Abstract

We report a significant improvement of the finesse and quality factor of a calcium fluoride whispering gallery mode optical resonator achieved with iterative thermal annealing. The initial and final values of the resonator finesse are i ≈ 5 × 105 and f ≥ 107 respectively. The measurements are conducted at room temperature in the laboratory atmosphere.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. G. Rempe, R. J. Thompson, H. J. Kimble, and R. Lalezari," Measurement of ultralow losses in an optical interferometer," Opt. Lett. 17, 363-365 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. C. J. Hood, H. J. Kimble, and J. Ye, "Characterization of high-finesse mirrors: Loss, phase shifts, and mode structure in an optical cavity," Phys. Rev. A 64, 033804 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  3. H. R. Bilger, P. V. Wells, and G. E. Stedman, "Origins of fundamental limits for reflection losses at multilayer dielectric mirrors," Appl. Opt. 33, 7390-7396 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. H.-J. Cho, M.-J. Shin, and J.-C. Lee, "Effects of substrate and deposition method onto the mirror scattering," Appl. Opt. 45, 1440-1446 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. E. M. Purcell, "Spontaneous emission probabilities at radio frequencies," Phys. Rev. 69, 681-681 (1946).
  6. A. B. Matsko, A. A. Savchenkov, D. Strekalov, V. Ilchenko, and L. Maleki, "Optical hyperparametric oscillations in a whispering-gallery-mode resonator: Threshold and phase diffusion," Phys. Rev. A 71, 033804 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  7. V. S. Ilchenko, A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, and Lute Maleki, "Nonlinear Optics and Crystalline Whispering Gallery Mode Cavities," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 043903 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. D. W. Vernooy, V. S. Ilchenko, H. Mabuchi, E. W. Streed, and H. J. Kimble, "High-Q measurements of fusedsilica microspheres in the near infrared," Opt. Lett. 23, 247-249 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  9. T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, "Demonstration of ultra-high-Q small mode volume toroid microcavities on a chip," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 6113-6115 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  10. I. S. Grudinin, V. S. Ilchenko, and L. Maleki, "Ultrahigh optical Q factors of crystalline resonators in the linear regime," Phys. Rev. A 74, 063806 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  11. S. M. Spillane, T. J. Kippenberg, and K. J. Vahala, "Ultralow-threshold Raman laser using a spherical dielectric microcavity," Nature 415, 621-623 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. I. S. Grudinin and L. Maleki, " Ultralow-threshold Raman lasing with CaF2 resonators," Opt. Lett. 32, 166-168 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  13. T. J. Kippenberg, H. Rokhsari, T. Carmon, A. Scherer, and K. J. Vahala, "Analysis of radiation-pressure induced mechanical oscillation of an optical microcavity," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 033901 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, "Kerr-nonlinearity optical parametric oscillation in an ultrahigh-Q toroid microcavity," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 083904 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, D. Strekalov, M. Mohageg, V. S. Ilchenko, and L. Maleki, "Low threshold optical oscillations in a whispering gallery mode CaF2 resonator," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 243905 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  16. V. B. Braginsky, V. S. Ilchenko, and K. S. Bagdassarov, "Experimental observation of fundamental microwave absorption in high quality dielectric crystalls," Phys. Lett. A 120, 300-305 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  17. A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, M. Mohageg, and L. Maleki, "Ringdown spectroscopy of stimulated Raman scattering in a whispering gallery mode resonator," Opt. Lett. 32, 497-499 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. A. A. Savchenkov, V. S. Ilchenko, A. B. Matsko, and L. Maleki "Kilohertz optical resonances in dielectric crystal cavities," Phys. Rev. A 70, Art. No. 051804R (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  19. A. B. Matsko, A. A. Savchenkov, and L. Maleki, "Ring-down spectroscopy for studying properties of CWRaman lasers," Opt. Commun. 260, 662-665 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  20. B. Wang, R. R. Rockwell, and J. List, "Linear birefringence in CaF2 measured at deep ultraviolet and visible wavelengths," J. Microlithogr., Microfabr., Microsyst. 3, 115-121 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  21. V. Deuster, M. Schick, Th. Kayser, H. Dabringhaus, H. Klapper and K. Wandelt, "Studies of the facetting of the polished (100) face of CaF2," J. Cryst. Growth 250, 313-323 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  22. Q. -Z. Zhao, J. -R. Qiu, X. -W. Jiang, C. -J. Zhao, and C. -S. Zhu, "Fabrication of internal diffraction gratings in calcium fluoride crystals by a focused femtosecond laser," Opt. Express 12, 742-746 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

2006 (3)

H.-J. Cho, M.-J. Shin, and J.-C. Lee, "Effects of substrate and deposition method onto the mirror scattering," Appl. Opt. 45, 1440-1446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. B. Matsko, A. A. Savchenkov, and L. Maleki, "Ring-down spectroscopy for studying properties of CWRaman lasers," Opt. Commun. 260, 662-665 (2006).
[CrossRef]

I. S. Grudinin, V. S. Ilchenko, and L. Maleki, "Ultrahigh optical Q factors of crystalline resonators in the linear regime," Phys. Rev. A 74, 063806 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

A. B. Matsko, A. A. Savchenkov, D. Strekalov, V. Ilchenko, and L. Maleki, "Optical hyperparametric oscillations in a whispering-gallery-mode resonator: Threshold and phase diffusion," Phys. Rev. A 71, 033804 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Kippenberg, H. Rokhsari, T. Carmon, A. Scherer, and K. J. Vahala, "Analysis of radiation-pressure induced mechanical oscillation of an optical microcavity," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 033901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (5)

T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, "Kerr-nonlinearity optical parametric oscillation in an ultrahigh-Q toroid microcavity," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 083904 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, D. Strekalov, M. Mohageg, V. S. Ilchenko, and L. Maleki, "Low threshold optical oscillations in a whispering gallery mode CaF2 resonator," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 243905 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, "Demonstration of ultra-high-Q small mode volume toroid microcavities on a chip," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 6113-6115 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. Wang, R. R. Rockwell, and J. List, "Linear birefringence in CaF2 measured at deep ultraviolet and visible wavelengths," J. Microlithogr., Microfabr., Microsyst. 3, 115-121 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Q. -Z. Zhao, J. -R. Qiu, X. -W. Jiang, C. -J. Zhao, and C. -S. Zhu, "Fabrication of internal diffraction gratings in calcium fluoride crystals by a focused femtosecond laser," Opt. Express 12, 742-746 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

V. Deuster, M. Schick, Th. Kayser, H. Dabringhaus, H. Klapper and K. Wandelt, "Studies of the facetting of the polished (100) face of CaF2," J. Cryst. Growth 250, 313-323 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

S. M. Spillane, T. J. Kippenberg, and K. J. Vahala, "Ultralow-threshold Raman laser using a spherical dielectric microcavity," Nature 415, 621-623 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

C. J. Hood, H. J. Kimble, and J. Ye, "Characterization of high-finesse mirrors: Loss, phase shifts, and mode structure in an optical cavity," Phys. Rev. A 64, 033804 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

1994 (1)

1992 (1)

1987 (1)

V. B. Braginsky, V. S. Ilchenko, and K. S. Bagdassarov, "Experimental observation of fundamental microwave absorption in high quality dielectric crystalls," Phys. Lett. A 120, 300-305 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1946 (1)

E. M. Purcell, "Spontaneous emission probabilities at radio frequencies," Phys. Rev. 69, 681-681 (1946).

Bagdassarov, K. S.

V. B. Braginsky, V. S. Ilchenko, and K. S. Bagdassarov, "Experimental observation of fundamental microwave absorption in high quality dielectric crystalls," Phys. Lett. A 120, 300-305 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Bilger, H. R.

Braginsky, V. B.

V. B. Braginsky, V. S. Ilchenko, and K. S. Bagdassarov, "Experimental observation of fundamental microwave absorption in high quality dielectric crystalls," Phys. Lett. A 120, 300-305 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Carmon, T.

T. J. Kippenberg, H. Rokhsari, T. Carmon, A. Scherer, and K. J. Vahala, "Analysis of radiation-pressure induced mechanical oscillation of an optical microcavity," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 033901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cho, H.-J.

Dabringhaus, H.

V. Deuster, M. Schick, Th. Kayser, H. Dabringhaus, H. Klapper and K. Wandelt, "Studies of the facetting of the polished (100) face of CaF2," J. Cryst. Growth 250, 313-323 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Deuster, V.

V. Deuster, M. Schick, Th. Kayser, H. Dabringhaus, H. Klapper and K. Wandelt, "Studies of the facetting of the polished (100) face of CaF2," J. Cryst. Growth 250, 313-323 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Grudinin, I. S.

I. S. Grudinin and L. Maleki, " Ultralow-threshold Raman lasing with CaF2 resonators," Opt. Lett. 32, 166-168 (2007).
[CrossRef]

I. S. Grudinin, V. S. Ilchenko, and L. Maleki, "Ultrahigh optical Q factors of crystalline resonators in the linear regime," Phys. Rev. A 74, 063806 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hood, C. J.

C. J. Hood, H. J. Kimble, and J. Ye, "Characterization of high-finesse mirrors: Loss, phase shifts, and mode structure in an optical cavity," Phys. Rev. A 64, 033804 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ilchenko, V.

A. B. Matsko, A. A. Savchenkov, D. Strekalov, V. Ilchenko, and L. Maleki, "Optical hyperparametric oscillations in a whispering-gallery-mode resonator: Threshold and phase diffusion," Phys. Rev. A 71, 033804 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ilchenko, V. S.

I. S. Grudinin, V. S. Ilchenko, and L. Maleki, "Ultrahigh optical Q factors of crystalline resonators in the linear regime," Phys. Rev. A 74, 063806 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, D. Strekalov, M. Mohageg, V. S. Ilchenko, and L. Maleki, "Low threshold optical oscillations in a whispering gallery mode CaF2 resonator," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 243905 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. W. Vernooy, V. S. Ilchenko, H. Mabuchi, E. W. Streed, and H. J. Kimble, "High-Q measurements of fusedsilica microspheres in the near infrared," Opt. Lett. 23, 247-249 (1998).
[CrossRef]

V. B. Braginsky, V. S. Ilchenko, and K. S. Bagdassarov, "Experimental observation of fundamental microwave absorption in high quality dielectric crystalls," Phys. Lett. A 120, 300-305 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, X. -W.

Kayser, Th.

V. Deuster, M. Schick, Th. Kayser, H. Dabringhaus, H. Klapper and K. Wandelt, "Studies of the facetting of the polished (100) face of CaF2," J. Cryst. Growth 250, 313-323 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kimble, H. J.

Kippenberg, T. J.

T. J. Kippenberg, H. Rokhsari, T. Carmon, A. Scherer, and K. J. Vahala, "Analysis of radiation-pressure induced mechanical oscillation of an optical microcavity," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 033901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, "Demonstration of ultra-high-Q small mode volume toroid microcavities on a chip," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 6113-6115 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, "Kerr-nonlinearity optical parametric oscillation in an ultrahigh-Q toroid microcavity," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 083904 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. M. Spillane, T. J. Kippenberg, and K. J. Vahala, "Ultralow-threshold Raman laser using a spherical dielectric microcavity," Nature 415, 621-623 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Klapper, H.

V. Deuster, M. Schick, Th. Kayser, H. Dabringhaus, H. Klapper and K. Wandelt, "Studies of the facetting of the polished (100) face of CaF2," J. Cryst. Growth 250, 313-323 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lalezari, R.

Lee, J.-C.

List, J.

B. Wang, R. R. Rockwell, and J. List, "Linear birefringence in CaF2 measured at deep ultraviolet and visible wavelengths," J. Microlithogr., Microfabr., Microsyst. 3, 115-121 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mabuchi, H.

Maleki, L.

I. S. Grudinin and L. Maleki, " Ultralow-threshold Raman lasing with CaF2 resonators," Opt. Lett. 32, 166-168 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, M. Mohageg, and L. Maleki, "Ringdown spectroscopy of stimulated Raman scattering in a whispering gallery mode resonator," Opt. Lett. 32, 497-499 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. B. Matsko, A. A. Savchenkov, and L. Maleki, "Ring-down spectroscopy for studying properties of CWRaman lasers," Opt. Commun. 260, 662-665 (2006).
[CrossRef]

I. S. Grudinin, V. S. Ilchenko, and L. Maleki, "Ultrahigh optical Q factors of crystalline resonators in the linear regime," Phys. Rev. A 74, 063806 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. B. Matsko, A. A. Savchenkov, D. Strekalov, V. Ilchenko, and L. Maleki, "Optical hyperparametric oscillations in a whispering-gallery-mode resonator: Threshold and phase diffusion," Phys. Rev. A 71, 033804 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, D. Strekalov, M. Mohageg, V. S. Ilchenko, and L. Maleki, "Low threshold optical oscillations in a whispering gallery mode CaF2 resonator," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 243905 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Matsko, A. B.

A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, M. Mohageg, and L. Maleki, "Ringdown spectroscopy of stimulated Raman scattering in a whispering gallery mode resonator," Opt. Lett. 32, 497-499 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. B. Matsko, A. A. Savchenkov, and L. Maleki, "Ring-down spectroscopy for studying properties of CWRaman lasers," Opt. Commun. 260, 662-665 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. B. Matsko, A. A. Savchenkov, D. Strekalov, V. Ilchenko, and L. Maleki, "Optical hyperparametric oscillations in a whispering-gallery-mode resonator: Threshold and phase diffusion," Phys. Rev. A 71, 033804 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, D. Strekalov, M. Mohageg, V. S. Ilchenko, and L. Maleki, "Low threshold optical oscillations in a whispering gallery mode CaF2 resonator," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 243905 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mohageg, M.

A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, M. Mohageg, and L. Maleki, "Ringdown spectroscopy of stimulated Raman scattering in a whispering gallery mode resonator," Opt. Lett. 32, 497-499 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, D. Strekalov, M. Mohageg, V. S. Ilchenko, and L. Maleki, "Low threshold optical oscillations in a whispering gallery mode CaF2 resonator," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 243905 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Purcell, E. M.

E. M. Purcell, "Spontaneous emission probabilities at radio frequencies," Phys. Rev. 69, 681-681 (1946).

Qiu, J. -R.

Rempe, G.

Rockwell, R. R.

B. Wang, R. R. Rockwell, and J. List, "Linear birefringence in CaF2 measured at deep ultraviolet and visible wavelengths," J. Microlithogr., Microfabr., Microsyst. 3, 115-121 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rokhsari, H.

T. J. Kippenberg, H. Rokhsari, T. Carmon, A. Scherer, and K. J. Vahala, "Analysis of radiation-pressure induced mechanical oscillation of an optical microcavity," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 033901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Savchenkov, A. A.

A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, M. Mohageg, and L. Maleki, "Ringdown spectroscopy of stimulated Raman scattering in a whispering gallery mode resonator," Opt. Lett. 32, 497-499 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. B. Matsko, A. A. Savchenkov, and L. Maleki, "Ring-down spectroscopy for studying properties of CWRaman lasers," Opt. Commun. 260, 662-665 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. B. Matsko, A. A. Savchenkov, D. Strekalov, V. Ilchenko, and L. Maleki, "Optical hyperparametric oscillations in a whispering-gallery-mode resonator: Threshold and phase diffusion," Phys. Rev. A 71, 033804 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, D. Strekalov, M. Mohageg, V. S. Ilchenko, and L. Maleki, "Low threshold optical oscillations in a whispering gallery mode CaF2 resonator," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 243905 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Scherer, A.

T. J. Kippenberg, H. Rokhsari, T. Carmon, A. Scherer, and K. J. Vahala, "Analysis of radiation-pressure induced mechanical oscillation of an optical microcavity," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 033901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schick, M.

V. Deuster, M. Schick, Th. Kayser, H. Dabringhaus, H. Klapper and K. Wandelt, "Studies of the facetting of the polished (100) face of CaF2," J. Cryst. Growth 250, 313-323 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Shin, M.-J.

Spillane, S. M.

T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, "Kerr-nonlinearity optical parametric oscillation in an ultrahigh-Q toroid microcavity," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 083904 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, "Demonstration of ultra-high-Q small mode volume toroid microcavities on a chip," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 6113-6115 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Spillane, T. J. Kippenberg, and K. J. Vahala, "Ultralow-threshold Raman laser using a spherical dielectric microcavity," Nature 415, 621-623 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stedman, G. E.

Streed, E. W.

Strekalov, D.

A. B. Matsko, A. A. Savchenkov, D. Strekalov, V. Ilchenko, and L. Maleki, "Optical hyperparametric oscillations in a whispering-gallery-mode resonator: Threshold and phase diffusion," Phys. Rev. A 71, 033804 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, D. Strekalov, M. Mohageg, V. S. Ilchenko, and L. Maleki, "Low threshold optical oscillations in a whispering gallery mode CaF2 resonator," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 243905 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Thompson, R. J.

Vahala, K. J.

T. J. Kippenberg, H. Rokhsari, T. Carmon, A. Scherer, and K. J. Vahala, "Analysis of radiation-pressure induced mechanical oscillation of an optical microcavity," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 033901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, "Demonstration of ultra-high-Q small mode volume toroid microcavities on a chip," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 6113-6115 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, "Kerr-nonlinearity optical parametric oscillation in an ultrahigh-Q toroid microcavity," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 083904 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. M. Spillane, T. J. Kippenberg, and K. J. Vahala, "Ultralow-threshold Raman laser using a spherical dielectric microcavity," Nature 415, 621-623 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vernooy, D. W.

Wandelt, K.

V. Deuster, M. Schick, Th. Kayser, H. Dabringhaus, H. Klapper and K. Wandelt, "Studies of the facetting of the polished (100) face of CaF2," J. Cryst. Growth 250, 313-323 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wang, B.

B. Wang, R. R. Rockwell, and J. List, "Linear birefringence in CaF2 measured at deep ultraviolet and visible wavelengths," J. Microlithogr., Microfabr., Microsyst. 3, 115-121 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wells, P. V.

Ye, J.

C. J. Hood, H. J. Kimble, and J. Ye, "Characterization of high-finesse mirrors: Loss, phase shifts, and mode structure in an optical cavity," Phys. Rev. A 64, 033804 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, C. -J.

Zhao, Q. -Z.

Zhu, C. -S.

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, "Demonstration of ultra-high-Q small mode volume toroid microcavities on a chip," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 6113-6115 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Cryst. Growth (1)

V. Deuster, M. Schick, Th. Kayser, H. Dabringhaus, H. Klapper and K. Wandelt, "Studies of the facetting of the polished (100) face of CaF2," J. Cryst. Growth 250, 313-323 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Microsyst. (1)

B. Wang, R. R. Rockwell, and J. List, "Linear birefringence in CaF2 measured at deep ultraviolet and visible wavelengths," J. Microlithogr., Microfabr., Microsyst. 3, 115-121 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

S. M. Spillane, T. J. Kippenberg, and K. J. Vahala, "Ultralow-threshold Raman laser using a spherical dielectric microcavity," Nature 415, 621-623 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun. (1)

A. B. Matsko, A. A. Savchenkov, and L. Maleki, "Ring-down spectroscopy for studying properties of CWRaman lasers," Opt. Commun. 260, 662-665 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Phys. Lett. A (1)

V. B. Braginsky, V. S. Ilchenko, and K. S. Bagdassarov, "Experimental observation of fundamental microwave absorption in high quality dielectric crystalls," Phys. Lett. A 120, 300-305 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. (1)

E. M. Purcell, "Spontaneous emission probabilities at radio frequencies," Phys. Rev. 69, 681-681 (1946).

Phys. Rev. A (3)

A. B. Matsko, A. A. Savchenkov, D. Strekalov, V. Ilchenko, and L. Maleki, "Optical hyperparametric oscillations in a whispering-gallery-mode resonator: Threshold and phase diffusion," Phys. Rev. A 71, 033804 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Hood, H. J. Kimble, and J. Ye, "Characterization of high-finesse mirrors: Loss, phase shifts, and mode structure in an optical cavity," Phys. Rev. A 64, 033804 (2001).
[CrossRef]

I. S. Grudinin, V. S. Ilchenko, and L. Maleki, "Ultrahigh optical Q factors of crystalline resonators in the linear regime," Phys. Rev. A 74, 063806 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

T. J. Kippenberg, H. Rokhsari, T. Carmon, A. Scherer, and K. J. Vahala, "Analysis of radiation-pressure induced mechanical oscillation of an optical microcavity," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 033901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, "Kerr-nonlinearity optical parametric oscillation in an ultrahigh-Q toroid microcavity," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 083904 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, D. Strekalov, M. Mohageg, V. S. Ilchenko, and L. Maleki, "Low threshold optical oscillations in a whispering gallery mode CaF2 resonator," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 243905 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

A. A. Savchenkov, V. S. Ilchenko, A. B. Matsko, and L. Maleki "Kilohertz optical resonances in dielectric crystal cavities," Phys. Rev. A 70, Art. No. 051804R (2004).
[CrossRef]

V. S. Ilchenko, A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, and Lute Maleki, "Nonlinear Optics and Crystalline Whispering Gallery Mode Cavities," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 043903 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Left: Ring-down signal after one annealing step. Right: Ring-down signal after three annealing steps. The exponential fit (red solid curve) is nonlinear in the logarithmic scale because the exponents have constant offsets. Keeping in mind that Q = ωτ/2, and ω = 2πc/λ, λ = 1.55 μm, we find that the values of the quality factors after the first and third annealing steps are Q = 1.2 × 1010 and Q = 6.7 × 1010 respectively. It is important to note that the initial value of the Q-factor corresponds to the earlier observations [10], while the final value is the apparent improvement at the given wavelength.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Left: Ringdown signal after the third annealing step taken with low-power laser radiation (blue solid line). The theoretical fit of the signal is shown by the red dotted line. Right: Evaluated change of the period of the signal. The solid line stands for the linear fit of the time dependence of the period of the ringdown signal.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Change of the signal amplitude shown in Fig. 2(left) with time. Initial and final quality factors are Q = (7.9±0.5) × 1010 and Q = (3±1) × 1011 respectively. Solid line stands for the theoretical fit of the ringdown signal found using formalism presented in [19]. A small oscillation of the decaying signal may result from the residual scattering in the material becoming observable at the given value of quality factor.

Equations (1)

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ϕ ( t ) = Const ( 2 π ζ ) ln ( 1 ζt ξ )

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