Abstract

A novel design of a zoom lens system without motorized movements is proposed. The lens system consists of a fixed lens and two double-liquid variable-focus lenses. The liquid lenses, made out of two immiscible liquids, are based on the principle of electrowetting: an effect controlling the wetting properties of a liquid on a solid by modifying the applied voltage at the solid-liquid interface. The structure and principle of the lens system are introduced in this paper. Detailed calculations and simulation examples are presented to show that this zoom lens system appears viable as the next-generation zoom lens.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. L. Saurei, G. Mathieu, and B. Berge, "Design of an autofocus lens for VGA ¼-in. CCD and CMOS sensors," Proc. SPIE 5249, 288-296 (2004).
  2. G. I. Swanson and W. B. Veldkamp, "Infrared applications of diffractive optical elements," Proc. SPIE 883, 155-158 (1988).
  3. M. Ignacio, L. Claudio, M. Andres, C. Juan, and J. Y. Maria, "Modulation light efficiency of diffractive lenses displayed in a restricted phase-mostly modulation display," Appl. Opt. 43, 6278-6284 (2004).
  4. A. H. Robert and B. J. Feenstra, "Video-speed electronic paper based on electrowetting," Nature 25, 383-385 (2003).
  5. B. H. W. Hendriks, S. Kuiper, M. A. J. van As, C. A. Renders, and T. W. Tukker, "Variable liquid lenses for electronic products," Proc. SPIE 6034, 603402-1-603402-9 (2006).
  6. B. Berge and J. Peseux, "Variable focal lens controlled by an external voltage," Eur. Phys. J. E. 3, 159-163 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  7. S. Kuiper and B. H. W. Hendriks, "Variable-focus liquid lens for miniature cameras," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1128-1130 (2004).
    [CrossRef]

2004

L. Saurei, G. Mathieu, and B. Berge, "Design of an autofocus lens for VGA ¼-in. CCD and CMOS sensors," Proc. SPIE 5249, 288-296 (2004).

S. Kuiper and B. H. W. Hendriks, "Variable-focus liquid lens for miniature cameras," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1128-1130 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Ignacio, L. Claudio, M. Andres, C. Juan, and J. Y. Maria, "Modulation light efficiency of diffractive lenses displayed in a restricted phase-mostly modulation display," Appl. Opt. 43, 6278-6284 (2004).

2003

A. H. Robert and B. J. Feenstra, "Video-speed electronic paper based on electrowetting," Nature 25, 383-385 (2003).

2000

B. Berge and J. Peseux, "Variable focal lens controlled by an external voltage," Eur. Phys. J. E. 3, 159-163 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1988

G. I. Swanson and W. B. Veldkamp, "Infrared applications of diffractive optical elements," Proc. SPIE 883, 155-158 (1988).

Andres, M.

Berge, B.

L. Saurei, G. Mathieu, and B. Berge, "Design of an autofocus lens for VGA ¼-in. CCD and CMOS sensors," Proc. SPIE 5249, 288-296 (2004).

B. Berge and J. Peseux, "Variable focal lens controlled by an external voltage," Eur. Phys. J. E. 3, 159-163 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Claudio, L.

Feenstra, B. J.

A. H. Robert and B. J. Feenstra, "Video-speed electronic paper based on electrowetting," Nature 25, 383-385 (2003).

Hendriks, B. H. W.

S. Kuiper and B. H. W. Hendriks, "Variable-focus liquid lens for miniature cameras," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1128-1130 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ignacio, M.

Juan, C.

Kuiper, S.

S. Kuiper and B. H. W. Hendriks, "Variable-focus liquid lens for miniature cameras," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1128-1130 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Maria, J. Y.

Mathieu, G.

L. Saurei, G. Mathieu, and B. Berge, "Design of an autofocus lens for VGA ¼-in. CCD and CMOS sensors," Proc. SPIE 5249, 288-296 (2004).

Peseux, J.

B. Berge and J. Peseux, "Variable focal lens controlled by an external voltage," Eur. Phys. J. E. 3, 159-163 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Robert, A. H.

A. H. Robert and B. J. Feenstra, "Video-speed electronic paper based on electrowetting," Nature 25, 383-385 (2003).

Saurei, L.

L. Saurei, G. Mathieu, and B. Berge, "Design of an autofocus lens for VGA ¼-in. CCD and CMOS sensors," Proc. SPIE 5249, 288-296 (2004).

Swanson, G. I.

G. I. Swanson and W. B. Veldkamp, "Infrared applications of diffractive optical elements," Proc. SPIE 883, 155-158 (1988).

Veldkamp, W. B.

G. I. Swanson and W. B. Veldkamp, "Infrared applications of diffractive optical elements," Proc. SPIE 883, 155-158 (1988).

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

S. Kuiper and B. H. W. Hendriks, "Variable-focus liquid lens for miniature cameras," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1128-1130 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Eur. Phys. J. E.

B. Berge and J. Peseux, "Variable focal lens controlled by an external voltage," Eur. Phys. J. E. 3, 159-163 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nature

A. H. Robert and B. J. Feenstra, "Video-speed electronic paper based on electrowetting," Nature 25, 383-385 (2003).

Proc. SPIE

L. Saurei, G. Mathieu, and B. Berge, "Design of an autofocus lens for VGA ¼-in. CCD and CMOS sensors," Proc. SPIE 5249, 288-296 (2004).

G. I. Swanson and W. B. Veldkamp, "Infrared applications of diffractive optical elements," Proc. SPIE 883, 155-158 (1988).

Other

B. H. W. Hendriks, S. Kuiper, M. A. J. van As, C. A. Renders, and T. W. Tukker, "Variable liquid lenses for electronic products," Proc. SPIE 6034, 603402-1-603402-9 (2006).

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