Abstract

We experimentally demonstrate controlled polarization-selective phenomena in a whispering gallery mode resonator. We observed efficient (≈75%) polarization conversion of light in a silica microsphere coupled to a tapered optical fiber with proper optimization of the polarization of the propagating light. A simple model treating the microsphere as a ring resonator provides a good fit to the observed behavior.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. K. J. Vahala, "Optical microcavities," Nature (London) 424, 839-846 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  2. A. B. Matsko and V. S. Ilchenko, "Optical resonators with whispering-gallery-modes-Part 1: Basics," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 3-14 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. L. Gorodetsky, A. A. Savchenkov, and V. S. Ilchenko, "Ultimate Q of optical microsphere resonators," Opt. Lett. 21, 453-455 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. D. K. Armani, T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, "Ultra-high-Q toroid microcavity on a chip," Nature (London) 421, 925-928 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. Melloni, F. Morichetti, and M. Martinelli, "Polarization conversion in ring resonator phase shifters," Opt. Lett. 29, 2785-2787 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. A. E. Fomin, M. L. Gorodetsky, I. S. Grudinin, and V. S. Ilchenko, "Nonstationary nonlinear effects in optical microspheres," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22, 459-465 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  7. T. Carmon, H. Rokhsari, L. Yang, T. Kippenberg, and K. J. Vahala, "Temporal behavior of radiation-pressure-induced vibrations of an optical microcavity phono mode," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 223902 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. Y.-S. Park, A. K. Cook, and H. Wang, "Cavity QED with diamond nanocrystals and silica microspheres," Nano. Lett. 6, 2075-2079 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. M. Cai and K. Vahala, "Highly efficient hybrid fiber taper coupled microsphere laser," Opt. Lett. 26, 884-886 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  10. S. I. Shopova, G. Farca, A. T. Rosenberger, W.M. Wickramanayake, and N. A. Kotov, "Microsphere whisperinggallery-mode laser using HgTe quantum dots," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 6101-6103 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  11. A. M. Armani and K. J. Vahala, "Heavy water detection using ultra-high-Q microcavities," Opt. Lett. 31, 1896- 1898 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. S. Arnold, M. Khoshsima, I. Teraoka, S. Holler, and F. Vollmer, "Shift of whispering-gallery modes in microspheres by protein adsorption," Opt. Lett. 28, 272-274 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. F. Michelotti, A. Driessen, and M. Bertolotti, eds., Microresonators as building blocks for VLSI photonics, vol. 709 of AIP Conference Proceedings (American Institute of Physics, Melville, New York, 2003).
  14. J. C. Knight, G. Cheung, F. Jacques, and T. A. Birks, "Phase-matched excitation of whispering-gallery-mode resonances by a fiber taper," Opt. Lett. 22, 1129-1131 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. M. Cai, O. Painter, and K. J. Vahala, "Observation of critical coupling in a fiber taper to a silica-microsphere whispering-gallery mode system," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 74-77 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. G. Guan and F. Vollmer, "Polarized transmission spectra of the fiber-microsphere system," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 121115 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  17. H. Konishi, H. Fujiwara, S. Takeuchi, and K. Sasaki, "Polarization-discriminated spectra of a fiber-microsphere system," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 121107 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  18. T. A. Birks and Y. W. Li, "The Shape of fiber tapers," J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 432-438 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  19. D. S. Weiss, V. Sandoghar, J. Hare, V. Lef`evre-Seguin, J.-M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, "Splitting of high-Q Mie modes induced by light backscattering in silica microspheres," Opt. Lett. 20, 1835-1837 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  21. B. E. Little and S. T. Chu, "Theory of polarization rotation and conversion in vertically coupled microresonators," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 401-403 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  22. V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, "All-optical control of light on a silicon chip," Nature (London) 431, 1081-1084 (2004).
    [CrossRef]

2006 (4)

A. B. Matsko and V. S. Ilchenko, "Optical resonators with whispering-gallery-modes-Part 1: Basics," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 3-14 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y.-S. Park, A. K. Cook, and H. Wang, "Cavity QED with diamond nanocrystals and silica microspheres," Nano. Lett. 6, 2075-2079 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Konishi, H. Fujiwara, S. Takeuchi, and K. Sasaki, "Polarization-discriminated spectra of a fiber-microsphere system," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 121107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Armani and K. J. Vahala, "Heavy water detection using ultra-high-Q microcavities," Opt. Lett. 31, 1896- 1898 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (3)

A. E. Fomin, M. L. Gorodetsky, I. S. Grudinin, and V. S. Ilchenko, "Nonstationary nonlinear effects in optical microspheres," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22, 459-465 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Carmon, H. Rokhsari, L. Yang, T. Kippenberg, and K. J. Vahala, "Temporal behavior of radiation-pressure-induced vibrations of an optical microcavity phono mode," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 223902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Guan and F. Vollmer, "Polarized transmission spectra of the fiber-microsphere system," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 121115 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (3)

V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, "All-optical control of light on a silicon chip," Nature (London) 431, 1081-1084 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. I. Shopova, G. Farca, A. T. Rosenberger, W.M. Wickramanayake, and N. A. Kotov, "Microsphere whisperinggallery-mode laser using HgTe quantum dots," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 6101-6103 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Melloni, F. Morichetti, and M. Martinelli, "Polarization conversion in ring resonator phase shifters," Opt. Lett. 29, 2785-2787 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (4)

2001 (1)

2000 (2)

B. E. Little and S. T. Chu, "Theory of polarization rotation and conversion in vertically coupled microresonators," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 401-403 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Cai, O. Painter, and K. J. Vahala, "Observation of critical coupling in a fiber taper to a silica-microsphere whispering-gallery mode system," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 74-77 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997 (1)

1996 (1)

1995 (1)

1992 (1)

T. A. Birks and Y. W. Li, "The Shape of fiber tapers," J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 432-438 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Almeida, V. R.

V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, "All-optical control of light on a silicon chip," Nature (London) 431, 1081-1084 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Armani, A. M.

Armani, D. K.

D. K. Armani, T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, "Ultra-high-Q toroid microcavity on a chip," Nature (London) 421, 925-928 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Arnold, S.

Barrios, C. A.

V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, "All-optical control of light on a silicon chip," Nature (London) 431, 1081-1084 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Birks, T. A.

Cai, M.

M. Cai and K. Vahala, "Highly efficient hybrid fiber taper coupled microsphere laser," Opt. Lett. 26, 884-886 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Cai, O. Painter, and K. J. Vahala, "Observation of critical coupling in a fiber taper to a silica-microsphere whispering-gallery mode system," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 74-77 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carmon, T.

T. Carmon, H. Rokhsari, L. Yang, T. Kippenberg, and K. J. Vahala, "Temporal behavior of radiation-pressure-induced vibrations of an optical microcavity phono mode," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 223902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, H.

Cheung, G.

Chu, S. T.

B. E. Little and S. T. Chu, "Theory of polarization rotation and conversion in vertically coupled microresonators," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 401-403 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Cook, A. K.

Y.-S. Park, A. K. Cook, and H. Wang, "Cavity QED with diamond nanocrystals and silica microspheres," Nano. Lett. 6, 2075-2079 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Farca, G.

S. I. Shopova, G. Farca, A. T. Rosenberger, W.M. Wickramanayake, and N. A. Kotov, "Microsphere whisperinggallery-mode laser using HgTe quantum dots," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 6101-6103 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fomin, A. E.

Fujiwara, H.

H. Konishi, H. Fujiwara, S. Takeuchi, and K. Sasaki, "Polarization-discriminated spectra of a fiber-microsphere system," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 121107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fuller, K. A.

Gorodetsky, M. L.

Grudinin, I. S.

Guan, G.

G. Guan and F. Vollmer, "Polarized transmission spectra of the fiber-microsphere system," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 121115 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hare, J.

Haroche, S.

Holler, S.

Ilchenko, V. S.

Jacques, F.

Khoshsima, M.

Kippenberg, T.

T. Carmon, H. Rokhsari, L. Yang, T. Kippenberg, and K. J. Vahala, "Temporal behavior of radiation-pressure-induced vibrations of an optical microcavity phono mode," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 223902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kippenberg, T. J.

D. K. Armani, T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, "Ultra-high-Q toroid microcavity on a chip," Nature (London) 421, 925-928 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Knight, J. C.

Konishi, H.

H. Konishi, H. Fujiwara, S. Takeuchi, and K. Sasaki, "Polarization-discriminated spectra of a fiber-microsphere system," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 121107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kotov, N. A.

S. I. Shopova, G. Farca, A. T. Rosenberger, W.M. Wickramanayake, and N. A. Kotov, "Microsphere whisperinggallery-mode laser using HgTe quantum dots," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 6101-6103 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lef`evre-Seguin, V.

Li, Y. W.

T. A. Birks and Y. W. Li, "The Shape of fiber tapers," J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 432-438 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Lipson, M.

V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, "All-optical control of light on a silicon chip," Nature (London) 431, 1081-1084 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Little, B. E.

B. E. Little and S. T. Chu, "Theory of polarization rotation and conversion in vertically coupled microresonators," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 401-403 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Martinelli, M.

Matsko, A. B.

A. B. Matsko and V. S. Ilchenko, "Optical resonators with whispering-gallery-modes-Part 1: Basics," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 3-14 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Melloni, A.

Morichetti, F.

Painter, O.

M. Cai, O. Painter, and K. J. Vahala, "Observation of critical coupling in a fiber taper to a silica-microsphere whispering-gallery mode system," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 74-77 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Panepucci, R. R.

V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, "All-optical control of light on a silicon chip," Nature (London) 431, 1081-1084 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Park, Y.-S.

Y.-S. Park, A. K. Cook, and H. Wang, "Cavity QED with diamond nanocrystals and silica microspheres," Nano. Lett. 6, 2075-2079 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Raimond, J.-M.

Rokhsari, H.

T. Carmon, H. Rokhsari, L. Yang, T. Kippenberg, and K. J. Vahala, "Temporal behavior of radiation-pressure-induced vibrations of an optical microcavity phono mode," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 223902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rosenberger, A. T.

S. I. Shopova, G. Farca, A. T. Rosenberger, W.M. Wickramanayake, and N. A. Kotov, "Microsphere whisperinggallery-mode laser using HgTe quantum dots," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 6101-6103 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sandoghar, V.

Sasaki, K.

H. Konishi, H. Fujiwara, S. Takeuchi, and K. Sasaki, "Polarization-discriminated spectra of a fiber-microsphere system," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 121107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Savchenkov, A. A.

Shopova, S. I.

S. I. Shopova, G. Farca, A. T. Rosenberger, W.M. Wickramanayake, and N. A. Kotov, "Microsphere whisperinggallery-mode laser using HgTe quantum dots," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 6101-6103 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Smith, D. D.

Spillane, S. M.

D. K. Armani, T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, "Ultra-high-Q toroid microcavity on a chip," Nature (London) 421, 925-928 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Takeuchi, S.

H. Konishi, H. Fujiwara, S. Takeuchi, and K. Sasaki, "Polarization-discriminated spectra of a fiber-microsphere system," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 121107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Teraoka, I.

Vahala, K.

Vahala, K. J.

A. M. Armani and K. J. Vahala, "Heavy water detection using ultra-high-Q microcavities," Opt. Lett. 31, 1896- 1898 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Carmon, H. Rokhsari, L. Yang, T. Kippenberg, and K. J. Vahala, "Temporal behavior of radiation-pressure-induced vibrations of an optical microcavity phono mode," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 223902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. K. Armani, T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, "Ultra-high-Q toroid microcavity on a chip," Nature (London) 421, 925-928 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. J. Vahala, "Optical microcavities," Nature (London) 424, 839-846 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Cai, O. Painter, and K. J. Vahala, "Observation of critical coupling in a fiber taper to a silica-microsphere whispering-gallery mode system," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 74-77 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vollmer, F.

Wang, H.

Y.-S. Park, A. K. Cook, and H. Wang, "Cavity QED with diamond nanocrystals and silica microspheres," Nano. Lett. 6, 2075-2079 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weiss, D. S.

Wickramanayake, W.M.

S. I. Shopova, G. Farca, A. T. Rosenberger, W.M. Wickramanayake, and N. A. Kotov, "Microsphere whisperinggallery-mode laser using HgTe quantum dots," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 6101-6103 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yang, L.

T. Carmon, H. Rokhsari, L. Yang, T. Kippenberg, and K. J. Vahala, "Temporal behavior of radiation-pressure-induced vibrations of an optical microcavity phono mode," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 223902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

G. Guan and F. Vollmer, "Polarized transmission spectra of the fiber-microsphere system," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 121115 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Konishi, H. Fujiwara, S. Takeuchi, and K. Sasaki, "Polarization-discriminated spectra of a fiber-microsphere system," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 121107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. I. Shopova, G. Farca, A. T. Rosenberger, W.M. Wickramanayake, and N. A. Kotov, "Microsphere whisperinggallery-mode laser using HgTe quantum dots," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 6101-6103 (2004).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

A. B. Matsko and V. S. Ilchenko, "Optical resonators with whispering-gallery-modes-Part 1: Basics," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 3-14 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

B. E. Little and S. T. Chu, "Theory of polarization rotation and conversion in vertically coupled microresonators," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 401-403 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

T. A. Birks and Y. W. Li, "The Shape of fiber tapers," J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 432-438 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

Nano. Lett. (1)

Y.-S. Park, A. K. Cook, and H. Wang, "Cavity QED with diamond nanocrystals and silica microspheres," Nano. Lett. 6, 2075-2079 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature (London) (3)

K. J. Vahala, "Optical microcavities," Nature (London) 424, 839-846 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. K. Armani, T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, "Ultra-high-Q toroid microcavity on a chip," Nature (London) 421, 925-928 (2003).
[CrossRef]

V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, "All-optical control of light on a silicon chip," Nature (London) 431, 1081-1084 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (7)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

M. Cai, O. Painter, and K. J. Vahala, "Observation of critical coupling in a fiber taper to a silica-microsphere whispering-gallery mode system," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 74-77 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Carmon, H. Rokhsari, L. Yang, T. Kippenberg, and K. J. Vahala, "Temporal behavior of radiation-pressure-induced vibrations of an optical microcavity phono mode," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 223902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

F. Michelotti, A. Driessen, and M. Bertolotti, eds., Microresonators as building blocks for VLSI photonics, vol. 709 of AIP Conference Proceedings (American Institute of Physics, Melville, New York, 2003).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Experimental setup schematic. PR is a polarization rotator, FC a fiber coupler, PC1 and 2 are fiber polarization controllers, P a polarizer and PD is an amplified photodiode. Inset: Image of a sphere near a tapered fiber.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Transmission spectra for different input polarizations. The resonant frequencies correspond to modes with l ≈ 496. The x- and y-polarizations are orthogonal and correspond to the polarization eigenmodes of the resonator. The xy-polarization is oriented at 45 degrees from both x and y. The black traces correspond to the detection polarizer parallel to the input polarization and the light traces correspond to a crossed detection polarization.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Detailed view of two modes showing polarization conversion when the input is xy-polarized. The dashed lines are fits using equations of the form of equation 1. The fit parameters for the leftmost features are a = 0.99997, r = 0.99977. The corresponding ones for the rightmost feature are a = 0.99999, r = 0.99993.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Schematic of a resonator working as wavelength-selective polarization switch. a) Two signals with different wavelengths (green and blue) and orthogonal polarizations pass unchanged through the waveguide and the uncoupled resonator. A polarization beamsplitter then routes the signals to different paths. b) The polarization of the resonant signal (blue) is converted by the coupled resonator, and both signals are sent through the same path. The resonator-waveguide coupling can be changed in different ways, including mechanical or optical[22] means.

Equations (1)

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τ ( ϕ ) = r a e 1 ra e ,

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