Abstract

We have developed a new type of transparent volumetric three-dimensional (3D) image display in which a thin photopolymer sheet containing Lanthanide(III) complexes is used as a rotational screen. The Lanthanide(III) complexes used in our system are Eu(TTA)3 Phen, designed for achieving red luminescence (615nm) for an excitation light of 395 nm. An arbitrary luminous point (voxel) is identified by controlling the excitation laser beam direction in synchronization with the photopolymer sheet rotation. The full colorization of the proposed volumetric 3D image display can be realized by using, for example, Eu(TTA)3 Phen, Tb(ACAC)3 Phen, and Coumarin 337, simultaneously.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. M. Halle, "Autostereoscopic displays and computer graphics," Computer Graphics, ACM SIGGRAPH 31, 58-62 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  2. Y. Igarashi, H. Murata, "3-D Display system using a computer generated integral photography, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 17, 1683-1684 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  3. F. Okano, H. Hoshino, J. Arai, and I. Yuyama, "Real-time pickup method for a three-dimensional image based on integral photography," Appl. Opt. 36, 1598-1603 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. G. Lippmann, "La Photographie Integrale," C. R. Acad. Sci. 146, 446-451 (1908).
  5. C. B. Burckhardt, "Optimum parameters and resolution limitation of integral photography," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 58, 71-76 (1968).
    [CrossRef]
  6. G. E. Favalora, "Volumetric 3D displays and application infrastructure," Computer 38, 37-44 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  7. K. Langhans, D. Bahra, D. Bezecnya, D. Homanna, K. Oltmanna, K. Oltmanna, C. Guilla, E. Riepera, and G. Ardeyb, "FELIX 3D display: An interactive tool for volumetric imaging," Proc. SPIE 4660, 176-190 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  8. Actuality Systems Inc.; http://www.actuality-systems.com/.
  9. G. E. Favalora, J. Napoli, D. M. Hall, RickK. Dorval, M. G. Giovinco, M. J. Richmond, and W. S. Chun, "100 Million-voxel volumetric display," Cockpit Displays IX: Displays for Defense, Applications, Proc. SPIE 4712, 300-312 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  10. K. Langhans, C Guill, E. Rieper, K. Oltmann, and D. Bahr, "SOLID FELIX: A static volume 3D-laser display," Stereoscopic display and applications XIV, Proc. SPIE 5006, 161-174 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. D. Lewis, C. M. Verber, and R. B. McGhee, "A true three-dimensional display," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 18, 723-732 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  12. E. Downing, L. Hesselink, J. Ralston, and R. Macfarlane, "A three-color, solid-state, three-dimensional display," Science 273, 1185-1189 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  13. E. Downing, "Method and system for three-dimensional display of information based on two-photon upconversion," US Patent 5,914,807, (1999).
  14. Y. Hasegawa, M. Yamamuro, Y. Wada, N. Kanehisa, Y. Kai, and S. Yanagida, "Luminescent Polymer Containing the Eu(III) Complex Having Fast Radiation Rate and High Emission Quantum Efficiency," J. Phys. Chem. A 107, 1697-1702 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  15. A. J. Schwarz and B. G. Blundell, "Optimizing dot graphics for volumetric displays," IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications 17, 72-78 (1997).
    [CrossRef]

2005 (1)

G. E. Favalora, "Volumetric 3D displays and application infrastructure," Computer 38, 37-44 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

K. Langhans, C Guill, E. Rieper, K. Oltmann, and D. Bahr, "SOLID FELIX: A static volume 3D-laser display," Stereoscopic display and applications XIV, Proc. SPIE 5006, 161-174 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. Hasegawa, M. Yamamuro, Y. Wada, N. Kanehisa, Y. Kai, and S. Yanagida, "Luminescent Polymer Containing the Eu(III) Complex Having Fast Radiation Rate and High Emission Quantum Efficiency," J. Phys. Chem. A 107, 1697-1702 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

K. Langhans, D. Bahra, D. Bezecnya, D. Homanna, K. Oltmanna, K. Oltmanna, C. Guilla, E. Riepera, and G. Ardeyb, "FELIX 3D display: An interactive tool for volumetric imaging," Proc. SPIE 4660, 176-190 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. E. Favalora, J. Napoli, D. M. Hall, RickK. Dorval, M. G. Giovinco, M. J. Richmond, and W. S. Chun, "100 Million-voxel volumetric display," Cockpit Displays IX: Displays for Defense, Applications, Proc. SPIE 4712, 300-312 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1997 (3)

M. Halle, "Autostereoscopic displays and computer graphics," Computer Graphics, ACM SIGGRAPH 31, 58-62 (1997).
[CrossRef]

F. Okano, H. Hoshino, J. Arai, and I. Yuyama, "Real-time pickup method for a three-dimensional image based on integral photography," Appl. Opt. 36, 1598-1603 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. J. Schwarz and B. G. Blundell, "Optimizing dot graphics for volumetric displays," IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications 17, 72-78 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

E. Downing, L. Hesselink, J. Ralston, and R. Macfarlane, "A three-color, solid-state, three-dimensional display," Science 273, 1185-1189 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

Y. Igarashi, H. Murata, "3-D Display system using a computer generated integral photography, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 17, 1683-1684 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1971 (1)

J. D. Lewis, C. M. Verber, and R. B. McGhee, "A true three-dimensional display," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 18, 723-732 (1971).
[CrossRef]

1968 (1)

1908 (1)

G. Lippmann, "La Photographie Integrale," C. R. Acad. Sci. 146, 446-451 (1908).

Arai, J.

Ardeyb, G.

K. Langhans, D. Bahra, D. Bezecnya, D. Homanna, K. Oltmanna, K. Oltmanna, C. Guilla, E. Riepera, and G. Ardeyb, "FELIX 3D display: An interactive tool for volumetric imaging," Proc. SPIE 4660, 176-190 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bahr, D.

K. Langhans, C Guill, E. Rieper, K. Oltmann, and D. Bahr, "SOLID FELIX: A static volume 3D-laser display," Stereoscopic display and applications XIV, Proc. SPIE 5006, 161-174 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bahra, D.

K. Langhans, D. Bahra, D. Bezecnya, D. Homanna, K. Oltmanna, K. Oltmanna, C. Guilla, E. Riepera, and G. Ardeyb, "FELIX 3D display: An interactive tool for volumetric imaging," Proc. SPIE 4660, 176-190 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bezecnya, D.

K. Langhans, D. Bahra, D. Bezecnya, D. Homanna, K. Oltmanna, K. Oltmanna, C. Guilla, E. Riepera, and G. Ardeyb, "FELIX 3D display: An interactive tool for volumetric imaging," Proc. SPIE 4660, 176-190 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Blundell, B. G.

A. J. Schwarz and B. G. Blundell, "Optimizing dot graphics for volumetric displays," IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications 17, 72-78 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Burckhardt, C. B.

Downing, E.

E. Downing, L. Hesselink, J. Ralston, and R. Macfarlane, "A three-color, solid-state, three-dimensional display," Science 273, 1185-1189 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Favalora, G. E.

G. E. Favalora, "Volumetric 3D displays and application infrastructure," Computer 38, 37-44 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. E. Favalora, J. Napoli, D. M. Hall, RickK. Dorval, M. G. Giovinco, M. J. Richmond, and W. S. Chun, "100 Million-voxel volumetric display," Cockpit Displays IX: Displays for Defense, Applications, Proc. SPIE 4712, 300-312 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Guill, C

K. Langhans, C Guill, E. Rieper, K. Oltmann, and D. Bahr, "SOLID FELIX: A static volume 3D-laser display," Stereoscopic display and applications XIV, Proc. SPIE 5006, 161-174 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Guilla, C.

K. Langhans, D. Bahra, D. Bezecnya, D. Homanna, K. Oltmanna, K. Oltmanna, C. Guilla, E. Riepera, and G. Ardeyb, "FELIX 3D display: An interactive tool for volumetric imaging," Proc. SPIE 4660, 176-190 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hall, D. M.

G. E. Favalora, J. Napoli, D. M. Hall, RickK. Dorval, M. G. Giovinco, M. J. Richmond, and W. S. Chun, "100 Million-voxel volumetric display," Cockpit Displays IX: Displays for Defense, Applications, Proc. SPIE 4712, 300-312 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Halle, M.

M. Halle, "Autostereoscopic displays and computer graphics," Computer Graphics, ACM SIGGRAPH 31, 58-62 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hasegawa, Y.

Y. Hasegawa, M. Yamamuro, Y. Wada, N. Kanehisa, Y. Kai, and S. Yanagida, "Luminescent Polymer Containing the Eu(III) Complex Having Fast Radiation Rate and High Emission Quantum Efficiency," J. Phys. Chem. A 107, 1697-1702 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hesselink, L.

E. Downing, L. Hesselink, J. Ralston, and R. Macfarlane, "A three-color, solid-state, three-dimensional display," Science 273, 1185-1189 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Homanna, D.

K. Langhans, D. Bahra, D. Bezecnya, D. Homanna, K. Oltmanna, K. Oltmanna, C. Guilla, E. Riepera, and G. Ardeyb, "FELIX 3D display: An interactive tool for volumetric imaging," Proc. SPIE 4660, 176-190 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hoshino, H.

Igarashi, Y.

Y. Igarashi, H. Murata, "3-D Display system using a computer generated integral photography, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 17, 1683-1684 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Kai, Y.

Y. Hasegawa, M. Yamamuro, Y. Wada, N. Kanehisa, Y. Kai, and S. Yanagida, "Luminescent Polymer Containing the Eu(III) Complex Having Fast Radiation Rate and High Emission Quantum Efficiency," J. Phys. Chem. A 107, 1697-1702 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kanehisa, N.

Y. Hasegawa, M. Yamamuro, Y. Wada, N. Kanehisa, Y. Kai, and S. Yanagida, "Luminescent Polymer Containing the Eu(III) Complex Having Fast Radiation Rate and High Emission Quantum Efficiency," J. Phys. Chem. A 107, 1697-1702 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Langhans, K.

K. Langhans, C Guill, E. Rieper, K. Oltmann, and D. Bahr, "SOLID FELIX: A static volume 3D-laser display," Stereoscopic display and applications XIV, Proc. SPIE 5006, 161-174 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. Langhans, D. Bahra, D. Bezecnya, D. Homanna, K. Oltmanna, K. Oltmanna, C. Guilla, E. Riepera, and G. Ardeyb, "FELIX 3D display: An interactive tool for volumetric imaging," Proc. SPIE 4660, 176-190 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lewis, J. D.

J. D. Lewis, C. M. Verber, and R. B. McGhee, "A true three-dimensional display," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 18, 723-732 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Lippmann, G.

G. Lippmann, "La Photographie Integrale," C. R. Acad. Sci. 146, 446-451 (1908).

Macfarlane, R.

E. Downing, L. Hesselink, J. Ralston, and R. Macfarlane, "A three-color, solid-state, three-dimensional display," Science 273, 1185-1189 (1996).
[CrossRef]

McGhee, R. B.

J. D. Lewis, C. M. Verber, and R. B. McGhee, "A true three-dimensional display," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 18, 723-732 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Murata, H.

Y. Igarashi, H. Murata, "3-D Display system using a computer generated integral photography, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 17, 1683-1684 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Napoli, J.

G. E. Favalora, J. Napoli, D. M. Hall, RickK. Dorval, M. G. Giovinco, M. J. Richmond, and W. S. Chun, "100 Million-voxel volumetric display," Cockpit Displays IX: Displays for Defense, Applications, Proc. SPIE 4712, 300-312 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Okano, F.

Oltmann, K.

K. Langhans, C Guill, E. Rieper, K. Oltmann, and D. Bahr, "SOLID FELIX: A static volume 3D-laser display," Stereoscopic display and applications XIV, Proc. SPIE 5006, 161-174 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Oltmanna, K.

K. Langhans, D. Bahra, D. Bezecnya, D. Homanna, K. Oltmanna, K. Oltmanna, C. Guilla, E. Riepera, and G. Ardeyb, "FELIX 3D display: An interactive tool for volumetric imaging," Proc. SPIE 4660, 176-190 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. Langhans, D. Bahra, D. Bezecnya, D. Homanna, K. Oltmanna, K. Oltmanna, C. Guilla, E. Riepera, and G. Ardeyb, "FELIX 3D display: An interactive tool for volumetric imaging," Proc. SPIE 4660, 176-190 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ralston, J.

E. Downing, L. Hesselink, J. Ralston, and R. Macfarlane, "A three-color, solid-state, three-dimensional display," Science 273, 1185-1189 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Rick, D. M.

G. E. Favalora, J. Napoli, D. M. Hall, RickK. Dorval, M. G. Giovinco, M. J. Richmond, and W. S. Chun, "100 Million-voxel volumetric display," Cockpit Displays IX: Displays for Defense, Applications, Proc. SPIE 4712, 300-312 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rieper, E.

K. Langhans, C Guill, E. Rieper, K. Oltmann, and D. Bahr, "SOLID FELIX: A static volume 3D-laser display," Stereoscopic display and applications XIV, Proc. SPIE 5006, 161-174 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Riepera, E.

K. Langhans, D. Bahra, D. Bezecnya, D. Homanna, K. Oltmanna, K. Oltmanna, C. Guilla, E. Riepera, and G. Ardeyb, "FELIX 3D display: An interactive tool for volumetric imaging," Proc. SPIE 4660, 176-190 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Schwarz, A. J.

A. J. Schwarz and B. G. Blundell, "Optimizing dot graphics for volumetric displays," IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications 17, 72-78 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Verber, C. M.

J. D. Lewis, C. M. Verber, and R. B. McGhee, "A true three-dimensional display," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 18, 723-732 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Wada, Y.

Y. Hasegawa, M. Yamamuro, Y. Wada, N. Kanehisa, Y. Kai, and S. Yanagida, "Luminescent Polymer Containing the Eu(III) Complex Having Fast Radiation Rate and High Emission Quantum Efficiency," J. Phys. Chem. A 107, 1697-1702 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yamamuro, M.

Y. Hasegawa, M. Yamamuro, Y. Wada, N. Kanehisa, Y. Kai, and S. Yanagida, "Luminescent Polymer Containing the Eu(III) Complex Having Fast Radiation Rate and High Emission Quantum Efficiency," J. Phys. Chem. A 107, 1697-1702 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yanagida, S.

Y. Hasegawa, M. Yamamuro, Y. Wada, N. Kanehisa, Y. Kai, and S. Yanagida, "Luminescent Polymer Containing the Eu(III) Complex Having Fast Radiation Rate and High Emission Quantum Efficiency," J. Phys. Chem. A 107, 1697-1702 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yuyama, I.

Appl. Opt. (1)

C. R. Acad. Sci. (1)

G. Lippmann, "La Photographie Integrale," C. R. Acad. Sci. 146, 446-451 (1908).

Computer (1)

G. E. Favalora, "Volumetric 3D displays and application infrastructure," Computer 38, 37-44 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Computer Graphics, ACM SIGGRAPH (1)

M. Halle, "Autostereoscopic displays and computer graphics," Computer Graphics, ACM SIGGRAPH 31, 58-62 (1997).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications (1)

A. J. Schwarz and B. G. Blundell, "Optimizing dot graphics for volumetric displays," IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications 17, 72-78 (1997).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Electron Devices (1)

J. D. Lewis, C. M. Verber, and R. B. McGhee, "A true three-dimensional display," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 18, 723-732 (1971).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Phys. Chem. A (1)

Y. Hasegawa, M. Yamamuro, Y. Wada, N. Kanehisa, Y. Kai, and S. Yanagida, "Luminescent Polymer Containing the Eu(III) Complex Having Fast Radiation Rate and High Emission Quantum Efficiency," J. Phys. Chem. A 107, 1697-1702 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

Y. Igarashi, H. Murata, "3-D Display system using a computer generated integral photography, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 17, 1683-1684 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (3)

K. Langhans, D. Bahra, D. Bezecnya, D. Homanna, K. Oltmanna, K. Oltmanna, C. Guilla, E. Riepera, and G. Ardeyb, "FELIX 3D display: An interactive tool for volumetric imaging," Proc. SPIE 4660, 176-190 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. E. Favalora, J. Napoli, D. M. Hall, RickK. Dorval, M. G. Giovinco, M. J. Richmond, and W. S. Chun, "100 Million-voxel volumetric display," Cockpit Displays IX: Displays for Defense, Applications, Proc. SPIE 4712, 300-312 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. Langhans, C Guill, E. Rieper, K. Oltmann, and D. Bahr, "SOLID FELIX: A static volume 3D-laser display," Stereoscopic display and applications XIV, Proc. SPIE 5006, 161-174 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

E. Downing, L. Hesselink, J. Ralston, and R. Macfarlane, "A three-color, solid-state, three-dimensional display," Science 273, 1185-1189 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

E. Downing, "Method and system for three-dimensional display of information based on two-photon upconversion," US Patent 5,914,807, (1999).

Actuality Systems Inc.; http://www.actuality-systems.com/.

Supplementary Material (2)

» Media 1: MOV (88 KB)     
» Media 2: MOV (2176 KB)     

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Principle of operation (92 kB). (a) Operation principle of the system. The specific point of the 3D object is expressed by the luminescence of the Lanthanide(III) complexes excited by the laser diode beam. [Media 1] (b) The calculation model used to derive the relation between θ and each angle of the galvanometer scanners, α and β. f(x,y,z) is the 3D image function to be displayed.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Manufacturing procedure for the transparent photopolymer sheet containing Lanthanide(III) complexes.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Photographs of a luminous transparent photopolymer sheet. (a) Photograph taken under a usual lighting. (b) Photograph taken under no illumination. (c) The entire sheet is excited by UV lamp. (d) The sheet is excited by a laser diode. The excitation wavelength is 410 nm.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Experimental setup. Control signals are supplied from the PC. Two mirrors are controlled by analog servo drivers. The rotation of the photopolymer sheet is phase-locked to the stable reference clock signal supplied from the PC.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a) Model of the 3D object. (b) α(θ) and β(θ).

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Displayed 3D object. The two images have been taken from mutually different positions.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

3D animation of fluttering triangles (2.1MB). [Media 2]

Equations (9)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

α ( θ ) = arctan y p ( θ ) x p ( θ ) + L ,
β ( θ ) = arctan z p ( θ ) x p ( θ ) + L .
x = ( x b x a ) T + x a ,
y = ( y b y a ) T + y a ,
z = ( z b z a ) T + z a .
T ( θ ) = y a x a tan θ ( x b x a ) tan θ ( y b y a ) .
α ( θ ) = arctan ( y b y a ) T ( θ ) + y a ( x b x a ) T ( θ ) + x a + L ,
β ( θ ) = arctan ( z b z a ) T ( θ ) + z a ( x b x a ) T ( θ ) + x a + L .
v ( θ ) = { r 2 π × d sin ( θ ) ( sin ( θ ) > 2 d w ) r 2 π × w ( sin ( θ ) 2 d w )

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