Abstract

Polycrystalline silicon (poly-Si) thin film transistors (TFTs) fabricated by near-infrared femtosecond laser annealing (FLA) are demonstrated. The FLA-annealed poly-Si channels exhibit low tail-state, deep-state, and midgap-state densities of grain traps. Characteristics such as field-effect mobility, threshold voltage, and subthreshold slope for FLA-annealed poly-TFTs are comparable to those of conventional approaches. A wide process window for annealing laser fluences was confirmed by examining the changes in electrical parameters for transistors with various channel dimensions.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  24. N. Yamauchi, J. J. Hajjar and R. Reif, "Polysilicon thin-film transistors with channel length and width comparable to or smaller than the grain size of the thin film," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices,  38, 55-60 (1991).
    [CrossRef]

2006

Y. T. Lin, C. Chen, J. M. Shieh, Y. J. Lee, C. L. Pan, C. W. Cheng, J. T. Peng and C. W. Chao, " Trap-state density in continuous-wave laser-crystallized single-grainlike silicon transistors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 233511-233513 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Fortunatoa, V. Priviterab, A. La Magnab, L. Mariuccia, M. Cuscunàa, B. G. Svenssonc, E. Monakhovc, M. Camallerid, A. Magrìd, D. Salinasd and F. Simone, "Excimer Laser annealing for shallow junction formation in Si power MOS devices," Thin Solid Films,  504, 2-6 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. C. Wang, C. L. Pan, J. M. Shieh, and B. T. Dai, "Dopant profile engineering by near-infrared femtosecond laser activation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 131104-131106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

S. D. Wang, W. H. Lo, T. Y. Chang, and T. F. Lei, "A novel process-compatible fluorination technique with electrical characteristic improvements of poly-Si TFTs," IEEE Electron Device Lett. 26, 372-374 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

K. Kitahara, Y. Ohashi, Y. Katoh, A. Hara and N. Sasaki, "Submicron-scale characterization of poly-Si thin film crystallized excimer laser and continuous-wave laser," J. Appl. Phys. 95, 7850-7855 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Poon, L. S. Tan, B. J. Cho, A. See and M. Bhat, "Boron profile narrowing in laser-processed silicon after rapid thermal anneal," J. Electrochem. Soc. 151, G80-G83 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Shieh, Z. H. Chen, B. T. Dai, Y. C. Wang, A. Zaitsev, and C. L. Pan, "Near-infrared femtosecond laser-induced crystallization of amorphous silicon," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1232-1234 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

R. Ishihara, P. Ch van der Wilt, B. D. van Dijk, A. Burtsev, and J. W. Metselaar, "Advanced excimer-laser crystallization process for single-crystalline thin film transistors," Thin Solid Films 427, 77-85 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. T. Voutsas, "A new era of crystallization: advances in polysilicon crystallization and crystal engineering," Appl. Surface Science 208, 250-262 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

S. K. Sundaram and E. Mazur, "Inducing and probing non-thermal transitions in semiconductors using femtosecond laser pulses," Nature Mater. 1, 217-224 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Burtsev, R. Ishihara, C. I. M. Beenakker, "Energy density window for location controlled Si grains by dual-beam excimer laser," Thin Solid Films 419, 199-206 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

Y. F. Tang, S. R. P. Silva and M. J. Rose, "Super sequential lateral growth of Nd:YAG laser crystallized hydrogenated amorphous silicon," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 186-188 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Rousse, C. Rischel, S. Fourmaux, I. Uschmann, S. Sebban, G. Grillon, Ph. Balcou, E. Förster, J. P. Geindre, P. Audebert, J. C. Gauthier, and D. Hulin, "Non-thermal melting in semiconductors measured at femtosecond resolution," Nature 410, 65-68 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000

Y. F. Chong, K. L. Pey, A. T. S. Wee, A. See, L. Chan, Y. F. Lu, W. D. Song and L. H. Chua, "Annealing of ultrashallow p+/n junction by 248nm excimer laser and rapid thermal processing with different preamorphization depths," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 3197-3199 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

R. Dassow, J. R. Köhler, M. Grauvogl, R. B. Bergmann, and J. H. Werner, "Laser-crystallized polycrystalline silicon on glass for photovoltaic applications," Solid State Phenom. 67-68, 193-198 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Miyasaka and J. Stoemenos, "Excimer laser annealing of amorphous and solid-phase-crystallized silicon films," J. Appl. Phys. 86, 5556-5565 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997

X. Liu, D. Du, and G. Mourou, "Laser ablation and micromachining with ultrashort laser pulses," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1706-1716 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Brotherton, D. J. McCulloch, J. P. Gowers, J. R. Ayres, and M. J. Trainor, "Influence of melt depth in laser crystallized poly-Si thin film transistors," J. Appl. Phys. 82, 4086-4094 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1993

J. S. Im, H. J. Kim, and M. O. Thompson, "Phase transformation mechanisms involved in excimer laser crystallization of amorphous silicon films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1969-1971 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1991

N. Yamauchi, J. J. Hajjar and R. Reif, "Polysilicon thin-film transistors with channel length and width comparable to or smaller than the grain size of the thin film," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices,  38, 55-60 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1986

G. Fortunato and P. Migliorato, "Determination of gap state density in polycrystalline silicon by field-effect conductance," Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 1025-1027 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Audebert, P.

A. Rousse, C. Rischel, S. Fourmaux, I. Uschmann, S. Sebban, G. Grillon, Ph. Balcou, E. Förster, J. P. Geindre, P. Audebert, J. C. Gauthier, and D. Hulin, "Non-thermal melting in semiconductors measured at femtosecond resolution," Nature 410, 65-68 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ayres, J. R.

S. D. Brotherton, D. J. McCulloch, J. P. Gowers, J. R. Ayres, and M. J. Trainor, "Influence of melt depth in laser crystallized poly-Si thin film transistors," J. Appl. Phys. 82, 4086-4094 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Balcou, Ph.

A. Rousse, C. Rischel, S. Fourmaux, I. Uschmann, S. Sebban, G. Grillon, Ph. Balcou, E. Förster, J. P. Geindre, P. Audebert, J. C. Gauthier, and D. Hulin, "Non-thermal melting in semiconductors measured at femtosecond resolution," Nature 410, 65-68 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beenakker, C. I. M.

A. Burtsev, R. Ishihara, C. I. M. Beenakker, "Energy density window for location controlled Si grains by dual-beam excimer laser," Thin Solid Films 419, 199-206 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bergmann, R. B.

R. Dassow, J. R. Köhler, M. Grauvogl, R. B. Bergmann, and J. H. Werner, "Laser-crystallized polycrystalline silicon on glass for photovoltaic applications," Solid State Phenom. 67-68, 193-198 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bhat, M.

C. H. Poon, L. S. Tan, B. J. Cho, A. See and M. Bhat, "Boron profile narrowing in laser-processed silicon after rapid thermal anneal," J. Electrochem. Soc. 151, G80-G83 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Brotherton, S. D.

S. D. Brotherton, D. J. McCulloch, J. P. Gowers, J. R. Ayres, and M. J. Trainor, "Influence of melt depth in laser crystallized poly-Si thin film transistors," J. Appl. Phys. 82, 4086-4094 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Burtsev, A.

A. Burtsev, R. Ishihara, C. I. M. Beenakker, "Energy density window for location controlled Si grains by dual-beam excimer laser," Thin Solid Films 419, 199-206 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Camallerid, M.

G. Fortunatoa, V. Priviterab, A. La Magnab, L. Mariuccia, M. Cuscunàa, B. G. Svenssonc, E. Monakhovc, M. Camallerid, A. Magrìd, D. Salinasd and F. Simone, "Excimer Laser annealing for shallow junction formation in Si power MOS devices," Thin Solid Films,  504, 2-6 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chan, L.

Y. F. Chong, K. L. Pey, A. T. S. Wee, A. See, L. Chan, Y. F. Lu, W. D. Song and L. H. Chua, "Annealing of ultrashallow p+/n junction by 248nm excimer laser and rapid thermal processing with different preamorphization depths," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 3197-3199 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chang, T. Y.

S. D. Wang, W. H. Lo, T. Y. Chang, and T. F. Lei, "A novel process-compatible fluorination technique with electrical characteristic improvements of poly-Si TFTs," IEEE Electron Device Lett. 26, 372-374 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chao, C. W.

Y. T. Lin, C. Chen, J. M. Shieh, Y. J. Lee, C. L. Pan, C. W. Cheng, J. T. Peng and C. W. Chao, " Trap-state density in continuous-wave laser-crystallized single-grainlike silicon transistors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 233511-233513 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C.

Y. T. Lin, C. Chen, J. M. Shieh, Y. J. Lee, C. L. Pan, C. W. Cheng, J. T. Peng and C. W. Chao, " Trap-state density in continuous-wave laser-crystallized single-grainlike silicon transistors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 233511-233513 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Z. H.

J. M. Shieh, Z. H. Chen, B. T. Dai, Y. C. Wang, A. Zaitsev, and C. L. Pan, "Near-infrared femtosecond laser-induced crystallization of amorphous silicon," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1232-1234 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, C. W.

Y. T. Lin, C. Chen, J. M. Shieh, Y. J. Lee, C. L. Pan, C. W. Cheng, J. T. Peng and C. W. Chao, " Trap-state density in continuous-wave laser-crystallized single-grainlike silicon transistors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 233511-233513 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cho, B. J.

C. H. Poon, L. S. Tan, B. J. Cho, A. See and M. Bhat, "Boron profile narrowing in laser-processed silicon after rapid thermal anneal," J. Electrochem. Soc. 151, G80-G83 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chong, Y. F.

Y. F. Chong, K. L. Pey, A. T. S. Wee, A. See, L. Chan, Y. F. Lu, W. D. Song and L. H. Chua, "Annealing of ultrashallow p+/n junction by 248nm excimer laser and rapid thermal processing with different preamorphization depths," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 3197-3199 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chua, L. H.

Y. F. Chong, K. L. Pey, A. T. S. Wee, A. See, L. Chan, Y. F. Lu, W. D. Song and L. H. Chua, "Annealing of ultrashallow p+/n junction by 248nm excimer laser and rapid thermal processing with different preamorphization depths," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 3197-3199 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Cuscunàa, M.

G. Fortunatoa, V. Priviterab, A. La Magnab, L. Mariuccia, M. Cuscunàa, B. G. Svenssonc, E. Monakhovc, M. Camallerid, A. Magrìd, D. Salinasd and F. Simone, "Excimer Laser annealing for shallow junction formation in Si power MOS devices," Thin Solid Films,  504, 2-6 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dai, B. T.

Y. C. Wang, C. L. Pan, J. M. Shieh, and B. T. Dai, "Dopant profile engineering by near-infrared femtosecond laser activation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 131104-131106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Shieh, Z. H. Chen, B. T. Dai, Y. C. Wang, A. Zaitsev, and C. L. Pan, "Near-infrared femtosecond laser-induced crystallization of amorphous silicon," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1232-1234 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dassow, R.

R. Dassow, J. R. Köhler, M. Grauvogl, R. B. Bergmann, and J. H. Werner, "Laser-crystallized polycrystalline silicon on glass for photovoltaic applications," Solid State Phenom. 67-68, 193-198 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Du, D.

X. Liu, D. Du, and G. Mourou, "Laser ablation and micromachining with ultrashort laser pulses," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1706-1716 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Förster, E.

A. Rousse, C. Rischel, S. Fourmaux, I. Uschmann, S. Sebban, G. Grillon, Ph. Balcou, E. Förster, J. P. Geindre, P. Audebert, J. C. Gauthier, and D. Hulin, "Non-thermal melting in semiconductors measured at femtosecond resolution," Nature 410, 65-68 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fortunato, G.

G. Fortunato and P. Migliorato, "Determination of gap state density in polycrystalline silicon by field-effect conductance," Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 1025-1027 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Fortunatoa, G.

G. Fortunatoa, V. Priviterab, A. La Magnab, L. Mariuccia, M. Cuscunàa, B. G. Svenssonc, E. Monakhovc, M. Camallerid, A. Magrìd, D. Salinasd and F. Simone, "Excimer Laser annealing for shallow junction formation in Si power MOS devices," Thin Solid Films,  504, 2-6 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fourmaux, S.

A. Rousse, C. Rischel, S. Fourmaux, I. Uschmann, S. Sebban, G. Grillon, Ph. Balcou, E. Förster, J. P. Geindre, P. Audebert, J. C. Gauthier, and D. Hulin, "Non-thermal melting in semiconductors measured at femtosecond resolution," Nature 410, 65-68 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gauthier, J. C.

A. Rousse, C. Rischel, S. Fourmaux, I. Uschmann, S. Sebban, G. Grillon, Ph. Balcou, E. Förster, J. P. Geindre, P. Audebert, J. C. Gauthier, and D. Hulin, "Non-thermal melting in semiconductors measured at femtosecond resolution," Nature 410, 65-68 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Geindre, J. P.

A. Rousse, C. Rischel, S. Fourmaux, I. Uschmann, S. Sebban, G. Grillon, Ph. Balcou, E. Förster, J. P. Geindre, P. Audebert, J. C. Gauthier, and D. Hulin, "Non-thermal melting in semiconductors measured at femtosecond resolution," Nature 410, 65-68 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gowers, J. P.

S. D. Brotherton, D. J. McCulloch, J. P. Gowers, J. R. Ayres, and M. J. Trainor, "Influence of melt depth in laser crystallized poly-Si thin film transistors," J. Appl. Phys. 82, 4086-4094 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Grauvogl, M.

R. Dassow, J. R. Köhler, M. Grauvogl, R. B. Bergmann, and J. H. Werner, "Laser-crystallized polycrystalline silicon on glass for photovoltaic applications," Solid State Phenom. 67-68, 193-198 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Grillon, G.

A. Rousse, C. Rischel, S. Fourmaux, I. Uschmann, S. Sebban, G. Grillon, Ph. Balcou, E. Förster, J. P. Geindre, P. Audebert, J. C. Gauthier, and D. Hulin, "Non-thermal melting in semiconductors measured at femtosecond resolution," Nature 410, 65-68 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hajjar, J. J.

N. Yamauchi, J. J. Hajjar and R. Reif, "Polysilicon thin-film transistors with channel length and width comparable to or smaller than the grain size of the thin film," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices,  38, 55-60 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Hara, A.

K. Kitahara, Y. Ohashi, Y. Katoh, A. Hara and N. Sasaki, "Submicron-scale characterization of poly-Si thin film crystallized excimer laser and continuous-wave laser," J. Appl. Phys. 95, 7850-7855 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hulin, D.

A. Rousse, C. Rischel, S. Fourmaux, I. Uschmann, S. Sebban, G. Grillon, Ph. Balcou, E. Förster, J. P. Geindre, P. Audebert, J. C. Gauthier, and D. Hulin, "Non-thermal melting in semiconductors measured at femtosecond resolution," Nature 410, 65-68 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Im, J. S.

J. S. Im, H. J. Kim, and M. O. Thompson, "Phase transformation mechanisms involved in excimer laser crystallization of amorphous silicon films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1969-1971 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Ishihara, R.

R. Ishihara, P. Ch van der Wilt, B. D. van Dijk, A. Burtsev, and J. W. Metselaar, "Advanced excimer-laser crystallization process for single-crystalline thin film transistors," Thin Solid Films 427, 77-85 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Burtsev, R. Ishihara, C. I. M. Beenakker, "Energy density window for location controlled Si grains by dual-beam excimer laser," Thin Solid Films 419, 199-206 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Katoh, Y.

K. Kitahara, Y. Ohashi, Y. Katoh, A. Hara and N. Sasaki, "Submicron-scale characterization of poly-Si thin film crystallized excimer laser and continuous-wave laser," J. Appl. Phys. 95, 7850-7855 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H. J.

J. S. Im, H. J. Kim, and M. O. Thompson, "Phase transformation mechanisms involved in excimer laser crystallization of amorphous silicon films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1969-1971 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kitahara, K.

K. Kitahara, Y. Ohashi, Y. Katoh, A. Hara and N. Sasaki, "Submicron-scale characterization of poly-Si thin film crystallized excimer laser and continuous-wave laser," J. Appl. Phys. 95, 7850-7855 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Köhler, J. R.

R. Dassow, J. R. Köhler, M. Grauvogl, R. B. Bergmann, and J. H. Werner, "Laser-crystallized polycrystalline silicon on glass for photovoltaic applications," Solid State Phenom. 67-68, 193-198 (1999).
[CrossRef]

La Magnab, A.

G. Fortunatoa, V. Priviterab, A. La Magnab, L. Mariuccia, M. Cuscunàa, B. G. Svenssonc, E. Monakhovc, M. Camallerid, A. Magrìd, D. Salinasd and F. Simone, "Excimer Laser annealing for shallow junction formation in Si power MOS devices," Thin Solid Films,  504, 2-6 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y. J.

Y. T. Lin, C. Chen, J. M. Shieh, Y. J. Lee, C. L. Pan, C. W. Cheng, J. T. Peng and C. W. Chao, " Trap-state density in continuous-wave laser-crystallized single-grainlike silicon transistors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 233511-233513 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lei, T. F.

S. D. Wang, W. H. Lo, T. Y. Chang, and T. F. Lei, "A novel process-compatible fluorination technique with electrical characteristic improvements of poly-Si TFTs," IEEE Electron Device Lett. 26, 372-374 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lin, Y. T.

Y. T. Lin, C. Chen, J. M. Shieh, Y. J. Lee, C. L. Pan, C. W. Cheng, J. T. Peng and C. W. Chao, " Trap-state density in continuous-wave laser-crystallized single-grainlike silicon transistors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 233511-233513 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Liu, X.

X. Liu, D. Du, and G. Mourou, "Laser ablation and micromachining with ultrashort laser pulses," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1706-1716 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lo, W. H.

S. D. Wang, W. H. Lo, T. Y. Chang, and T. F. Lei, "A novel process-compatible fluorination technique with electrical characteristic improvements of poly-Si TFTs," IEEE Electron Device Lett. 26, 372-374 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lu, Y. F.

Y. F. Chong, K. L. Pey, A. T. S. Wee, A. See, L. Chan, Y. F. Lu, W. D. Song and L. H. Chua, "Annealing of ultrashallow p+/n junction by 248nm excimer laser and rapid thermal processing with different preamorphization depths," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 3197-3199 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Magrìd, A.

G. Fortunatoa, V. Priviterab, A. La Magnab, L. Mariuccia, M. Cuscunàa, B. G. Svenssonc, E. Monakhovc, M. Camallerid, A. Magrìd, D. Salinasd and F. Simone, "Excimer Laser annealing for shallow junction formation in Si power MOS devices," Thin Solid Films,  504, 2-6 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mariuccia, L.

G. Fortunatoa, V. Priviterab, A. La Magnab, L. Mariuccia, M. Cuscunàa, B. G. Svenssonc, E. Monakhovc, M. Camallerid, A. Magrìd, D. Salinasd and F. Simone, "Excimer Laser annealing for shallow junction formation in Si power MOS devices," Thin Solid Films,  504, 2-6 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mazur, E.

S. K. Sundaram and E. Mazur, "Inducing and probing non-thermal transitions in semiconductors using femtosecond laser pulses," Nature Mater. 1, 217-224 (2002).
[CrossRef]

McCulloch, D. J.

S. D. Brotherton, D. J. McCulloch, J. P. Gowers, J. R. Ayres, and M. J. Trainor, "Influence of melt depth in laser crystallized poly-Si thin film transistors," J. Appl. Phys. 82, 4086-4094 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Migliorato, P.

G. Fortunato and P. Migliorato, "Determination of gap state density in polycrystalline silicon by field-effect conductance," Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 1025-1027 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Miyasaka, M.

M. Miyasaka and J. Stoemenos, "Excimer laser annealing of amorphous and solid-phase-crystallized silicon films," J. Appl. Phys. 86, 5556-5565 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Monakhovc, E.

G. Fortunatoa, V. Priviterab, A. La Magnab, L. Mariuccia, M. Cuscunàa, B. G. Svenssonc, E. Monakhovc, M. Camallerid, A. Magrìd, D. Salinasd and F. Simone, "Excimer Laser annealing for shallow junction formation in Si power MOS devices," Thin Solid Films,  504, 2-6 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mourou, G.

X. Liu, D. Du, and G. Mourou, "Laser ablation and micromachining with ultrashort laser pulses," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1706-1716 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ohashi, Y.

K. Kitahara, Y. Ohashi, Y. Katoh, A. Hara and N. Sasaki, "Submicron-scale characterization of poly-Si thin film crystallized excimer laser and continuous-wave laser," J. Appl. Phys. 95, 7850-7855 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pan, C. L.

Y. C. Wang, C. L. Pan, J. M. Shieh, and B. T. Dai, "Dopant profile engineering by near-infrared femtosecond laser activation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 131104-131106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. T. Lin, C. Chen, J. M. Shieh, Y. J. Lee, C. L. Pan, C. W. Cheng, J. T. Peng and C. W. Chao, " Trap-state density in continuous-wave laser-crystallized single-grainlike silicon transistors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 233511-233513 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Shieh, Z. H. Chen, B. T. Dai, Y. C. Wang, A. Zaitsev, and C. L. Pan, "Near-infrared femtosecond laser-induced crystallization of amorphous silicon," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1232-1234 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Peng, J. T.

Y. T. Lin, C. Chen, J. M. Shieh, Y. J. Lee, C. L. Pan, C. W. Cheng, J. T. Peng and C. W. Chao, " Trap-state density in continuous-wave laser-crystallized single-grainlike silicon transistors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 233511-233513 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pey, K. L.

Y. F. Chong, K. L. Pey, A. T. S. Wee, A. See, L. Chan, Y. F. Lu, W. D. Song and L. H. Chua, "Annealing of ultrashallow p+/n junction by 248nm excimer laser and rapid thermal processing with different preamorphization depths," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 3197-3199 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Poon, C. H.

C. H. Poon, L. S. Tan, B. J. Cho, A. See and M. Bhat, "Boron profile narrowing in laser-processed silicon after rapid thermal anneal," J. Electrochem. Soc. 151, G80-G83 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Priviterab, V.

G. Fortunatoa, V. Priviterab, A. La Magnab, L. Mariuccia, M. Cuscunàa, B. G. Svenssonc, E. Monakhovc, M. Camallerid, A. Magrìd, D. Salinasd and F. Simone, "Excimer Laser annealing for shallow junction formation in Si power MOS devices," Thin Solid Films,  504, 2-6 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Reif, R.

N. Yamauchi, J. J. Hajjar and R. Reif, "Polysilicon thin-film transistors with channel length and width comparable to or smaller than the grain size of the thin film," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices,  38, 55-60 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Rischel, C.

A. Rousse, C. Rischel, S. Fourmaux, I. Uschmann, S. Sebban, G. Grillon, Ph. Balcou, E. Förster, J. P. Geindre, P. Audebert, J. C. Gauthier, and D. Hulin, "Non-thermal melting in semiconductors measured at femtosecond resolution," Nature 410, 65-68 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rose, M. J.

Y. F. Tang, S. R. P. Silva and M. J. Rose, "Super sequential lateral growth of Nd:YAG laser crystallized hydrogenated amorphous silicon," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 186-188 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Rousse, A.

A. Rousse, C. Rischel, S. Fourmaux, I. Uschmann, S. Sebban, G. Grillon, Ph. Balcou, E. Förster, J. P. Geindre, P. Audebert, J. C. Gauthier, and D. Hulin, "Non-thermal melting in semiconductors measured at femtosecond resolution," Nature 410, 65-68 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Salinasd, D.

G. Fortunatoa, V. Priviterab, A. La Magnab, L. Mariuccia, M. Cuscunàa, B. G. Svenssonc, E. Monakhovc, M. Camallerid, A. Magrìd, D. Salinasd and F. Simone, "Excimer Laser annealing for shallow junction formation in Si power MOS devices," Thin Solid Films,  504, 2-6 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sasaki, N.

K. Kitahara, Y. Ohashi, Y. Katoh, A. Hara and N. Sasaki, "Submicron-scale characterization of poly-Si thin film crystallized excimer laser and continuous-wave laser," J. Appl. Phys. 95, 7850-7855 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sebban, S.

A. Rousse, C. Rischel, S. Fourmaux, I. Uschmann, S. Sebban, G. Grillon, Ph. Balcou, E. Förster, J. P. Geindre, P. Audebert, J. C. Gauthier, and D. Hulin, "Non-thermal melting in semiconductors measured at femtosecond resolution," Nature 410, 65-68 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

See, A.

C. H. Poon, L. S. Tan, B. J. Cho, A. See and M. Bhat, "Boron profile narrowing in laser-processed silicon after rapid thermal anneal," J. Electrochem. Soc. 151, G80-G83 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. F. Chong, K. L. Pey, A. T. S. Wee, A. See, L. Chan, Y. F. Lu, W. D. Song and L. H. Chua, "Annealing of ultrashallow p+/n junction by 248nm excimer laser and rapid thermal processing with different preamorphization depths," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 3197-3199 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Shieh, J. M.

Y. C. Wang, C. L. Pan, J. M. Shieh, and B. T. Dai, "Dopant profile engineering by near-infrared femtosecond laser activation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 131104-131106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. T. Lin, C. Chen, J. M. Shieh, Y. J. Lee, C. L. Pan, C. W. Cheng, J. T. Peng and C. W. Chao, " Trap-state density in continuous-wave laser-crystallized single-grainlike silicon transistors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 233511-233513 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Shieh, Z. H. Chen, B. T. Dai, Y. C. Wang, A. Zaitsev, and C. L. Pan, "Near-infrared femtosecond laser-induced crystallization of amorphous silicon," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1232-1234 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Silva, S. R. P.

Y. F. Tang, S. R. P. Silva and M. J. Rose, "Super sequential lateral growth of Nd:YAG laser crystallized hydrogenated amorphous silicon," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 186-188 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Simone, F.

G. Fortunatoa, V. Priviterab, A. La Magnab, L. Mariuccia, M. Cuscunàa, B. G. Svenssonc, E. Monakhovc, M. Camallerid, A. Magrìd, D. Salinasd and F. Simone, "Excimer Laser annealing for shallow junction formation in Si power MOS devices," Thin Solid Films,  504, 2-6 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Song, W. D.

Y. F. Chong, K. L. Pey, A. T. S. Wee, A. See, L. Chan, Y. F. Lu, W. D. Song and L. H. Chua, "Annealing of ultrashallow p+/n junction by 248nm excimer laser and rapid thermal processing with different preamorphization depths," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 3197-3199 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Stoemenos, J.

M. Miyasaka and J. Stoemenos, "Excimer laser annealing of amorphous and solid-phase-crystallized silicon films," J. Appl. Phys. 86, 5556-5565 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sundaram, S. K.

S. K. Sundaram and E. Mazur, "Inducing and probing non-thermal transitions in semiconductors using femtosecond laser pulses," Nature Mater. 1, 217-224 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Svenssonc, B. G.

G. Fortunatoa, V. Priviterab, A. La Magnab, L. Mariuccia, M. Cuscunàa, B. G. Svenssonc, E. Monakhovc, M. Camallerid, A. Magrìd, D. Salinasd and F. Simone, "Excimer Laser annealing for shallow junction formation in Si power MOS devices," Thin Solid Films,  504, 2-6 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tan, L. S.

C. H. Poon, L. S. Tan, B. J. Cho, A. See and M. Bhat, "Boron profile narrowing in laser-processed silicon after rapid thermal anneal," J. Electrochem. Soc. 151, G80-G83 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tang, Y. F.

Y. F. Tang, S. R. P. Silva and M. J. Rose, "Super sequential lateral growth of Nd:YAG laser crystallized hydrogenated amorphous silicon," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 186-188 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Thompson, M. O.

J. S. Im, H. J. Kim, and M. O. Thompson, "Phase transformation mechanisms involved in excimer laser crystallization of amorphous silicon films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1969-1971 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Trainor, M. J.

S. D. Brotherton, D. J. McCulloch, J. P. Gowers, J. R. Ayres, and M. J. Trainor, "Influence of melt depth in laser crystallized poly-Si thin film transistors," J. Appl. Phys. 82, 4086-4094 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Uschmann, I.

A. Rousse, C. Rischel, S. Fourmaux, I. Uschmann, S. Sebban, G. Grillon, Ph. Balcou, E. Förster, J. P. Geindre, P. Audebert, J. C. Gauthier, and D. Hulin, "Non-thermal melting in semiconductors measured at femtosecond resolution," Nature 410, 65-68 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Voutsas, A. T.

A. T. Voutsas, "A new era of crystallization: advances in polysilicon crystallization and crystal engineering," Appl. Surface Science 208, 250-262 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wang, S. D.

S. D. Wang, W. H. Lo, T. Y. Chang, and T. F. Lei, "A novel process-compatible fluorination technique with electrical characteristic improvements of poly-Si TFTs," IEEE Electron Device Lett. 26, 372-374 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y. C.

Y. C. Wang, C. L. Pan, J. M. Shieh, and B. T. Dai, "Dopant profile engineering by near-infrared femtosecond laser activation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 131104-131106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Shieh, Z. H. Chen, B. T. Dai, Y. C. Wang, A. Zaitsev, and C. L. Pan, "Near-infrared femtosecond laser-induced crystallization of amorphous silicon," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1232-1234 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wee, A. T. S.

Y. F. Chong, K. L. Pey, A. T. S. Wee, A. See, L. Chan, Y. F. Lu, W. D. Song and L. H. Chua, "Annealing of ultrashallow p+/n junction by 248nm excimer laser and rapid thermal processing with different preamorphization depths," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 3197-3199 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Werner, J. H.

R. Dassow, J. R. Köhler, M. Grauvogl, R. B. Bergmann, and J. H. Werner, "Laser-crystallized polycrystalline silicon on glass for photovoltaic applications," Solid State Phenom. 67-68, 193-198 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yamauchi, N.

N. Yamauchi, J. J. Hajjar and R. Reif, "Polysilicon thin-film transistors with channel length and width comparable to or smaller than the grain size of the thin film," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices,  38, 55-60 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Zaitsev, A.

J. M. Shieh, Z. H. Chen, B. T. Dai, Y. C. Wang, A. Zaitsev, and C. L. Pan, "Near-infrared femtosecond laser-induced crystallization of amorphous silicon," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1232-1234 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

J. S. Im, H. J. Kim, and M. O. Thompson, "Phase transformation mechanisms involved in excimer laser crystallization of amorphous silicon films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1969-1971 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Y. F. Tang, S. R. P. Silva and M. J. Rose, "Super sequential lateral growth of Nd:YAG laser crystallized hydrogenated amorphous silicon," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 186-188 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Y. T. Lin, C. Chen, J. M. Shieh, Y. J. Lee, C. L. Pan, C. W. Cheng, J. T. Peng and C. W. Chao, " Trap-state density in continuous-wave laser-crystallized single-grainlike silicon transistors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 233511-233513 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. F. Chong, K. L. Pey, A. T. S. Wee, A. See, L. Chan, Y. F. Lu, W. D. Song and L. H. Chua, "Annealing of ultrashallow p+/n junction by 248nm excimer laser and rapid thermal processing with different preamorphization depths," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 3197-3199 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Shieh, Z. H. Chen, B. T. Dai, Y. C. Wang, A. Zaitsev, and C. L. Pan, "Near-infrared femtosecond laser-induced crystallization of amorphous silicon," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1232-1234 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. C. Wang, C. L. Pan, J. M. Shieh, and B. T. Dai, "Dopant profile engineering by near-infrared femtosecond laser activation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 131104-131106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Fortunato and P. Migliorato, "Determination of gap state density in polycrystalline silicon by field-effect conductance," Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 1025-1027 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Surface Science

A. T. Voutsas, "A new era of crystallization: advances in polysilicon crystallization and crystal engineering," Appl. Surface Science 208, 250-262 (2003).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Electron Device Lett.

S. D. Wang, W. H. Lo, T. Y. Chang, and T. F. Lei, "A novel process-compatible fluorination technique with electrical characteristic improvements of poly-Si TFTs," IEEE Electron Device Lett. 26, 372-374 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

X. Liu, D. Du, and G. Mourou, "Laser ablation and micromachining with ultrashort laser pulses," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1706-1716 (1997).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Electron Devices

N. Yamauchi, J. J. Hajjar and R. Reif, "Polysilicon thin-film transistors with channel length and width comparable to or smaller than the grain size of the thin film," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices,  38, 55-60 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

K. Kitahara, Y. Ohashi, Y. Katoh, A. Hara and N. Sasaki, "Submicron-scale characterization of poly-Si thin film crystallized excimer laser and continuous-wave laser," J. Appl. Phys. 95, 7850-7855 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Miyasaka and J. Stoemenos, "Excimer laser annealing of amorphous and solid-phase-crystallized silicon films," J. Appl. Phys. 86, 5556-5565 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Brotherton, D. J. McCulloch, J. P. Gowers, J. R. Ayres, and M. J. Trainor, "Influence of melt depth in laser crystallized poly-Si thin film transistors," J. Appl. Phys. 82, 4086-4094 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Electrochem. Soc.

C. H. Poon, L. S. Tan, B. J. Cho, A. See and M. Bhat, "Boron profile narrowing in laser-processed silicon after rapid thermal anneal," J. Electrochem. Soc. 151, G80-G83 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nature

A. Rousse, C. Rischel, S. Fourmaux, I. Uschmann, S. Sebban, G. Grillon, Ph. Balcou, E. Förster, J. P. Geindre, P. Audebert, J. C. Gauthier, and D. Hulin, "Non-thermal melting in semiconductors measured at femtosecond resolution," Nature 410, 65-68 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature Mater.

S. K. Sundaram and E. Mazur, "Inducing and probing non-thermal transitions in semiconductors using femtosecond laser pulses," Nature Mater. 1, 217-224 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Solid State Phenom.

R. Dassow, J. R. Köhler, M. Grauvogl, R. B. Bergmann, and J. H. Werner, "Laser-crystallized polycrystalline silicon on glass for photovoltaic applications," Solid State Phenom. 67-68, 193-198 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films

G. Fortunatoa, V. Priviterab, A. La Magnab, L. Mariuccia, M. Cuscunàa, B. G. Svenssonc, E. Monakhovc, M. Camallerid, A. Magrìd, D. Salinasd and F. Simone, "Excimer Laser annealing for shallow junction formation in Si power MOS devices," Thin Solid Films,  504, 2-6 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Burtsev, R. Ishihara, C. I. M. Beenakker, "Energy density window for location controlled Si grains by dual-beam excimer laser," Thin Solid Films 419, 199-206 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Ishihara, P. Ch van der Wilt, B. D. van Dijk, A. Burtsev, and J. W. Metselaar, "Advanced excimer-laser crystallization process for single-crystalline thin film transistors," Thin Solid Films 427, 77-85 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Other

S. M. Sze, Semiconductor Devices Physics and Technology (Academic, 1985)

R. Vikas, R. Ishihara, Y. Hiroshima, D. Abe, S. Inoue, T. Shimoda, J. W. Metselaar and C. I. M. Beenakker, "High Performance Single Grain Si TFTs Inside a Location-Controlled Grain by µ-Czochralski Process with Capping Layer," IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting, 2005. IEDM Technical Digest, 919 - 922, 5-7 Dec. 2005.

A. Hara, F. Takeuchi, and N. Sasaki, "Selective single-crystalline-silicon growth at the pre-defined active regions of TFTs on a glass by a scanning CW laser irradiation," in Proceedings of IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting (2000), pp. 209-212

Supplementary Material (1)

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Transfer characteristics and transconductance versus gate voltage for FLA and SPC processed TFTs with channel dimensions of (a) W = L= 2 μm and (b) W = L= 10 μm.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a). Threshold voltages, (b) subthreshold slopes and (c) mobilities for TFTs annealed by FLA with different fluences and the SPC process.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Grain trap-state density in the energy bandgap of the poly-Si channels of TFTs with different channel dimensions processed by SPC and FLA at various fluences.

Metrics