E. Boss, "Phase function effects on oceanic light fields," Appl. Opt. 41, 1035-1050 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Sullivan, M. S. Twardowski, P. L. Donaghay, and S. A. Freeman, "Use of optical scattering to discriminate particle types in coastal waters," Appl. Opt. 44, 1667-1680 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Ulloa, S. Sathyendranath, and T. Platt, "Effect of the particle size-distribution on the backscattering ratio in seawater," Appl. Opt. 33, 7070-7077 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. McKee and A. Cunningham, "Evidence for wavelength dependence of the scattering phase function and its implication for modeling radiance transfer in shelf seas," Appl. Opt. 44, 126-135 (2005).
[PubMed]

W. S. Pegau, D. Gray, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, "Absorption and attenuation of visible and near-infrared light in the water: Dependence on temperature and salinity," Appl. Opt. 36, 6035-6046 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Maffione and D. R. Dana, "Instruments and methods for measuring the backward-scattering coefficient of ocean waters," Appl. Opt. 36, 6057-6067 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Boss and W. Scott Pegau, "The relationship of light scattering at an angle in the backward direction to the backscattering coefficient," Appl. Opt. 40, 5503-5507 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. Oishi, "Significant relationship between the backward scattering coefficient of sea water and the scatterance at 120 degrees," Appl. Opt. 29, 4658-4665 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon, "Backscattering of light from disklike particles: is fine-scale structure or gross morphology more important?," Appl. Opt. 45, 7166-7173 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Deep Sea-Res. (1)

H. M. Sosik and B. G. Mitchell, "Light absorption by phytoplankton, photosynthetic pigments and detritus in the California Current System," Deep Sea-Res. 42, 1717-1748 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Geophys. Res. Lett. (1)

C. S. Roesler and E. Boss, "A novel ocean color inversion model: retrieval of beam attenuation and particle size distribution," Geophys. Res. Lett. 30, 10.1029/2002GL016366 (2003).

Hydrobiologia (1)

E. Boss, R. Collier, G. Larson, K. Fennel, and W. S. Pegau. "Measurements of spectral optical properties and their relation to biogeochemical variables and processes in Crater Lake National Park, OR," Hydrobiologia,  574, 149-159 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (10)

A. H. Barnard, W. S. Pegau, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, "Global relationships of the inherent optical properties of the oceans," J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24,955 - 24,968, (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Chami, E. B. Shybanov, T. Y. Churilova, G. A. Khomenko, M. E.-G. Lee, O. V. Martynov, G. A. Berseneva, and G. K. Korotaev, "Optical properties of the particles in the Crimea coastal waters (Black Sea),: J. Geophys. Res. 110, doi:10.1029/2005JC003008 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. F. Davis, C. C. Moore, J. R. V. Zaneveld, and J. M. Napp, "Reducing the effects of fouling on chlorophyll estimates derived from long-term deployments of optical instruments," J. Geophys. Res.,  102, 5851-5855 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, and D. K. Clarks, "A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color," J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10,909-10,924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel, "Optical modeling of the upper ocean in relation to its biogenous matter content (Case I waters)," J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10,749 - 10,768 (1988).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Twardowski, E. Boss, J. B. Macdonald, W. S. Pegau, A. H. Barnard, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, "A model for estimating bulk refractive index from the optical backscattering ratio and the implications for understanding particle composition in case I and case II waters," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 14,129-14,142 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. Boss, W. S. Pegau, M. Lee, M. S. Twardowski, E. Shybanov, G. Korotaev, and F. Baratange, "The particulate backscattering ratio at LEO-15 and its use to study particle composition and distribution," J. Geophys. Res. 109, C0101410.1029/2002JC001514 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Chami, E. Marken, J. J. Stamnes, G. Khomenko, and G. Korotaev, "Variability of the relationship between the particulate backscattering coefficient and the volume scattering function measured at fixed angles," J. Geophys. Res. 111, doi:10.1029/2005JC003230 (2006).
[CrossRef]

W. S. Pegau, J. R. V. Zaneveld, and K. J. Voss, "Toward closure of the inherent optical properties of natural waters," J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13,193-13,199 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Campbell, "The lognormal distribution as a model for bio-optical variability in the sea," J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13237-13254 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Plankt. Res. (1)

E. Aas, "Refractive index of phytoplankton derived from its metabolite composition," J. Plankt. Res. 18, 2223-2249 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Journal of Geophysical research (1)

A. Morel and S. Maritorena, Bio-optical properties of oceanic waters: A reappraisal.Journal of Geophysical research,  106, 7763-7780 (2001).

Limnol. Oceanogr. (3)

J. C. Kitchen and J. R. V. Zaneveld, "A three-layered sphere model of the optical properties of phytoplankton," Limnol. Oceanogr. 37, 1680-1690 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. Bricaud, C. Roesler, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, "In situ methods for measuring the inherent optical properties of ocean waters," Limnol. Oceanogr. 40, 393-410 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. Bricaud, A. Morel, and L. Prieur, "Optical efficiency factors of some phytoplankters," Limnol. Oceanogr. 28, 816-832 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Part A (1)

Y.-H. Ahn, A. Bricaud, and A. Morel, "Light backscattering efficiency and related properties of some phytoplankters," Deep-Sea Res.Part A 39, 1835-1855 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

J. R. V. Zaneveld, J. C. Kitchen, and C. C. Moore, "Scattering error correction of reflecting tube absorption meter," Proc. SPIE 2258, 44-55 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Prog. Oceanogr. (1)

D. Stramski, E. Boss, D. Bogucki, and K. J. Voss, "The role of seawater constituents in light backscattering in the ocean," Prog. Oceanogr. 61, 27-56 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Other (7)

K. L. Carder, P. R. Betzer, and D. W. Eggimann, "Physical, chemical, and optical measures of suspended particle concentrations: their intercomparison and application to the West African shelf," in Suspended Solids in Water, R. J. Gibbs, ed., (Plenum, New York, 1974) pp. 173- 193.

J. B. Macdonald, M. S. Twardowski, W. S. Pegau, A. H. Barnard, E. Boss, and J. R. V. Zaneveld. "Characterization of spectral backscattering in the Gulf of California," in EOS Trans. AGU,80, Ocean Sci. Mett. Suppl. (2000).

H. R. Gordon, and A. Morel, "Remote Assessment of Ocean Color for Interpretation of Satellite Visible Imagery: A Review," R. T. Barber, C. N. K. Mooers, M. J. Bowman, and B. Zeitzschel, eds. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1983).

R. R. Sokal and F. J. Rohlf, Biometry, (W.H. Freeman and Company, New York, 1995).

E. T. Peltzer, "Matlab® shell-scripts for linear regression analysis," http://www.mbari.org/staff/etp3/regressindex.htm (9/18/2006).

E. Laws, Mathematical Methods for Oceanographers (John Wiley and Sons, New York, 1997).

T. J. Petzold, "Volume scattering functions for selected ocean waters," SIO Ref. 72-78, (Scripps Institution of Oceanography, 1972).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(A – E) Histograms of particulate backscattering ratio measurements for the entire data set are plotted for each wavelength. Frequency values shown on the y-axes have been divided by 100. N = 9,154 for each plot. (F – J) Particulate backscattering ratios that occur at or above one optical depth are plotted. (F) 442 nm, N = 797. (G) 488 nm, N = 1,149. (H) 532 nm, N= 1,154. (I) 555 nm, N= 1,193. (J) 620 nm, N= 212.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Particulate backscattering ratio at 488 nm plotted versus the particulate backscattering ratio measured at four other wavelengths for the entire global data set. The Model II regression fits at each wavelength are shown with 90% confidence limits (red). The number of data points for each regression is 9,154.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Mean particulate backscattering ratio spectra for individual data sets, with one standard deviation shown for each data point. The spectra are as follows: GOC99A (top, left), MOCE-5 (top, middle), HyCODE 2000 (top, right), Crater Lake 2001 (bottom, left), HyCODE 2001 (bottom, middle), and the mean of all of the data sets (bottom, right).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Mean particulate backscattering ratio spectra for different biogeochemical provinces. One standard deviation is plotted on each mean. (A) bbp (λ) ratios where chlorophyll concentration lies between 0.02 and 2μgL-1(black, N = 6,049) and bbp (λ) ratios where chlorophyll concentration is above 2μgL-1(green, N = 2,242). (B) bbp (λ) ratios where chlorophyll concentration is zero and where the particulate beam attenuation at 650 nm is <= 0.5m-1(blue, N = 772) and bbp (λ) ratios where chlorophyll concentration lies between 0 and 0.5μgL-1 and where the particulate beam attenuation at 650 nm is above 1m-1(black, N = 18).

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

The particulate backscattering ratio at 555-nm as a function of chlorophyll-a concentration [W(all)]. Curves showing the relationship based on models by Sullivan et al. [2006], Twardowski et al. [2001], Ulloa [1994], and Morel and Maritorena [2001] are identified as S, T, U, and MM respectively. The solid red line [W(all)] is the least-squares power-law fit to data in this study. The dashed red line [W(ζ)] is the least-squares power-law fit to the data above one optical depth.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Global Data Set Description

Tables Icon

Table2. Descriptive Statistics of b˜ bp (λ) for the individual data sets

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

b ˜ bp ( 555 ) = 0.0121 [ chlorophyll ] 0.125 ; r 2 = 0.36 .
b ˜ bp ( 555 ) = 0.0074 [ chlorophyll ] 0.042 ; r 2 = 0.47 .

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