Abstract

Light extraction analysis of GaN-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with Monte Carlo ray tracing is presented. To obtain high light extraction efficiency, periodic structures introduced on the top surface and/or on the substrate of various types of LED are simulated, including wire bonding, flip chip and Thin GaN. Micro pyramid array with an apex angle from 20° to 70° is shown to effectively improve the light extraction efficiency. In addition, for an LED encapsulated within an epoxy lens, the patterned substrate with pyramid array is found to be a more effective way to increase light extraction efficiency than the surface texture.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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2006 (2)

C. C. Sun, T. X. Lee, S. H. Ma Y. L. Lee and S. M. Huang, "Precise optical. modeling for LED lighting based on cross-correlation in mid-field region," Opt. Lett. 31, 2193-2195 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Q. Xi, H. Luo, A. J. Pasquale, J. K. Kim, and E. F. Schubert, "Enhanced light extraction in GaInN light-emitting diode with pyramid reflector," IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 18, 2347-2349 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

2004 (3)

C. C. Sun, C. Y. Lin, T. X. Lee, and T. H. Yang, "Enhancement of light extraction of GaN-based LED with introducing micro-structure array, " Opt. Eng. 43, 1700-1701 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Gao, T. Fujii, R. Sharma, K. Fujito, S. P. Danbaars and S. Nakamura, "Roughening Hexagonal surface morphology on Laser lift-off (LLO) N face GaN with simple photo-enhanced chemical wet etching," Jap. J. Appl. Phys. 43, L637-L639, (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. Danbaars, and S. Nakamura, "Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-base light emitting diodes via surface roughening," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 855-857 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

C. Huh, K. S. Lee, E. J. Kang, and S. J. Park, "Improved light-output and electrical performance of InGaN-based light-emitting diode by microroughening of the p-GaN surface," J. Appl. Phys. 93, 9383-9385 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, and S. L. Rudaz, "Illumination with Solid State Lighting Technology," IEEE J. Selected Topics in Quantum Electron 8, 310-320 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Windisch, C. Rooman, B. Dutta, A. Knobloch, G. Borghs, G. H. Döhler, and P. Heremans, "Light- extraction mechanisms in high-efficiency surface-textured light-emitting diodes," J. Select. Topics Quantum Electronics 8, 248-255 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (5)

J. J. Wierer, D. A. Steigerwald, M. R. Krames, J. J. O’Shea, M. J. Ludowise, N. F. Gardner, R. S. Kern, and S. A. Stockman, "High-power AlGaInN flip-chip light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 3379-3381 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. Windisch, C. Rooman, S. Meinlschmidt, P. Kiesel, D. Zipperer, G. H. Döhler, B. Dutta, M. Kuijk, G. Borghs, and P. Heremans, "Impact of texture-enhanced transmission on high-efficiency surface-textured light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 2315-2317 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. B. Djuriié, Y. Chan, and B. H. Li, "Calculations of the refractive index of AlGaN/GaN quantum well," Proc. SPIE 4283, 630-637 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Badano and J. Kanicki, "Monte Carlo analysis of the spectral photon emission and extraction efficiency of organic light-emitting devices," J. Appl. Phys. 90, 1827-1830 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Lee, "Analysis of light-emitting diode by Monte Carlo photo simulation," Appl. Opt. 40, 1427-1437 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

M. R. Krames, M. Ochiai-Holcomb, G. E. Hofler, C. Carter-Coman, E. I. Chen, I.-H. Tan, P. Grillot, N. F. Gardner, H. C. Chui, J-W. Huang, S.A. Stockman, F. A. Kish, and M. G. Craford, "High-power truncated- pyramid (AlGa)InP/GaP light-emitting diodes exhibiting >50% external quantum efficiency," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2365-2367 (1999).
[CrossRef]

W. S. Wong, T. Sands, N. W. Cheung, M. Kneissl, D. P. Bour, P. Mei, L. T. Romano, and N. M. Johnson, "Fabrication of thin-film InGaN light-emitting diode membranes by laser lift-off," Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1360-1362 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

D. Z. Ting and T. C. McGill, "Monte Carlo simulation of. light-emitting diode light extraction characteristics," Opt. Eng. 34, 3545-3553 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

I. Schnitzer, E. Yablonovitch, C. Carneau, T. J. Gmitter, and A. Scherer, "30% external quantum efficiency from surface textured, thin-film lightemitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 2174-2176 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Badano, A.

A. Badano and J. Kanicki, "Monte Carlo analysis of the spectral photon emission and extraction efficiency of organic light-emitting devices," J. Appl. Phys. 90, 1827-1830 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bhat, J. C.

D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, and S. L. Rudaz, "Illumination with Solid State Lighting Technology," IEEE J. Selected Topics in Quantum Electron 8, 310-320 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Borghs, G.

R. Windisch, C. Rooman, B. Dutta, A. Knobloch, G. Borghs, G. H. Döhler, and P. Heremans, "Light- extraction mechanisms in high-efficiency surface-textured light-emitting diodes," J. Select. Topics Quantum Electronics 8, 248-255 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Windisch, C. Rooman, S. Meinlschmidt, P. Kiesel, D. Zipperer, G. H. Döhler, B. Dutta, M. Kuijk, G. Borghs, and P. Heremans, "Impact of texture-enhanced transmission on high-efficiency surface-textured light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 2315-2317 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bour, D. P.

W. S. Wong, T. Sands, N. W. Cheung, M. Kneissl, D. P. Bour, P. Mei, L. T. Romano, and N. M. Johnson, "Fabrication of thin-film InGaN light-emitting diode membranes by laser lift-off," Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1360-1362 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Carneau, C.

I. Schnitzer, E. Yablonovitch, C. Carneau, T. J. Gmitter, and A. Scherer, "30% external quantum efficiency from surface textured, thin-film lightemitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 2174-2176 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Carter-Coman, C.

M. R. Krames, M. Ochiai-Holcomb, G. E. Hofler, C. Carter-Coman, E. I. Chen, I.-H. Tan, P. Grillot, N. F. Gardner, H. C. Chui, J-W. Huang, S.A. Stockman, F. A. Kish, and M. G. Craford, "High-power truncated- pyramid (AlGa)InP/GaP light-emitting diodes exhibiting >50% external quantum efficiency," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2365-2367 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chan, Y.

A. B. Djuriié, Y. Chan, and B. H. Li, "Calculations of the refractive index of AlGaN/GaN quantum well," Proc. SPIE 4283, 630-637 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chen, E. I.

M. R. Krames, M. Ochiai-Holcomb, G. E. Hofler, C. Carter-Coman, E. I. Chen, I.-H. Tan, P. Grillot, N. F. Gardner, H. C. Chui, J-W. Huang, S.A. Stockman, F. A. Kish, and M. G. Craford, "High-power truncated- pyramid (AlGa)InP/GaP light-emitting diodes exhibiting >50% external quantum efficiency," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2365-2367 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Cheung, N. W.

W. S. Wong, T. Sands, N. W. Cheung, M. Kneissl, D. P. Bour, P. Mei, L. T. Romano, and N. M. Johnson, "Fabrication of thin-film InGaN light-emitting diode membranes by laser lift-off," Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1360-1362 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chui, H. C.

M. R. Krames, M. Ochiai-Holcomb, G. E. Hofler, C. Carter-Coman, E. I. Chen, I.-H. Tan, P. Grillot, N. F. Gardner, H. C. Chui, J-W. Huang, S.A. Stockman, F. A. Kish, and M. G. Craford, "High-power truncated- pyramid (AlGa)InP/GaP light-emitting diodes exhibiting >50% external quantum efficiency," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2365-2367 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Collins, D.

D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, and S. L. Rudaz, "Illumination with Solid State Lighting Technology," IEEE J. Selected Topics in Quantum Electron 8, 310-320 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Craford, M. G.

M. R. Krames, M. Ochiai-Holcomb, G. E. Hofler, C. Carter-Coman, E. I. Chen, I.-H. Tan, P. Grillot, N. F. Gardner, H. C. Chui, J-W. Huang, S.A. Stockman, F. A. Kish, and M. G. Craford, "High-power truncated- pyramid (AlGa)InP/GaP light-emitting diodes exhibiting >50% external quantum efficiency," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2365-2367 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Danbaars, S. P.

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. Danbaars, and S. Nakamura, "Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-base light emitting diodes via surface roughening," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 855-857 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Gao, T. Fujii, R. Sharma, K. Fujito, S. P. Danbaars and S. Nakamura, "Roughening Hexagonal surface morphology on Laser lift-off (LLO) N face GaN with simple photo-enhanced chemical wet etching," Jap. J. Appl. Phys. 43, L637-L639, (2004).
[CrossRef]

Djuriié, A. B.

A. B. Djuriié, Y. Chan, and B. H. Li, "Calculations of the refractive index of AlGaN/GaN quantum well," Proc. SPIE 4283, 630-637 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Döhler, G. H.

R. Windisch, C. Rooman, B. Dutta, A. Knobloch, G. Borghs, G. H. Döhler, and P. Heremans, "Light- extraction mechanisms in high-efficiency surface-textured light-emitting diodes," J. Select. Topics Quantum Electronics 8, 248-255 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Windisch, C. Rooman, S. Meinlschmidt, P. Kiesel, D. Zipperer, G. H. Döhler, B. Dutta, M. Kuijk, G. Borghs, and P. Heremans, "Impact of texture-enhanced transmission on high-efficiency surface-textured light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 2315-2317 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Dutta, B.

R. Windisch, C. Rooman, B. Dutta, A. Knobloch, G. Borghs, G. H. Döhler, and P. Heremans, "Light- extraction mechanisms in high-efficiency surface-textured light-emitting diodes," J. Select. Topics Quantum Electronics 8, 248-255 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Windisch, C. Rooman, S. Meinlschmidt, P. Kiesel, D. Zipperer, G. H. Döhler, B. Dutta, M. Kuijk, G. Borghs, and P. Heremans, "Impact of texture-enhanced transmission on high-efficiency surface-textured light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 2315-2317 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Fletcher, R. M.

D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, and S. L. Rudaz, "Illumination with Solid State Lighting Technology," IEEE J. Selected Topics in Quantum Electron 8, 310-320 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fujii, T.

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. Danbaars, and S. Nakamura, "Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-base light emitting diodes via surface roughening," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 855-857 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Gao, T. Fujii, R. Sharma, K. Fujito, S. P. Danbaars and S. Nakamura, "Roughening Hexagonal surface morphology on Laser lift-off (LLO) N face GaN with simple photo-enhanced chemical wet etching," Jap. J. Appl. Phys. 43, L637-L639, (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fujito, K.

Y. Gao, T. Fujii, R. Sharma, K. Fujito, S. P. Danbaars and S. Nakamura, "Roughening Hexagonal surface morphology on Laser lift-off (LLO) N face GaN with simple photo-enhanced chemical wet etching," Jap. J. Appl. Phys. 43, L637-L639, (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gao, Y.

Y. Gao, T. Fujii, R. Sharma, K. Fujito, S. P. Danbaars and S. Nakamura, "Roughening Hexagonal surface morphology on Laser lift-off (LLO) N face GaN with simple photo-enhanced chemical wet etching," Jap. J. Appl. Phys. 43, L637-L639, (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. Danbaars, and S. Nakamura, "Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-base light emitting diodes via surface roughening," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 855-857 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gardner, N. F.

J. J. Wierer, D. A. Steigerwald, M. R. Krames, J. J. O’Shea, M. J. Ludowise, N. F. Gardner, R. S. Kern, and S. A. Stockman, "High-power AlGaInN flip-chip light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 3379-3381 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Krames, M. Ochiai-Holcomb, G. E. Hofler, C. Carter-Coman, E. I. Chen, I.-H. Tan, P. Grillot, N. F. Gardner, H. C. Chui, J-W. Huang, S.A. Stockman, F. A. Kish, and M. G. Craford, "High-power truncated- pyramid (AlGa)InP/GaP light-emitting diodes exhibiting >50% external quantum efficiency," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2365-2367 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gmitter, T. J.

I. Schnitzer, E. Yablonovitch, C. Carneau, T. J. Gmitter, and A. Scherer, "30% external quantum efficiency from surface textured, thin-film lightemitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 2174-2176 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Grillot, P.

M. R. Krames, M. Ochiai-Holcomb, G. E. Hofler, C. Carter-Coman, E. I. Chen, I.-H. Tan, P. Grillot, N. F. Gardner, H. C. Chui, J-W. Huang, S.A. Stockman, F. A. Kish, and M. G. Craford, "High-power truncated- pyramid (AlGa)InP/GaP light-emitting diodes exhibiting >50% external quantum efficiency," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2365-2367 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Heremans, P.

R. Windisch, C. Rooman, B. Dutta, A. Knobloch, G. Borghs, G. H. Döhler, and P. Heremans, "Light- extraction mechanisms in high-efficiency surface-textured light-emitting diodes," J. Select. Topics Quantum Electronics 8, 248-255 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Windisch, C. Rooman, S. Meinlschmidt, P. Kiesel, D. Zipperer, G. H. Döhler, B. Dutta, M. Kuijk, G. Borghs, and P. Heremans, "Impact of texture-enhanced transmission on high-efficiency surface-textured light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 2315-2317 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hofler, G. E.

M. R. Krames, M. Ochiai-Holcomb, G. E. Hofler, C. Carter-Coman, E. I. Chen, I.-H. Tan, P. Grillot, N. F. Gardner, H. C. Chui, J-W. Huang, S.A. Stockman, F. A. Kish, and M. G. Craford, "High-power truncated- pyramid (AlGa)InP/GaP light-emitting diodes exhibiting >50% external quantum efficiency," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2365-2367 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Holcomb, M. O.

D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, and S. L. Rudaz, "Illumination with Solid State Lighting Technology," IEEE J. Selected Topics in Quantum Electron 8, 310-320 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hu, E. L.

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. Danbaars, and S. Nakamura, "Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-base light emitting diodes via surface roughening," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 855-857 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Huang, J-W.

M. R. Krames, M. Ochiai-Holcomb, G. E. Hofler, C. Carter-Coman, E. I. Chen, I.-H. Tan, P. Grillot, N. F. Gardner, H. C. Chui, J-W. Huang, S.A. Stockman, F. A. Kish, and M. G. Craford, "High-power truncated- pyramid (AlGa)InP/GaP light-emitting diodes exhibiting >50% external quantum efficiency," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2365-2367 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Huh, C.

C. Huh, K. S. Lee, E. J. Kang, and S. J. Park, "Improved light-output and electrical performance of InGaN-based light-emitting diode by microroughening of the p-GaN surface," J. Appl. Phys. 93, 9383-9385 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, N. M.

W. S. Wong, T. Sands, N. W. Cheung, M. Kneissl, D. P. Bour, P. Mei, L. T. Romano, and N. M. Johnson, "Fabrication of thin-film InGaN light-emitting diode membranes by laser lift-off," Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1360-1362 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kang, E. J.

C. Huh, K. S. Lee, E. J. Kang, and S. J. Park, "Improved light-output and electrical performance of InGaN-based light-emitting diode by microroughening of the p-GaN surface," J. Appl. Phys. 93, 9383-9385 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kanicki, J.

A. Badano and J. Kanicki, "Monte Carlo analysis of the spectral photon emission and extraction efficiency of organic light-emitting devices," J. Appl. Phys. 90, 1827-1830 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kern, R. S.

J. J. Wierer, D. A. Steigerwald, M. R. Krames, J. J. O’Shea, M. J. Ludowise, N. F. Gardner, R. S. Kern, and S. A. Stockman, "High-power AlGaInN flip-chip light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 3379-3381 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kiesel, P.

R. Windisch, C. Rooman, S. Meinlschmidt, P. Kiesel, D. Zipperer, G. H. Döhler, B. Dutta, M. Kuijk, G. Borghs, and P. Heremans, "Impact of texture-enhanced transmission on high-efficiency surface-textured light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 2315-2317 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. K.

J. Q. Xi, H. Luo, A. J. Pasquale, J. K. Kim, and E. F. Schubert, "Enhanced light extraction in GaInN light-emitting diode with pyramid reflector," IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 18, 2347-2349 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. F. Schubert and J. K. Kim, "Solid-state light sources becoming smart," Science 308, 1274-1278 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kish, F. A.

M. R. Krames, M. Ochiai-Holcomb, G. E. Hofler, C. Carter-Coman, E. I. Chen, I.-H. Tan, P. Grillot, N. F. Gardner, H. C. Chui, J-W. Huang, S.A. Stockman, F. A. Kish, and M. G. Craford, "High-power truncated- pyramid (AlGa)InP/GaP light-emitting diodes exhibiting >50% external quantum efficiency," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2365-2367 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kneissl, M.

W. S. Wong, T. Sands, N. W. Cheung, M. Kneissl, D. P. Bour, P. Mei, L. T. Romano, and N. M. Johnson, "Fabrication of thin-film InGaN light-emitting diode membranes by laser lift-off," Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1360-1362 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Knobloch, A.

R. Windisch, C. Rooman, B. Dutta, A. Knobloch, G. Borghs, G. H. Döhler, and P. Heremans, "Light- extraction mechanisms in high-efficiency surface-textured light-emitting diodes," J. Select. Topics Quantum Electronics 8, 248-255 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Krames, M. R.

J. J. Wierer, D. A. Steigerwald, M. R. Krames, J. J. O’Shea, M. J. Ludowise, N. F. Gardner, R. S. Kern, and S. A. Stockman, "High-power AlGaInN flip-chip light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 3379-3381 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Krames, M. Ochiai-Holcomb, G. E. Hofler, C. Carter-Coman, E. I. Chen, I.-H. Tan, P. Grillot, N. F. Gardner, H. C. Chui, J-W. Huang, S.A. Stockman, F. A. Kish, and M. G. Craford, "High-power truncated- pyramid (AlGa)InP/GaP light-emitting diodes exhibiting >50% external quantum efficiency," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2365-2367 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kuijk, M.

R. Windisch, C. Rooman, S. Meinlschmidt, P. Kiesel, D. Zipperer, G. H. Döhler, B. Dutta, M. Kuijk, G. Borghs, and P. Heremans, "Impact of texture-enhanced transmission on high-efficiency surface-textured light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 2315-2317 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lee, K. S.

C. Huh, K. S. Lee, E. J. Kang, and S. J. Park, "Improved light-output and electrical performance of InGaN-based light-emitting diode by microroughening of the p-GaN surface," J. Appl. Phys. 93, 9383-9385 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. J.

Lee, T. X.

C. C. Sun, T. X. Lee, S. H. Ma Y. L. Lee and S. M. Huang, "Precise optical. modeling for LED lighting based on cross-correlation in mid-field region," Opt. Lett. 31, 2193-2195 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. X. Lee, C. Y. Lin, S. H. Ma and C. C. Sun, "Analysis of position-dependent. light extraction of GaN- based LEDs," Opt. Express 13, 4175-4179 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. C. Sun, C. Y. Lin, T. X. Lee, and T. H. Yang, "Enhancement of light extraction of GaN-based LED with introducing micro-structure array, " Opt. Eng. 43, 1700-1701 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Li, B. H.

A. B. Djuriié, Y. Chan, and B. H. Li, "Calculations of the refractive index of AlGaN/GaN quantum well," Proc. SPIE 4283, 630-637 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C. Y.

T. X. Lee, C. Y. Lin, S. H. Ma and C. C. Sun, "Analysis of position-dependent. light extraction of GaN- based LEDs," Opt. Express 13, 4175-4179 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. C. Sun, C. Y. Lin, T. X. Lee, and T. H. Yang, "Enhancement of light extraction of GaN-based LED with introducing micro-structure array, " Opt. Eng. 43, 1700-1701 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ludowise, M. J.

D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, and S. L. Rudaz, "Illumination with Solid State Lighting Technology," IEEE J. Selected Topics in Quantum Electron 8, 310-320 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Wierer, D. A. Steigerwald, M. R. Krames, J. J. O’Shea, M. J. Ludowise, N. F. Gardner, R. S. Kern, and S. A. Stockman, "High-power AlGaInN flip-chip light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 3379-3381 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Luo, H.

J. Q. Xi, H. Luo, A. J. Pasquale, J. K. Kim, and E. F. Schubert, "Enhanced light extraction in GaInN light-emitting diode with pyramid reflector," IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 18, 2347-2349 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ma, S. H.

Martin, P. S.

D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, and S. L. Rudaz, "Illumination with Solid State Lighting Technology," IEEE J. Selected Topics in Quantum Electron 8, 310-320 (2002).
[CrossRef]

McGill, T. C.

D. Z. Ting and T. C. McGill, "Monte Carlo simulation of. light-emitting diode light extraction characteristics," Opt. Eng. 34, 3545-3553 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Mei, P.

W. S. Wong, T. Sands, N. W. Cheung, M. Kneissl, D. P. Bour, P. Mei, L. T. Romano, and N. M. Johnson, "Fabrication of thin-film InGaN light-emitting diode membranes by laser lift-off," Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1360-1362 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Meinlschmidt, S.

R. Windisch, C. Rooman, S. Meinlschmidt, P. Kiesel, D. Zipperer, G. H. Döhler, B. Dutta, M. Kuijk, G. Borghs, and P. Heremans, "Impact of texture-enhanced transmission on high-efficiency surface-textured light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 2315-2317 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, S.

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. Danbaars, and S. Nakamura, "Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-base light emitting diodes via surface roughening," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 855-857 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Gao, T. Fujii, R. Sharma, K. Fujito, S. P. Danbaars and S. Nakamura, "Roughening Hexagonal surface morphology on Laser lift-off (LLO) N face GaN with simple photo-enhanced chemical wet etching," Jap. J. Appl. Phys. 43, L637-L639, (2004).
[CrossRef]

O’Shea, J. J.

J. J. Wierer, D. A. Steigerwald, M. R. Krames, J. J. O’Shea, M. J. Ludowise, N. F. Gardner, R. S. Kern, and S. A. Stockman, "High-power AlGaInN flip-chip light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 3379-3381 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ochiai-Holcomb, M.

M. R. Krames, M. Ochiai-Holcomb, G. E. Hofler, C. Carter-Coman, E. I. Chen, I.-H. Tan, P. Grillot, N. F. Gardner, H. C. Chui, J-W. Huang, S.A. Stockman, F. A. Kish, and M. G. Craford, "High-power truncated- pyramid (AlGa)InP/GaP light-emitting diodes exhibiting >50% external quantum efficiency," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2365-2367 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Park, S. J.

C. Huh, K. S. Lee, E. J. Kang, and S. J. Park, "Improved light-output and electrical performance of InGaN-based light-emitting diode by microroughening of the p-GaN surface," J. Appl. Phys. 93, 9383-9385 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Pasquale, A. J.

J. Q. Xi, H. Luo, A. J. Pasquale, J. K. Kim, and E. F. Schubert, "Enhanced light extraction in GaInN light-emitting diode with pyramid reflector," IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 18, 2347-2349 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Romano, L. T.

W. S. Wong, T. Sands, N. W. Cheung, M. Kneissl, D. P. Bour, P. Mei, L. T. Romano, and N. M. Johnson, "Fabrication of thin-film InGaN light-emitting diode membranes by laser lift-off," Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1360-1362 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rooman, C.

R. Windisch, C. Rooman, B. Dutta, A. Knobloch, G. Borghs, G. H. Döhler, and P. Heremans, "Light- extraction mechanisms in high-efficiency surface-textured light-emitting diodes," J. Select. Topics Quantum Electronics 8, 248-255 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Windisch, C. Rooman, S. Meinlschmidt, P. Kiesel, D. Zipperer, G. H. Döhler, B. Dutta, M. Kuijk, G. Borghs, and P. Heremans, "Impact of texture-enhanced transmission on high-efficiency surface-textured light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 2315-2317 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Rudaz, S. L.

D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, and S. L. Rudaz, "Illumination with Solid State Lighting Technology," IEEE J. Selected Topics in Quantum Electron 8, 310-320 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sands, T.

W. S. Wong, T. Sands, N. W. Cheung, M. Kneissl, D. P. Bour, P. Mei, L. T. Romano, and N. M. Johnson, "Fabrication of thin-film InGaN light-emitting diode membranes by laser lift-off," Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1360-1362 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Scherer, A.

I. Schnitzer, E. Yablonovitch, C. Carneau, T. J. Gmitter, and A. Scherer, "30% external quantum efficiency from surface textured, thin-film lightemitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 2174-2176 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Schnitzer, I.

I. Schnitzer, E. Yablonovitch, C. Carneau, T. J. Gmitter, and A. Scherer, "30% external quantum efficiency from surface textured, thin-film lightemitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 2174-2176 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Schubert, E. F.

J. Q. Xi, H. Luo, A. J. Pasquale, J. K. Kim, and E. F. Schubert, "Enhanced light extraction in GaInN light-emitting diode with pyramid reflector," IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 18, 2347-2349 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. F. Schubert and J. K. Kim, "Solid-state light sources becoming smart," Science 308, 1274-1278 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sharma, R.

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. Danbaars, and S. Nakamura, "Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-base light emitting diodes via surface roughening," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 855-857 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Gao, T. Fujii, R. Sharma, K. Fujito, S. P. Danbaars and S. Nakamura, "Roughening Hexagonal surface morphology on Laser lift-off (LLO) N face GaN with simple photo-enhanced chemical wet etching," Jap. J. Appl. Phys. 43, L637-L639, (2004).
[CrossRef]

Steigerwald, D. A.

D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, and S. L. Rudaz, "Illumination with Solid State Lighting Technology," IEEE J. Selected Topics in Quantum Electron 8, 310-320 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Wierer, D. A. Steigerwald, M. R. Krames, J. J. O’Shea, M. J. Ludowise, N. F. Gardner, R. S. Kern, and S. A. Stockman, "High-power AlGaInN flip-chip light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 3379-3381 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Stockman, S. A.

J. J. Wierer, D. A. Steigerwald, M. R. Krames, J. J. O’Shea, M. J. Ludowise, N. F. Gardner, R. S. Kern, and S. A. Stockman, "High-power AlGaInN flip-chip light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 3379-3381 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Stockman, S.A.

M. R. Krames, M. Ochiai-Holcomb, G. E. Hofler, C. Carter-Coman, E. I. Chen, I.-H. Tan, P. Grillot, N. F. Gardner, H. C. Chui, J-W. Huang, S.A. Stockman, F. A. Kish, and M. G. Craford, "High-power truncated- pyramid (AlGa)InP/GaP light-emitting diodes exhibiting >50% external quantum efficiency," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2365-2367 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sun, C. C.

C. C. Sun, T. X. Lee, S. H. Ma Y. L. Lee and S. M. Huang, "Precise optical. modeling for LED lighting based on cross-correlation in mid-field region," Opt. Lett. 31, 2193-2195 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. X. Lee, C. Y. Lin, S. H. Ma and C. C. Sun, "Analysis of position-dependent. light extraction of GaN- based LEDs," Opt. Express 13, 4175-4179 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. C. Sun, C. Y. Lin, T. X. Lee, and T. H. Yang, "Enhancement of light extraction of GaN-based LED with introducing micro-structure array, " Opt. Eng. 43, 1700-1701 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tan, I.-H.

M. R. Krames, M. Ochiai-Holcomb, G. E. Hofler, C. Carter-Coman, E. I. Chen, I.-H. Tan, P. Grillot, N. F. Gardner, H. C. Chui, J-W. Huang, S.A. Stockman, F. A. Kish, and M. G. Craford, "High-power truncated- pyramid (AlGa)InP/GaP light-emitting diodes exhibiting >50% external quantum efficiency," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2365-2367 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ting, D. Z.

D. Z. Ting and T. C. McGill, "Monte Carlo simulation of. light-emitting diode light extraction characteristics," Opt. Eng. 34, 3545-3553 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Wierer, J. J.

J. J. Wierer, D. A. Steigerwald, M. R. Krames, J. J. O’Shea, M. J. Ludowise, N. F. Gardner, R. S. Kern, and S. A. Stockman, "High-power AlGaInN flip-chip light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 3379-3381 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Windisch, R.

R. Windisch, C. Rooman, B. Dutta, A. Knobloch, G. Borghs, G. H. Döhler, and P. Heremans, "Light- extraction mechanisms in high-efficiency surface-textured light-emitting diodes," J. Select. Topics Quantum Electronics 8, 248-255 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Windisch, C. Rooman, S. Meinlschmidt, P. Kiesel, D. Zipperer, G. H. Döhler, B. Dutta, M. Kuijk, G. Borghs, and P. Heremans, "Impact of texture-enhanced transmission on high-efficiency surface-textured light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 2315-2317 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wong, W. S.

W. S. Wong, T. Sands, N. W. Cheung, M. Kneissl, D. P. Bour, P. Mei, L. T. Romano, and N. M. Johnson, "Fabrication of thin-film InGaN light-emitting diode membranes by laser lift-off," Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1360-1362 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Xi, J. Q.

J. Q. Xi, H. Luo, A. J. Pasquale, J. K. Kim, and E. F. Schubert, "Enhanced light extraction in GaInN light-emitting diode with pyramid reflector," IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 18, 2347-2349 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yablonovitch, E.

I. Schnitzer, E. Yablonovitch, C. Carneau, T. J. Gmitter, and A. Scherer, "30% external quantum efficiency from surface textured, thin-film lightemitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 2174-2176 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Yang, T. H.

C. C. Sun, C. Y. Lin, T. X. Lee, and T. H. Yang, "Enhancement of light extraction of GaN-based LED with introducing micro-structure array, " Opt. Eng. 43, 1700-1701 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zipperer, D.

R. Windisch, C. Rooman, S. Meinlschmidt, P. Kiesel, D. Zipperer, G. H. Döhler, B. Dutta, M. Kuijk, G. Borghs, and P. Heremans, "Impact of texture-enhanced transmission on high-efficiency surface-textured light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 2315-2317 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (6)

I. Schnitzer, E. Yablonovitch, C. Carneau, T. J. Gmitter, and A. Scherer, "30% external quantum efficiency from surface textured, thin-film lightemitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 2174-2176 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Krames, M. Ochiai-Holcomb, G. E. Hofler, C. Carter-Coman, E. I. Chen, I.-H. Tan, P. Grillot, N. F. Gardner, H. C. Chui, J-W. Huang, S.A. Stockman, F. A. Kish, and M. G. Craford, "High-power truncated- pyramid (AlGa)InP/GaP light-emitting diodes exhibiting >50% external quantum efficiency," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2365-2367 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. Windisch, C. Rooman, S. Meinlschmidt, P. Kiesel, D. Zipperer, G. H. Döhler, B. Dutta, M. Kuijk, G. Borghs, and P. Heremans, "Impact of texture-enhanced transmission on high-efficiency surface-textured light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 2315-2317 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. Danbaars, and S. Nakamura, "Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-base light emitting diodes via surface roughening," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 855-857 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Wierer, D. A. Steigerwald, M. R. Krames, J. J. O’Shea, M. J. Ludowise, N. F. Gardner, R. S. Kern, and S. A. Stockman, "High-power AlGaInN flip-chip light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 3379-3381 (2001).
[CrossRef]

W. S. Wong, T. Sands, N. W. Cheung, M. Kneissl, D. P. Bour, P. Mei, L. T. Romano, and N. M. Johnson, "Fabrication of thin-film InGaN light-emitting diode membranes by laser lift-off," Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1360-1362 (1999).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Selected Topics in Quantum Electron (1)

D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, and S. L. Rudaz, "Illumination with Solid State Lighting Technology," IEEE J. Selected Topics in Quantum Electron 8, 310-320 (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. (1)

J. Q. Xi, H. Luo, A. J. Pasquale, J. K. Kim, and E. F. Schubert, "Enhanced light extraction in GaInN light-emitting diode with pyramid reflector," IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 18, 2347-2349 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

A. Badano and J. Kanicki, "Monte Carlo analysis of the spectral photon emission and extraction efficiency of organic light-emitting devices," J. Appl. Phys. 90, 1827-1830 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. Huh, K. S. Lee, E. J. Kang, and S. J. Park, "Improved light-output and electrical performance of InGaN-based light-emitting diode by microroughening of the p-GaN surface," J. Appl. Phys. 93, 9383-9385 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Select. Topics Quantum Electronics (1)

R. Windisch, C. Rooman, B. Dutta, A. Knobloch, G. Borghs, G. H. Döhler, and P. Heremans, "Light- extraction mechanisms in high-efficiency surface-textured light-emitting diodes," J. Select. Topics Quantum Electronics 8, 248-255 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Jap. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

Y. Gao, T. Fujii, R. Sharma, K. Fujito, S. P. Danbaars and S. Nakamura, "Roughening Hexagonal surface morphology on Laser lift-off (LLO) N face GaN with simple photo-enhanced chemical wet etching," Jap. J. Appl. Phys. 43, L637-L639, (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (2)

C. C. Sun, C. Y. Lin, T. X. Lee, and T. H. Yang, "Enhancement of light extraction of GaN-based LED with introducing micro-structure array, " Opt. Eng. 43, 1700-1701 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Z. Ting and T. C. McGill, "Monte Carlo simulation of. light-emitting diode light extraction characteristics," Opt. Eng. 34, 3545-3553 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Optics Letters (1)

C. C. Sun, T. X. Lee, S. H. Ma Y. L. Lee and S. M. Huang, "Precise optical. modeling for LED lighting based on cross-correlation in mid-field region," Opt. Lett. 31, 2193-2195 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE (1)

A. B. Djuriié, Y. Chan, and B. H. Li, "Calculations of the refractive index of AlGaN/GaN quantum well," Proc. SPIE 4283, 630-637 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

E. F. Schubert and J. K. Kim, "Solid-state light sources becoming smart," Science 308, 1274-1278 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (2)

A. Zukauskas, M. S. Shur, and R. Caska, Introduction to Solid-state Lighting, (John Wiley & Sons, New York, 2002).

J. F. Muth, J. D. Brown, M. A. L. Johnson, Z. Yu, R. M. Kolbas, J. W. Cook, Jr., and J. F. Schetzina, " Absorption coefficient and refractive index of GaN, AlN and AlGaN alloys," MRS Internet J. Nitride Semicond. Res. 4S1, G5.2 (1999).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic diagrams of wire bonding, flip chip and ThinGaN LEDs.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

The LEE vs. reflectivity of the bottom surface for three LED Types: wire bonding (WB); flip chip (FC); and ThinGaN (TGaN).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

The LEE vs. the angle of the slanted surface in an inversed pyramid structure.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

The LEE vs. reflectivity of the bottom surface for wire-bonding LEDs: Conventional (C); surface texture (ST); patterned substrate (PS) and both (B).

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

The LEE vs. reflectivity of the bottom surface for flip-chip LEDs.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

The LEE vs. reflectivity of the bottom surface for Thin-GaN LEDs.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

A summary of the LEE for different types of LED with and without an epoxy lens.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Parameters of each layer in the simulated LED.

Metrics