Abstract

The downscaling of conventional RF transmission lines methodologies to subwavelength plasmonic circuits is discussed and demonstrated for a λ/4 transformer impedance matching. The nano-size transformer, matching between 0.5μm and 50nm wide plasmonic transmission lines, enhances the coupling efficiency by more than 285% compared to the direct (“end fire”) coupling – i.e. harvesting more than 86% of total incident power. The influence of the transverse resonances induced by the metal claddings of the input transmission line on the light harvesting is discussed as well.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Surface plasmon subwavelength optics," Nature 424, 824-830 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. K. Tanaka and M. Tanaka, "Simulations of nanometric optical circuits based on surface plasmon polariton gap waveguide," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1158-1160 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  7. J. R. Krenn, B. Lamprecht, H. Ditlbacher, G. Schider, M. Salerno, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, "Non-diffraction-limited light transport by gold nanowires," Europhys. Lett. 60, 663-669 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  11. E. Feigenbaum, and M. Orenstein, "Plasmonic Coaxial Nano-Cavities and Waveguides," Lasers & Electro-Optics Society, IEEE, 260-261 (2006).
  12. D. M. Pozar, Microwave Engineering, (Wiley, New York, 1998).
  13. A. Taflove, Computational Electrodynamics: The Finite-Difference Time-Domain Method (Artech House, Boston, 1995).
  14. J. R. Whinnery and H. W. Jamieson, Proc. IRE 32, 98 (1944), J. R Whinnery, and H. W Jamieson, "Equivalent Circuits for Discontinuities in Transmission Line," Proc. IRE 32,98-114 (1944).
    [CrossRef]
  15. J. Chramiec, and M. Kitlinski, "Design of quarter-wave compact impedance transformers using coupled transmission lines," Electron. Lett. 38, 1683-1685 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  16. M. Siebold, E. Reiche, H. Uhlmann, "Optimization of nonuniform transmission lines using time-domain reflectometry," Antennas and Propagation Society International Symposium, IEEE 3, 794-797 (2002).
  17. Y. Xie, A. R. Zakharian, J. V. Moloney, and M. Mansuripur, "Transmission of light through periodic arrays of sub-wavelength slits in metallic hosts," Opt. Express 14, 6400-6413 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

2006 (2)

2003 (3)

J. Weeber, Y. Lacroute, and A. Dereux, "Optical near-field distributions of surface plasmon waveguide modes," Phys. Rev. B 68, 115401 (2003).
[CrossRef]

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Surface plasmon subwavelength optics," Nature 424, 824-830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Tanaka and M. Tanaka, "Simulations of nanometric optical circuits based on surface plasmon polariton gap waveguide," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1158-1160 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

J. Chramiec, and M. Kitlinski, "Design of quarter-wave compact impedance transformers using coupled transmission lines," Electron. Lett. 38, 1683-1685 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Krenn, B. Lamprecht, H. Ditlbacher, G. Schider, M. Salerno, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, "Non-diffraction-limited light transport by gold nanowires," Europhys. Lett. 60, 663-669 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

R. Coccioli, M. Boroditsky, K. W. Kim, Y. Rahmat-Samii, and E. Yablonovitch, "Smallest possible electromagnetic mode volume in a dielectric cavity," IEE Proc.: Optoelectron. 145, 391-397 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, "Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays," Nature 391, 667-669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

J. J. Burke, G. I. Stegeman, and T. Tamir, "Surface-polariton-like waves guided by thin, lossy metal films," Phys. Rev. B 33, 5186-5201 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1944 (1)

J. R. Whinnery and H. W. Jamieson, Proc. IRE 32, 98 (1944), J. R Whinnery, and H. W Jamieson, "Equivalent Circuits for Discontinuities in Transmission Line," Proc. IRE 32,98-114 (1944).
[CrossRef]

Arbel, D.

Aussenegg, F. R.

J. R. Krenn, B. Lamprecht, H. Ditlbacher, G. Schider, M. Salerno, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, "Non-diffraction-limited light transport by gold nanowires," Europhys. Lett. 60, 663-669 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Barnes, W. L.

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Surface plasmon subwavelength optics," Nature 424, 824-830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boroditsky, M.

R. Coccioli, M. Boroditsky, K. W. Kim, Y. Rahmat-Samii, and E. Yablonovitch, "Smallest possible electromagnetic mode volume in a dielectric cavity," IEE Proc.: Optoelectron. 145, 391-397 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Burke, J. J.

J. J. Burke, G. I. Stegeman, and T. Tamir, "Surface-polariton-like waves guided by thin, lossy metal films," Phys. Rev. B 33, 5186-5201 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Chramiec, J.

J. Chramiec, and M. Kitlinski, "Design of quarter-wave compact impedance transformers using coupled transmission lines," Electron. Lett. 38, 1683-1685 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Coccioli, R.

R. Coccioli, M. Boroditsky, K. W. Kim, Y. Rahmat-Samii, and E. Yablonovitch, "Smallest possible electromagnetic mode volume in a dielectric cavity," IEE Proc.: Optoelectron. 145, 391-397 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Dereux, A.

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Surface plasmon subwavelength optics," Nature 424, 824-830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Weeber, Y. Lacroute, and A. Dereux, "Optical near-field distributions of surface plasmon waveguide modes," Phys. Rev. B 68, 115401 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ditlbacher, H.

J. R. Krenn, B. Lamprecht, H. Ditlbacher, G. Schider, M. Salerno, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, "Non-diffraction-limited light transport by gold nanowires," Europhys. Lett. 60, 663-669 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ebbesen, T. W.

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Surface plasmon subwavelength optics," Nature 424, 824-830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, "Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays," Nature 391, 667-669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fan, S.

Feigenbaum, E.

Ghaemi, H. F.

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, "Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays," Nature 391, 667-669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ginzburg, P.

Jamieson, H. W.

J. R. Whinnery and H. W. Jamieson, Proc. IRE 32, 98 (1944), J. R Whinnery, and H. W Jamieson, "Equivalent Circuits for Discontinuities in Transmission Line," Proc. IRE 32,98-114 (1944).
[CrossRef]

Kim, K. W.

R. Coccioli, M. Boroditsky, K. W. Kim, Y. Rahmat-Samii, and E. Yablonovitch, "Smallest possible electromagnetic mode volume in a dielectric cavity," IEE Proc.: Optoelectron. 145, 391-397 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kitlinski, M.

J. Chramiec, and M. Kitlinski, "Design of quarter-wave compact impedance transformers using coupled transmission lines," Electron. Lett. 38, 1683-1685 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Krenn, J. R.

J. R. Krenn, B. Lamprecht, H. Ditlbacher, G. Schider, M. Salerno, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, "Non-diffraction-limited light transport by gold nanowires," Europhys. Lett. 60, 663-669 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lacroute, Y.

J. Weeber, Y. Lacroute, and A. Dereux, "Optical near-field distributions of surface plasmon waveguide modes," Phys. Rev. B 68, 115401 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lamprecht, B.

J. R. Krenn, B. Lamprecht, H. Ditlbacher, G. Schider, M. Salerno, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, "Non-diffraction-limited light transport by gold nanowires," Europhys. Lett. 60, 663-669 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Leitner, A.

J. R. Krenn, B. Lamprecht, H. Ditlbacher, G. Schider, M. Salerno, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, "Non-diffraction-limited light transport by gold nanowires," Europhys. Lett. 60, 663-669 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lezec, H. J.

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, "Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays," Nature 391, 667-669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mansuripur, M.

Moloney, J. V.

Orenstein, M.

Rahmat-Samii, Y.

R. Coccioli, M. Boroditsky, K. W. Kim, Y. Rahmat-Samii, and E. Yablonovitch, "Smallest possible electromagnetic mode volume in a dielectric cavity," IEE Proc.: Optoelectron. 145, 391-397 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Salerno, M.

J. R. Krenn, B. Lamprecht, H. Ditlbacher, G. Schider, M. Salerno, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, "Non-diffraction-limited light transport by gold nanowires," Europhys. Lett. 60, 663-669 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Schider, G.

J. R. Krenn, B. Lamprecht, H. Ditlbacher, G. Schider, M. Salerno, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, "Non-diffraction-limited light transport by gold nanowires," Europhys. Lett. 60, 663-669 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Stegeman, G. I.

J. J. Burke, G. I. Stegeman, and T. Tamir, "Surface-polariton-like waves guided by thin, lossy metal films," Phys. Rev. B 33, 5186-5201 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Tamir, T.

J. J. Burke, G. I. Stegeman, and T. Tamir, "Surface-polariton-like waves guided by thin, lossy metal films," Phys. Rev. B 33, 5186-5201 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, K.

K. Tanaka and M. Tanaka, "Simulations of nanometric optical circuits based on surface plasmon polariton gap waveguide," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1158-1160 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, M.

K. Tanaka and M. Tanaka, "Simulations of nanometric optical circuits based on surface plasmon polariton gap waveguide," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1158-1160 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Thio, T.

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, "Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays," Nature 391, 667-669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Veronis, G.

Weeber, J.

J. Weeber, Y. Lacroute, and A. Dereux, "Optical near-field distributions of surface plasmon waveguide modes," Phys. Rev. B 68, 115401 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Whinnery, J. R.

J. R. Whinnery and H. W. Jamieson, Proc. IRE 32, 98 (1944), J. R Whinnery, and H. W Jamieson, "Equivalent Circuits for Discontinuities in Transmission Line," Proc. IRE 32,98-114 (1944).
[CrossRef]

Wolff, P. A.

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, "Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays," Nature 391, 667-669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Xie, Y.

Yablonovitch, E.

R. Coccioli, M. Boroditsky, K. W. Kim, Y. Rahmat-Samii, and E. Yablonovitch, "Smallest possible electromagnetic mode volume in a dielectric cavity," IEE Proc.: Optoelectron. 145, 391-397 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Zakharian, A. R.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

K. Tanaka and M. Tanaka, "Simulations of nanometric optical circuits based on surface plasmon polariton gap waveguide," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1158-1160 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

J. Chramiec, and M. Kitlinski, "Design of quarter-wave compact impedance transformers using coupled transmission lines," Electron. Lett. 38, 1683-1685 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Europhys. Lett. (1)

J. R. Krenn, B. Lamprecht, H. Ditlbacher, G. Schider, M. Salerno, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, "Non-diffraction-limited light transport by gold nanowires," Europhys. Lett. 60, 663-669 (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEE Proc.: Optoelectron. (1)

R. Coccioli, M. Boroditsky, K. W. Kim, Y. Rahmat-Samii, and E. Yablonovitch, "Smallest possible electromagnetic mode volume in a dielectric cavity," IEE Proc.: Optoelectron. 145, 391-397 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nature (2)

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Surface plasmon subwavelength optics," Nature 424, 824-830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, "Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays," Nature 391, 667-669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. B (2)

J. Weeber, Y. Lacroute, and A. Dereux, "Optical near-field distributions of surface plasmon waveguide modes," Phys. Rev. B 68, 115401 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Burke, G. I. Stegeman, and T. Tamir, "Surface-polariton-like waves guided by thin, lossy metal films," Phys. Rev. B 33, 5186-5201 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Proc. IRE (1)

J. R. Whinnery and H. W. Jamieson, Proc. IRE 32, 98 (1944), J. R Whinnery, and H. W Jamieson, "Equivalent Circuits for Discontinuities in Transmission Line," Proc. IRE 32,98-114 (1944).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

M. Siebold, E. Reiche, H. Uhlmann, "Optimization of nonuniform transmission lines using time-domain reflectometry," Antennas and Propagation Society International Symposium, IEEE 3, 794-797 (2002).

E. Feigenbaum, and M. Orenstein, "Plasmonic Coaxial Nano-Cavities and Waveguides," Lasers & Electro-Optics Society, IEEE, 260-261 (2006).

D. M. Pozar, Microwave Engineering, (Wiley, New York, 1998).

A. Taflove, Computational Electrodynamics: The Finite-Difference Time-Domain Method (Artech House, Boston, 1995).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a). Gap Plasmon dispersion curve (Au cladding, Silica core, 1.55μm wavelength) -blue; major field (Hy); insets: Hy amplitude profiles at designated gap widths - red and green; (b) λ/4 impedance matching configuration.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

λ/4 coupler (a) major field Hy (b) mode power

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Direct coupling (a) major field Hy (b) mode power

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Transformer dimensions optimization for maximal transmission.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Coupling with optimal transformer (a) the major field Hy (b) mode power

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Coupling of limited (d=0.5μm as in previous figures) free space plan wave (a) the major field Hy (b) mode power

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

TL junction and the equivalent slit array

Fig.8.
Fig.8.

Extraordinary transmission of TL and slit array.

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

tgh ( d β 2 k 0 2 ε ) = β 2 k 0 2 ε m ε m β 2 k 0 2 ε ε
Z TM = E x H y = β ωε
Z 0 = d w Z TM = d w β ωε
Z 0 trans = d trans β trans ( wωε ) = β in d in β out d out ( wωε )
T = 4 d in β in d out β out ( d in β in + d out β out ) = 0.41

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