Abstract

GeO2/γ-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane organic-inorganic hybrid optical waveguide films, which contain azobenzene small molecular groups, have been prepared by combining a low temperature sol-gel process with a spin-coating technique. The azobenzene in hybrid films can undergo trans-cis-trans photoisomerization efficiently by a photoirradiation with UV light. It is also found interestingly that surface relief patterns can be heat-induced on such azobenzene-containing small molecular hybrid films, but can be erased by further heating the hybrid film and no permanent damage of the hybrid film is observed. The refractive index, thickness, and morphologic properties of the hybrid films have also been investigated by a prism coupling technique and atomic force microscopy. These results indicate that the azodye-doped hybrid films are promising candidates for integrated optics and photonic applications, which allow directly integrating on the same chip waveguide device with the optical data storage and optical switching devices.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. X. L. Jiang, L Li, J. Kumar, D. Y. Kim, V. Shivshankar, and S. K. Tripathy, "Polarization dependent recordings of surface relief gratings on azobenzene containing polymer films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 19, 2618-2620 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  2. A. Sharma, M. Dokhanian, and A. Kassu, "Photoinduced grating formation in azo-dye-labeled phospholipids thin films by 244-nm light," Opt. Lett 30, 501-503 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. M. Z. Alam, T. Ohmachi, T. Ogata, T. Nonaka, and S. Kurihara, "Photoisomerization behavior and photoinduced surface relief gratings on azopolymer film by a monochromatic light irradiation," Opt. Mater. 29, 365-370 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  4. F. Chaput, J. P. Boilot, D. Riehl, and Y. Lévy, "Modified sol-gel films for optical storage," J. Sol-Gel Sci. &Technol. 2, 779-782 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  5. B. Lebeau, C. Sanchez, S. Brasselet, J. Zyss, G. Froc, and M. Dumont, "Large second-order optical nonlinearities in azo dyes grafted hybrid sol-gel coatings," New J. Chem. 20, 13-18 (1996).
  6. J. A. Gurney, I. Vargas-Baca, A. P. Brown, M. P. Andrews, and S. I. Najafi, "Azo-dye hybrid sol-sel glass composites for optoelectronics," Proc. SPIE 3469, 145-152 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  7. D. Levy, S. Einhorn, and D. Avnir, "Applications of the sol-gel process for the preparation of photochromic information-recording materials: synthesis, properties, mechanisms," J. Non-cryst. Solids 113, 137 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  8. P. Innocenzi, G. Battaglin, M. Guglielmi, R. Signorini, R. Bozio, and M. Maggini, "3-(Glycidoxypropyl)-trimethoxysilane-TiO2 hybrid organic-inorganic materials for optical limiting," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 265, 68-74 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  9. S. J. L. Ribeiro, Y. Messaddeq, R. R. Goncalves, M. Ferrari, M. Montagna, and M. A. Aegerter, "Low optical loss planar waveguides prepared in organic-inorganic hybrid system," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3502-3504 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  10. W. X. Que, Y. Zhou, Y. L. Lam, Y. C. Chan, and C. H. Kam, "Optical and microstructural properties of sol-gel derived titania/organically modified silane thin films," Thin Solid Films 358, 16-21 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  11. W. X. Que, X. Hu, and Q. Y. Zhang, "Germania/ormosil hybrid materials derived at low temperature for photonic applications," Appl. Phys. B 76, 423-427 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  12. W. X. Que, L. L. Wang, T. Chen, Z. Sun, X. Hu, "Preparation and spectroscopic studies of sol-gel derived GeO2/organically modified silane hybrid materials for optical waveguides," J. Sol-Gel Sci. Technol. 38, 147-152 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  13. J D. Y. Kim, S. K. Tripathy, L. Li, and J. Kumar, "Laser-induced holographic surface relief gratings on nonlinear optical polymer films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1166-1168 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  14. T. Ubukata, T. Seki, and K. Ichimura, "Surface relief gratings in host-guest supramolecular materials," Adv. Mater. 12, 1675-1678 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  15. J. Guo, Y. N. He, H. P. Xu, B. Song, X. Zhang, Z. Q. Wang, and X. G. Wang, "Azobenzene-containing supramolecular polymer films for laser-induced surface relief gratings," Chem. Mater. 19, 14-17 (2007).
    [CrossRef]

2007

J. Guo, Y. N. He, H. P. Xu, B. Song, X. Zhang, Z. Q. Wang, and X. G. Wang, "Azobenzene-containing supramolecular polymer films for laser-induced surface relief gratings," Chem. Mater. 19, 14-17 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

W. X. Que, L. L. Wang, T. Chen, Z. Sun, X. Hu, "Preparation and spectroscopic studies of sol-gel derived GeO2/organically modified silane hybrid materials for optical waveguides," J. Sol-Gel Sci. Technol. 38, 147-152 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Z. Alam, T. Ohmachi, T. Ogata, T. Nonaka, and S. Kurihara, "Photoisomerization behavior and photoinduced surface relief gratings on azopolymer film by a monochromatic light irradiation," Opt. Mater. 29, 365-370 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

A. Sharma, M. Dokhanian, and A. Kassu, "Photoinduced grating formation in azo-dye-labeled phospholipids thin films by 244-nm light," Opt. Lett 30, 501-503 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

W. X. Que, X. Hu, and Q. Y. Zhang, "Germania/ormosil hybrid materials derived at low temperature for photonic applications," Appl. Phys. B 76, 423-427 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2000

T. Ubukata, T. Seki, and K. Ichimura, "Surface relief gratings in host-guest supramolecular materials," Adv. Mater. 12, 1675-1678 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. Innocenzi, G. Battaglin, M. Guglielmi, R. Signorini, R. Bozio, and M. Maggini, "3-(Glycidoxypropyl)-trimethoxysilane-TiO2 hybrid organic-inorganic materials for optical limiting," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 265, 68-74 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. J. L. Ribeiro, Y. Messaddeq, R. R. Goncalves, M. Ferrari, M. Montagna, and M. A. Aegerter, "Low optical loss planar waveguides prepared in organic-inorganic hybrid system," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3502-3504 (2000).
[CrossRef]

W. X. Que, Y. Zhou, Y. L. Lam, Y. C. Chan, and C. H. Kam, "Optical and microstructural properties of sol-gel derived titania/organically modified silane thin films," Thin Solid Films 358, 16-21 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998

J. A. Gurney, I. Vargas-Baca, A. P. Brown, M. P. Andrews, and S. I. Najafi, "Azo-dye hybrid sol-sel glass composites for optoelectronics," Proc. SPIE 3469, 145-152 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996

X. L. Jiang, L Li, J. Kumar, D. Y. Kim, V. Shivshankar, and S. K. Tripathy, "Polarization dependent recordings of surface relief gratings on azobenzene containing polymer films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 19, 2618-2620 (1996).
[CrossRef]

B. Lebeau, C. Sanchez, S. Brasselet, J. Zyss, G. Froc, and M. Dumont, "Large second-order optical nonlinearities in azo dyes grafted hybrid sol-gel coatings," New J. Chem. 20, 13-18 (1996).

1995

J D. Y. Kim, S. K. Tripathy, L. Li, and J. Kumar, "Laser-induced holographic surface relief gratings on nonlinear optical polymer films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1166-1168 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994

F. Chaput, J. P. Boilot, D. Riehl, and Y. Lévy, "Modified sol-gel films for optical storage," J. Sol-Gel Sci. &Technol. 2, 779-782 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1989

D. Levy, S. Einhorn, and D. Avnir, "Applications of the sol-gel process for the preparation of photochromic information-recording materials: synthesis, properties, mechanisms," J. Non-cryst. Solids 113, 137 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Aegerter, M. A.

S. J. L. Ribeiro, Y. Messaddeq, R. R. Goncalves, M. Ferrari, M. Montagna, and M. A. Aegerter, "Low optical loss planar waveguides prepared in organic-inorganic hybrid system," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3502-3504 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Alam, M. Z.

M. Z. Alam, T. Ohmachi, T. Ogata, T. Nonaka, and S. Kurihara, "Photoisomerization behavior and photoinduced surface relief gratings on azopolymer film by a monochromatic light irradiation," Opt. Mater. 29, 365-370 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Andrews, M. P.

J. A. Gurney, I. Vargas-Baca, A. P. Brown, M. P. Andrews, and S. I. Najafi, "Azo-dye hybrid sol-sel glass composites for optoelectronics," Proc. SPIE 3469, 145-152 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Avnir, D.

D. Levy, S. Einhorn, and D. Avnir, "Applications of the sol-gel process for the preparation of photochromic information-recording materials: synthesis, properties, mechanisms," J. Non-cryst. Solids 113, 137 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Battaglin, G.

P. Innocenzi, G. Battaglin, M. Guglielmi, R. Signorini, R. Bozio, and M. Maggini, "3-(Glycidoxypropyl)-trimethoxysilane-TiO2 hybrid organic-inorganic materials for optical limiting," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 265, 68-74 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Boilot, J. P.

F. Chaput, J. P. Boilot, D. Riehl, and Y. Lévy, "Modified sol-gel films for optical storage," J. Sol-Gel Sci. &Technol. 2, 779-782 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Bozio, R.

P. Innocenzi, G. Battaglin, M. Guglielmi, R. Signorini, R. Bozio, and M. Maggini, "3-(Glycidoxypropyl)-trimethoxysilane-TiO2 hybrid organic-inorganic materials for optical limiting," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 265, 68-74 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Brasselet, S.

B. Lebeau, C. Sanchez, S. Brasselet, J. Zyss, G. Froc, and M. Dumont, "Large second-order optical nonlinearities in azo dyes grafted hybrid sol-gel coatings," New J. Chem. 20, 13-18 (1996).

Brown, A. P.

J. A. Gurney, I. Vargas-Baca, A. P. Brown, M. P. Andrews, and S. I. Najafi, "Azo-dye hybrid sol-sel glass composites for optoelectronics," Proc. SPIE 3469, 145-152 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chan, Y. C.

W. X. Que, Y. Zhou, Y. L. Lam, Y. C. Chan, and C. H. Kam, "Optical and microstructural properties of sol-gel derived titania/organically modified silane thin films," Thin Solid Films 358, 16-21 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chaput, F.

F. Chaput, J. P. Boilot, D. Riehl, and Y. Lévy, "Modified sol-gel films for optical storage," J. Sol-Gel Sci. &Technol. 2, 779-782 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Chen, T.

W. X. Que, L. L. Wang, T. Chen, Z. Sun, X. Hu, "Preparation and spectroscopic studies of sol-gel derived GeO2/organically modified silane hybrid materials for optical waveguides," J. Sol-Gel Sci. Technol. 38, 147-152 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dokhanian, M.

A. Sharma, M. Dokhanian, and A. Kassu, "Photoinduced grating formation in azo-dye-labeled phospholipids thin films by 244-nm light," Opt. Lett 30, 501-503 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dumont, M.

B. Lebeau, C. Sanchez, S. Brasselet, J. Zyss, G. Froc, and M. Dumont, "Large second-order optical nonlinearities in azo dyes grafted hybrid sol-gel coatings," New J. Chem. 20, 13-18 (1996).

Einhorn, S.

D. Levy, S. Einhorn, and D. Avnir, "Applications of the sol-gel process for the preparation of photochromic information-recording materials: synthesis, properties, mechanisms," J. Non-cryst. Solids 113, 137 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Ferrari, M.

S. J. L. Ribeiro, Y. Messaddeq, R. R. Goncalves, M. Ferrari, M. Montagna, and M. A. Aegerter, "Low optical loss planar waveguides prepared in organic-inorganic hybrid system," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3502-3504 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Froc, G.

B. Lebeau, C. Sanchez, S. Brasselet, J. Zyss, G. Froc, and M. Dumont, "Large second-order optical nonlinearities in azo dyes grafted hybrid sol-gel coatings," New J. Chem. 20, 13-18 (1996).

Goncalves, R. R.

S. J. L. Ribeiro, Y. Messaddeq, R. R. Goncalves, M. Ferrari, M. Montagna, and M. A. Aegerter, "Low optical loss planar waveguides prepared in organic-inorganic hybrid system," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3502-3504 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Guglielmi, M.

P. Innocenzi, G. Battaglin, M. Guglielmi, R. Signorini, R. Bozio, and M. Maggini, "3-(Glycidoxypropyl)-trimethoxysilane-TiO2 hybrid organic-inorganic materials for optical limiting," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 265, 68-74 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Guo, J.

J. Guo, Y. N. He, H. P. Xu, B. Song, X. Zhang, Z. Q. Wang, and X. G. Wang, "Azobenzene-containing supramolecular polymer films for laser-induced surface relief gratings," Chem. Mater. 19, 14-17 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gurney, J. A.

J. A. Gurney, I. Vargas-Baca, A. P. Brown, M. P. Andrews, and S. I. Najafi, "Azo-dye hybrid sol-sel glass composites for optoelectronics," Proc. SPIE 3469, 145-152 (1998).
[CrossRef]

He, Y. N.

J. Guo, Y. N. He, H. P. Xu, B. Song, X. Zhang, Z. Q. Wang, and X. G. Wang, "Azobenzene-containing supramolecular polymer films for laser-induced surface relief gratings," Chem. Mater. 19, 14-17 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hu, X.

W. X. Que, L. L. Wang, T. Chen, Z. Sun, X. Hu, "Preparation and spectroscopic studies of sol-gel derived GeO2/organically modified silane hybrid materials for optical waveguides," J. Sol-Gel Sci. Technol. 38, 147-152 (2006).
[CrossRef]

W. X. Que, X. Hu, and Q. Y. Zhang, "Germania/ormosil hybrid materials derived at low temperature for photonic applications," Appl. Phys. B 76, 423-427 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ichimura, K.

T. Ubukata, T. Seki, and K. Ichimura, "Surface relief gratings in host-guest supramolecular materials," Adv. Mater. 12, 1675-1678 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Innocenzi, P.

P. Innocenzi, G. Battaglin, M. Guglielmi, R. Signorini, R. Bozio, and M. Maggini, "3-(Glycidoxypropyl)-trimethoxysilane-TiO2 hybrid organic-inorganic materials for optical limiting," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 265, 68-74 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, X. L.

X. L. Jiang, L Li, J. Kumar, D. Y. Kim, V. Shivshankar, and S. K. Tripathy, "Polarization dependent recordings of surface relief gratings on azobenzene containing polymer films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 19, 2618-2620 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kam, C. H.

W. X. Que, Y. Zhou, Y. L. Lam, Y. C. Chan, and C. H. Kam, "Optical and microstructural properties of sol-gel derived titania/organically modified silane thin films," Thin Solid Films 358, 16-21 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kassu, A.

A. Sharma, M. Dokhanian, and A. Kassu, "Photoinduced grating formation in azo-dye-labeled phospholipids thin films by 244-nm light," Opt. Lett 30, 501-503 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, D. Y.

X. L. Jiang, L Li, J. Kumar, D. Y. Kim, V. Shivshankar, and S. K. Tripathy, "Polarization dependent recordings of surface relief gratings on azobenzene containing polymer films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 19, 2618-2620 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J D. Y.

J D. Y. Kim, S. K. Tripathy, L. Li, and J. Kumar, "Laser-induced holographic surface relief gratings on nonlinear optical polymer films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1166-1168 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kumar, J.

X. L. Jiang, L Li, J. Kumar, D. Y. Kim, V. Shivshankar, and S. K. Tripathy, "Polarization dependent recordings of surface relief gratings on azobenzene containing polymer films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 19, 2618-2620 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J D. Y. Kim, S. K. Tripathy, L. Li, and J. Kumar, "Laser-induced holographic surface relief gratings on nonlinear optical polymer films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1166-1168 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kurihara, S.

M. Z. Alam, T. Ohmachi, T. Ogata, T. Nonaka, and S. Kurihara, "Photoisomerization behavior and photoinduced surface relief gratings on azopolymer film by a monochromatic light irradiation," Opt. Mater. 29, 365-370 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lam, Y. L.

W. X. Que, Y. Zhou, Y. L. Lam, Y. C. Chan, and C. H. Kam, "Optical and microstructural properties of sol-gel derived titania/organically modified silane thin films," Thin Solid Films 358, 16-21 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lebeau, B.

B. Lebeau, C. Sanchez, S. Brasselet, J. Zyss, G. Froc, and M. Dumont, "Large second-order optical nonlinearities in azo dyes grafted hybrid sol-gel coatings," New J. Chem. 20, 13-18 (1996).

Levy, D.

D. Levy, S. Einhorn, and D. Avnir, "Applications of the sol-gel process for the preparation of photochromic information-recording materials: synthesis, properties, mechanisms," J. Non-cryst. Solids 113, 137 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Lévy, Y.

F. Chaput, J. P. Boilot, D. Riehl, and Y. Lévy, "Modified sol-gel films for optical storage," J. Sol-Gel Sci. &Technol. 2, 779-782 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Li, L

X. L. Jiang, L Li, J. Kumar, D. Y. Kim, V. Shivshankar, and S. K. Tripathy, "Polarization dependent recordings of surface relief gratings on azobenzene containing polymer films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 19, 2618-2620 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Li, L.

J D. Y. Kim, S. K. Tripathy, L. Li, and J. Kumar, "Laser-induced holographic surface relief gratings on nonlinear optical polymer films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1166-1168 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Maggini, M.

P. Innocenzi, G. Battaglin, M. Guglielmi, R. Signorini, R. Bozio, and M. Maggini, "3-(Glycidoxypropyl)-trimethoxysilane-TiO2 hybrid organic-inorganic materials for optical limiting," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 265, 68-74 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Messaddeq, Y.

S. J. L. Ribeiro, Y. Messaddeq, R. R. Goncalves, M. Ferrari, M. Montagna, and M. A. Aegerter, "Low optical loss planar waveguides prepared in organic-inorganic hybrid system," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3502-3504 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Montagna, M.

S. J. L. Ribeiro, Y. Messaddeq, R. R. Goncalves, M. Ferrari, M. Montagna, and M. A. Aegerter, "Low optical loss planar waveguides prepared in organic-inorganic hybrid system," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3502-3504 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Najafi, S. I.

J. A. Gurney, I. Vargas-Baca, A. P. Brown, M. P. Andrews, and S. I. Najafi, "Azo-dye hybrid sol-sel glass composites for optoelectronics," Proc. SPIE 3469, 145-152 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nonaka, T.

M. Z. Alam, T. Ohmachi, T. Ogata, T. Nonaka, and S. Kurihara, "Photoisomerization behavior and photoinduced surface relief gratings on azopolymer film by a monochromatic light irradiation," Opt. Mater. 29, 365-370 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ogata, T.

M. Z. Alam, T. Ohmachi, T. Ogata, T. Nonaka, and S. Kurihara, "Photoisomerization behavior and photoinduced surface relief gratings on azopolymer film by a monochromatic light irradiation," Opt. Mater. 29, 365-370 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ohmachi, T.

M. Z. Alam, T. Ohmachi, T. Ogata, T. Nonaka, and S. Kurihara, "Photoisomerization behavior and photoinduced surface relief gratings on azopolymer film by a monochromatic light irradiation," Opt. Mater. 29, 365-370 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Que, W. X.

W. X. Que, L. L. Wang, T. Chen, Z. Sun, X. Hu, "Preparation and spectroscopic studies of sol-gel derived GeO2/organically modified silane hybrid materials for optical waveguides," J. Sol-Gel Sci. Technol. 38, 147-152 (2006).
[CrossRef]

W. X. Que, X. Hu, and Q. Y. Zhang, "Germania/ormosil hybrid materials derived at low temperature for photonic applications," Appl. Phys. B 76, 423-427 (2003).
[CrossRef]

W. X. Que, Y. Zhou, Y. L. Lam, Y. C. Chan, and C. H. Kam, "Optical and microstructural properties of sol-gel derived titania/organically modified silane thin films," Thin Solid Films 358, 16-21 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ribeiro, S. J. L.

S. J. L. Ribeiro, Y. Messaddeq, R. R. Goncalves, M. Ferrari, M. Montagna, and M. A. Aegerter, "Low optical loss planar waveguides prepared in organic-inorganic hybrid system," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3502-3504 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Riehl, D.

F. Chaput, J. P. Boilot, D. Riehl, and Y. Lévy, "Modified sol-gel films for optical storage," J. Sol-Gel Sci. &Technol. 2, 779-782 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Sanchez, C.

B. Lebeau, C. Sanchez, S. Brasselet, J. Zyss, G. Froc, and M. Dumont, "Large second-order optical nonlinearities in azo dyes grafted hybrid sol-gel coatings," New J. Chem. 20, 13-18 (1996).

Seki, T.

T. Ubukata, T. Seki, and K. Ichimura, "Surface relief gratings in host-guest supramolecular materials," Adv. Mater. 12, 1675-1678 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sharma, A.

A. Sharma, M. Dokhanian, and A. Kassu, "Photoinduced grating formation in azo-dye-labeled phospholipids thin films by 244-nm light," Opt. Lett 30, 501-503 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shivshankar, V.

X. L. Jiang, L Li, J. Kumar, D. Y. Kim, V. Shivshankar, and S. K. Tripathy, "Polarization dependent recordings of surface relief gratings on azobenzene containing polymer films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 19, 2618-2620 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Signorini, R.

P. Innocenzi, G. Battaglin, M. Guglielmi, R. Signorini, R. Bozio, and M. Maggini, "3-(Glycidoxypropyl)-trimethoxysilane-TiO2 hybrid organic-inorganic materials for optical limiting," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 265, 68-74 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Song, B.

J. Guo, Y. N. He, H. P. Xu, B. Song, X. Zhang, Z. Q. Wang, and X. G. Wang, "Azobenzene-containing supramolecular polymer films for laser-induced surface relief gratings," Chem. Mater. 19, 14-17 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sun, Z.

W. X. Que, L. L. Wang, T. Chen, Z. Sun, X. Hu, "Preparation and spectroscopic studies of sol-gel derived GeO2/organically modified silane hybrid materials for optical waveguides," J. Sol-Gel Sci. Technol. 38, 147-152 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tripathy, S. K.

X. L. Jiang, L Li, J. Kumar, D. Y. Kim, V. Shivshankar, and S. K. Tripathy, "Polarization dependent recordings of surface relief gratings on azobenzene containing polymer films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 19, 2618-2620 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J D. Y. Kim, S. K. Tripathy, L. Li, and J. Kumar, "Laser-induced holographic surface relief gratings on nonlinear optical polymer films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1166-1168 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ubukata, T.

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J. Guo, Y. N. He, H. P. Xu, B. Song, X. Zhang, Z. Q. Wang, and X. G. Wang, "Azobenzene-containing supramolecular polymer films for laser-induced surface relief gratings," Chem. Mater. 19, 14-17 (2007).
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J. Guo, Y. N. He, H. P. Xu, B. Song, X. Zhang, Z. Q. Wang, and X. G. Wang, "Azobenzene-containing supramolecular polymer films for laser-induced surface relief gratings," Chem. Mater. 19, 14-17 (2007).
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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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J. Guo, Y. N. He, H. P. Xu, B. Song, X. Zhang, Z. Q. Wang, and X. G. Wang, "Azobenzene-containing supramolecular polymer films for laser-induced surface relief gratings," Chem. Mater. 19, 14-17 (2007).
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New J. Chem.

B. Lebeau, C. Sanchez, S. Brasselet, J. Zyss, G. Froc, and M. Dumont, "Large second-order optical nonlinearities in azo dyes grafted hybrid sol-gel coatings," New J. Chem. 20, 13-18 (1996).

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Proc. SPIE

J. A. Gurney, I. Vargas-Baca, A. P. Brown, M. P. Andrews, and S. I. Najafi, "Azo-dye hybrid sol-sel glass composites for optoelectronics," Proc. SPIE 3469, 145-152 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Techn.

W. X. Que, L. L. Wang, T. Chen, Z. Sun, X. Hu, "Preparation and spectroscopic studies of sol-gel derived GeO2/organically modified silane hybrid materials for optical waveguides," J. Sol-Gel Sci. Technol. 38, 147-152 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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W. X. Que, Y. Zhou, Y. L. Lam, Y. C. Chan, and C. H. Kam, "Optical and microstructural properties of sol-gel derived titania/organically modified silane thin films," Thin Solid Films 358, 16-21 (2000).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

UV-Vis absorbance changes of the hybrid film upon irradiation at UV of 362 nm and light intensity of 2 mW/cm2. (a) Film obtained at room temperature, (b) Film heated at 120°C

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

AFM image of the surface relief patterns formed on azobenzene-containing hybrid film heated at 80°C

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

AFM image of the surface relief patterns formed on azobenzene-containing hybrid film heated at 120°C

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