Abstract

Optical differential phase shift keying is normally demodulated in a delay-line interferometer with a 1-bit delay such that the free-spectral-range of the demodulator is equal to the transmitted bitrate. We show using Karkunen-Loeve expansion simulation that free-spectral-range optimization leads to increased chromatic dispersion tolerances. The optimized delay inversely scales with the amount of chromatic dispersion such that a delay slightly shorter than the bit period increases tolerances with no adverse effect on the polarization-mode-dispersion tolerance or frequency offset penalty at the receiver.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. H. Gnauck and P. J. Winzer, "Optical phase-shift-keyed transmission," J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 115-130 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  2. P. J. Winzer, and R.-J. Essiambre, "Advanced modulation formats for high-capacity optical transport networks," J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 4711-4728 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  3. K. P. Ho, Phase Modulated Optical Communication Systems (Springer, 2005).
  4. X. Liu, "Nonlinear effects in phase shift keyed transmission," in Proc. of C2004, paper ThM4, Los Angeles, CA (2004).
  5. X. Liu, Y.-H. Kao, M. Movassaghi, and R. C. Giles, "Tolerance to in-band coherent crosstalk of differential phase-shift-keyed signal with balanced detection and FEC," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1209-1911 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  6. F. Seguin and F. Gonthier, "Tuneable all-fiber, delay-line interferometer for DPSK demodulation," in Proc. OFC 2005, paper OFL5, Anaheim, CA (2005).
  7. J. X. Cai, D. G. Foursa, L. Liu, C. R. Davidson, Y. Cai, W. W. Patterson, A. J. Lucero, B. Bakhshi, G. Mohs, P. C. Corbett, V. Gupta, W. Anderson, M. Vaa, G. Domagala, M. Mazurczyk, H. Li, S. Jiang, M. Nissov, A. N. Pilipetskii, and N. S. Bergano, "RZ-DPSK field trial over 13 100km of installed non-slope matched submarine fibers," J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 95 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  8. T. Mizuochi, K. Ishida, T. Kobayashi, J. Abe, K. Kinjo, K. Motoshima, K. Kasahara, "A comparative study of DPSK and OOK WDM transmission over transoceanic distances and their performance degradations due to nonlinear phase noise," J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 1933-1943 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  9. G. Charlet, E. Corbel, J. Lazaro, A. Klekamp, R. Dischler, P. Tran, W. Idler, H. Mardoyan, A. Konczykowska, F. Jorge, S. Bigo, "WDM transmission at 6-Tbit/s capacity over transatlantic distance, using 42.7-Gb/s differential phase-shift keying without pulse carver," J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 104-107 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  10. H. Kim and P. Winzer, "Robustness to laser frequency offset in direct-detection DPSK and DQPSK Systems," J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 1887-1891(2003).
    [CrossRef]
  11. P. Winzer and H. Kim, "Degradations in balanced DPSK receivers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1282-1284 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  12. K. P. Ho, "The effect of interferometer phase error on direct-detection DPSK and DQPSK signals," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 308-310 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  13. G. Bosco and P. Poggiolini, "The impact of receiver imperfections on the performance of Optical Direct-Detection DPSK," J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 842-848 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  14. J. P. Gordon and L. F. Mollenauer, "Phase noise in photonic communications systems using linear amplifiers," Opt. Lett. 15, 1351-1353 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. E. Iannone, F. S. Locati, F. Matera, M. Romagnoli, and M. Settembre, "High-speed DPSK coherent systems in the presence of chromatic dispersion and Kerr Effect," J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 842-848 (2005).
  16. J. Wang and J. M. Kahn, "Impact of chromatic and polarization-mode dispersions on DPSK systems using interferometric demodulation and direct detection," J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 362-371 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  17. Y. K. Lize, L. Christen, P. Saghari, S. Nuccio, A.E. Willner, R. Kashyap, and Paraschis, "Implication of Chromatic dispersion on frequency offset and Bit delay mismatch penalty in DPSK demodulation," in Proc. ECOC 2006, paper Mo3.2.5, Cannes, France (2006).
  18. B. Mikkelsen, C. Rasmussen, P. Mamyshev, and F. Liu, "Partial DPSK with excellent filter tolerance and OSNR sensitivity," Electron. Lett. 42, 1363 -1364 (2006).
    [CrossRef]

2006 (2)

P. J. Winzer, and R.-J. Essiambre, "Advanced modulation formats for high-capacity optical transport networks," J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 4711-4728 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. Mikkelsen, C. Rasmussen, P. Mamyshev, and F. Liu, "Partial DPSK with excellent filter tolerance and OSNR sensitivity," Electron. Lett. 42, 1363 -1364 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (5)

2004 (3)

K. P. Ho, "The effect of interferometer phase error on direct-detection DPSK and DQPSK signals," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 308-310 (2004).
[CrossRef]

X. Liu, Y.-H. Kao, M. Movassaghi, and R. C. Giles, "Tolerance to in-band coherent crosstalk of differential phase-shift-keyed signal with balanced detection and FEC," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1209-1911 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Wang and J. M. Kahn, "Impact of chromatic and polarization-mode dispersions on DPSK systems using interferometric demodulation and direct detection," J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 362-371 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (3)

1990 (1)

Abe, J.

Anderson, W.

Bakhshi, B.

Bergano, N. S.

Bigo, S.

Bosco, G.

Cai, J. X.

Cai, Y.

Charlet, G.

Corbel, E.

Corbett, P. C.

Davidson, C. R.

Dischler, R.

Domagala, G.

Essiambre, R.-J.

Foursa, D. G.

Giles, R. C.

X. Liu, Y.-H. Kao, M. Movassaghi, and R. C. Giles, "Tolerance to in-band coherent crosstalk of differential phase-shift-keyed signal with balanced detection and FEC," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1209-1911 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gnauck, A. H.

Gordon, J. P.

Gupta, V.

Ho, K. P.

K. P. Ho, "The effect of interferometer phase error on direct-detection DPSK and DQPSK signals," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 308-310 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Iannone, E.

Idler, W.

Ishida, K.

Jiang, S.

Jorge, F.

Kahn, J. M.

Kao, Y.-H.

X. Liu, Y.-H. Kao, M. Movassaghi, and R. C. Giles, "Tolerance to in-band coherent crosstalk of differential phase-shift-keyed signal with balanced detection and FEC," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1209-1911 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kasahara, K.

Kim, H.

H. Kim and P. Winzer, "Robustness to laser frequency offset in direct-detection DPSK and DQPSK Systems," J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 1887-1891(2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Winzer and H. Kim, "Degradations in balanced DPSK receivers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1282-1284 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kinjo, K.

Klekamp, A.

Kobayashi, T.

Konczykowska, A.

Lazaro, J.

Li, H.

Liu, F.

B. Mikkelsen, C. Rasmussen, P. Mamyshev, and F. Liu, "Partial DPSK with excellent filter tolerance and OSNR sensitivity," Electron. Lett. 42, 1363 -1364 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Liu, L.

Liu, X.

X. Liu, Y.-H. Kao, M. Movassaghi, and R. C. Giles, "Tolerance to in-band coherent crosstalk of differential phase-shift-keyed signal with balanced detection and FEC," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1209-1911 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Locati, F. S.

Lucero, A. J.

Mamyshev, P.

B. Mikkelsen, C. Rasmussen, P. Mamyshev, and F. Liu, "Partial DPSK with excellent filter tolerance and OSNR sensitivity," Electron. Lett. 42, 1363 -1364 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mardoyan, H.

Matera, F.

Mazurczyk, M.

Mikkelsen, B.

B. Mikkelsen, C. Rasmussen, P. Mamyshev, and F. Liu, "Partial DPSK with excellent filter tolerance and OSNR sensitivity," Electron. Lett. 42, 1363 -1364 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mizuochi, T.

Mohs, G.

Mollenauer, L. F.

Motoshima, K.

Movassaghi, M.

X. Liu, Y.-H. Kao, M. Movassaghi, and R. C. Giles, "Tolerance to in-band coherent crosstalk of differential phase-shift-keyed signal with balanced detection and FEC," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1209-1911 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nissov, M.

Patterson, W. W.

Pilipetskii, A. N.

Poggiolini, P.

Rasmussen, C.

B. Mikkelsen, C. Rasmussen, P. Mamyshev, and F. Liu, "Partial DPSK with excellent filter tolerance and OSNR sensitivity," Electron. Lett. 42, 1363 -1364 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Romagnoli, M.

Settembre, M.

Tran, P.

Vaa, M.

Wang, J.

Winzer, P.

H. Kim and P. Winzer, "Robustness to laser frequency offset in direct-detection DPSK and DQPSK Systems," J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 1887-1891(2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Winzer and H. Kim, "Degradations in balanced DPSK receivers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1282-1284 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Winzer, P. J.

Electron. Lett. (1)

B. Mikkelsen, C. Rasmussen, P. Mamyshev, and F. Liu, "Partial DPSK with excellent filter tolerance and OSNR sensitivity," Electron. Lett. 42, 1363 -1364 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (3)

P. Winzer and H. Kim, "Degradations in balanced DPSK receivers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1282-1284 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. P. Ho, "The effect of interferometer phase error on direct-detection DPSK and DQPSK signals," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 308-310 (2004).
[CrossRef]

X. Liu, Y.-H. Kao, M. Movassaghi, and R. C. Giles, "Tolerance to in-band coherent crosstalk of differential phase-shift-keyed signal with balanced detection and FEC," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1209-1911 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (9)

H. Kim and P. Winzer, "Robustness to laser frequency offset in direct-detection DPSK and DQPSK Systems," J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 1887-1891(2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Mizuochi, K. Ishida, T. Kobayashi, J. Abe, K. Kinjo, K. Motoshima, K. Kasahara, "A comparative study of DPSK and OOK WDM transmission over transoceanic distances and their performance degradations due to nonlinear phase noise," J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 1933-1943 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Wang and J. M. Kahn, "Impact of chromatic and polarization-mode dispersions on DPSK systems using interferometric demodulation and direct detection," J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 362-371 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Charlet, E. Corbel, J. Lazaro, A. Klekamp, R. Dischler, P. Tran, W. Idler, H. Mardoyan, A. Konczykowska, F. Jorge, S. Bigo, "WDM transmission at 6-Tbit/s capacity over transatlantic distance, using 42.7-Gb/s differential phase-shift keying without pulse carver," J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 104-107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. H. Gnauck and P. J. Winzer, "Optical phase-shift-keyed transmission," J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 115-130 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. X. Cai, D. G. Foursa, L. Liu, C. R. Davidson, Y. Cai, W. W. Patterson, A. J. Lucero, B. Bakhshi, G. Mohs, P. C. Corbett, V. Gupta, W. Anderson, M. Vaa, G. Domagala, M. Mazurczyk, H. Li, S. Jiang, M. Nissov, A. N. Pilipetskii, and N. S. Bergano, "RZ-DPSK field trial over 13 100km of installed non-slope matched submarine fibers," J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 95 (2005).
[CrossRef]

E. Iannone, F. S. Locati, F. Matera, M. Romagnoli, and M. Settembre, "High-speed DPSK coherent systems in the presence of chromatic dispersion and Kerr Effect," J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 842-848 (2005).

G. Bosco and P. Poggiolini, "The impact of receiver imperfections on the performance of Optical Direct-Detection DPSK," J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 842-848 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Winzer, and R.-J. Essiambre, "Advanced modulation formats for high-capacity optical transport networks," J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 4711-4728 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Other (4)

Y. K. Lize, L. Christen, P. Saghari, S. Nuccio, A.E. Willner, R. Kashyap, and Paraschis, "Implication of Chromatic dispersion on frequency offset and Bit delay mismatch penalty in DPSK demodulation," in Proc. ECOC 2006, paper Mo3.2.5, Cannes, France (2006).

F. Seguin and F. Gonthier, "Tuneable all-fiber, delay-line interferometer for DPSK demodulation," in Proc. OFC 2005, paper OFL5, Anaheim, CA (2005).

K. P. Ho, Phase Modulated Optical Communication Systems (Springer, 2005).

X. Liu, "Nonlinear effects in phase shift keyed transmission," in Proc. of C2004, paper ThM4, Los Angeles, CA (2004).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Concept of bit delay mismatch. For mismatch smaller than one bit period a constant deterministic interference occurs for each bit period leading to greater tolerance to ISI.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Diagram of the setup for simulations using a 40Gbps RZ-DPSK signal with 50GHz 3rd order Gaussian optical filter and 32GHz Lorentzian electrical filter. Karkunen-Loeve expansion for non-Gaussian noise statistics was used with 512 bits simulated at 60 samples per bit in a simulation bandwidth of 0.48 THz.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Bit delay mismatch penalty for different values of chromatic dispersion. The optimal bit delay is no longer 1bit in the presence of CD.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Numerical results of optimal mismatch as percentage of bit period for CD. Difference in OSNR penalty for exact 1-bit and with optimal bit delay mismatch. An improvement of 12.5% of CD tolerance is observed at 3dB OSNR penalty.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Numerical results of optimal mismatch as percentage of bit period and OSNR penalty for PMD. The improvement of 2% in PMD tolerance is not significant and within the accuracy of the numerical simulation but it nevertheless indicates that optimized FSR for CD will not be degraded by PMD.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Combination of frequency offset and CD with the CD penalty subtracted out. Optimized bit-delay mismatch compensates for some of the increased penalty incurred by the combination without reaching the no-CD level.

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