Abstract

We report on the focusing of surface plasmon polariton (SPP) beams with parabolic chains of gold nanoparticles fabricated on thin gold films. SPP focusing with different parabolic chains is investigated in the wavelength range of 700–860 nm, both experimentally and theoretically. Mapping of SPP fields is accomplished by making use of leakage radiation microscopy, demonstrating robust and efficient SPP focusing into submicron spots. Numerical simulations based on the Green’s tensor formalism show very good agreement with the experimental results, suggesting the usage of elliptical corrections for parabolic structures to improve their focusing of slightly divergent SPP beams.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. R. H. Ritchie, "Plasma losses by fast electrons in thin films," Phys. Rev. 106,874-881 (1957).
    [CrossRef]
  2. C. J. Powell and J. B. Swan, "Effect of oxidation on the characteristic loss spectra of aluminium and magnesium," Phys. Rev. 118,640-643 (1960).
    [CrossRef]
  3. W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Surface plasmon subwavelength optics," Nature (London) 424,824-830 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  4. S. A. Maier and H. A. Atwater, "Plasmonics: Localization and guiding of electromagnetic energy in metal/dielectric structures," J. Appl. Phys. 98,1-10 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  5. E. Devaux, T. W. Ebbesen, J.-C. Weeber, and A. Dereux, "Launching and decoupling surface plasmons via micro-gratings," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83,4936-4938 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  6. H. Ditlbacher, J. R. Krenn, A. Hohenau, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, "Efficiency of local light-plasmon coupling," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83,3665-3667 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J.-C. Weeber, J. R. Krenn, A. Dereux, B. Lamprecht, Y. Lacroute, and J. P. Goudonnet, "Near-field observation of surface plasmon polariton propagation on thin metal stripes," Phys. Rev. B 64,045411 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  8. S. I. Bozhevolnyi, J. Erland, K. Leosson, P.M.W. Skovgaard, and J.M. Hvam, "Waveguiding in surface plasmon polariton band gap structures," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86,3008-3011 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Channel plasmon-polariton guiding by subwavelength metal grooves," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95,046802 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. H. Ditlbacher, J. R. Krenn, G. Schider, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, "Two-dimensional optics with surface plasmon polaritons," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81,1762-1764 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  11. A. Drezet, A. Hohenau, A. L. Stepanov, H. Ditlbacher, B. Steinberger, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. R. Krenn, "Surface plasmon polariton Mach-Zehnder interferometer and oscillation fringes," Plasmonics 1,141-145 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  12. S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J.-Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators," Nature (London) 440,508-511 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  13. T. Nikolajsen, K. Leosson, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, "Surface plasmon polariton based modulators and switches operating at telecom wavelengths," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85,5833-5835 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  14. A. V. Krasavin, K. F. MacDonald, N. I. Zheludev, A. V. Zayats, "High-contrast modulation of light with light by control of surface plasmon polariton wave coupling," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85,3369-3371 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  15. Z. Liu, J. M. Steele, W. Srituravanich, Y. Pikus, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, "Focusing surface plasmons with a plasmonic lens," Nano Lett. 5,1726-1729 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. L. Yin, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, J. Pearson, J. M. Hiller, J. Hua, U. Welp, D. E. Brown, and C. W. Kimball, "Subwavelength focusing and guiding of surface plasmons," Nano Lett. 5,1399-1402 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. Z. Liu, J. M. Steele, H. Lee, X. Zhang, "Tuning the focus of a plasmonic lens by the incident angle," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88,171108 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  18. A. Drezet, A. L. Stepanov, H. Ditlbacher, A. Hohenau, B. Steinberger, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. R. Krenn, "Surface plasmon propagation in an elliptical corral," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86,074104 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  19. A. B. Evlyukhin, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, A. L. Stepanov, J. R. Krenn, "Splitting of a surface plasmon polariton beam by chains of nanoparticles," Appl. Phys. B 84,29-34 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  20. B. Hecht, H. Bielefeldt, L. Novotny, Y. Inouye, and D. W. Pohl, "Local excitation, scattering, and interference of surface plasmons," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77,1889-1892 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. A. Bouhelier, Th. Huser, H. Tamaru, H.-J. Güntherodt, D. W. Pohl, F. I. Baida and D. Van Labeke, "Plasmon optics of structured silver films," Phys. Rev. B 63,155404 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  22. A. B. Evlyukhin and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, "Surface plasmon polariton guiding by chains of nanoparticles," Laser Phys. Lett. 3,396-400 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  23. T. Søndergaard and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, "Vectorial model for multiple scattering by surface nanoparticles via surface polariton-to-polariton interactions," Phys. Rev. B 67,165405 (2003).
    [CrossRef]

2006 (5)

A. Drezet, A. Hohenau, A. L. Stepanov, H. Ditlbacher, B. Steinberger, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. R. Krenn, "Surface plasmon polariton Mach-Zehnder interferometer and oscillation fringes," Plasmonics 1,141-145 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J.-Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators," Nature (London) 440,508-511 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Z. Liu, J. M. Steele, H. Lee, X. Zhang, "Tuning the focus of a plasmonic lens by the incident angle," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88,171108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. B. Evlyukhin, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, A. L. Stepanov, J. R. Krenn, "Splitting of a surface plasmon polariton beam by chains of nanoparticles," Appl. Phys. B 84,29-34 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. B. Evlyukhin and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, "Surface plasmon polariton guiding by chains of nanoparticles," Laser Phys. Lett. 3,396-400 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (5)

A. Drezet, A. L. Stepanov, H. Ditlbacher, A. Hohenau, B. Steinberger, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. R. Krenn, "Surface plasmon propagation in an elliptical corral," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86,074104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Z. Liu, J. M. Steele, W. Srituravanich, Y. Pikus, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, "Focusing surface plasmons with a plasmonic lens," Nano Lett. 5,1726-1729 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Yin, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, J. Pearson, J. M. Hiller, J. Hua, U. Welp, D. E. Brown, and C. W. Kimball, "Subwavelength focusing and guiding of surface plasmons," Nano Lett. 5,1399-1402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Maier and H. A. Atwater, "Plasmonics: Localization and guiding of electromagnetic energy in metal/dielectric structures," J. Appl. Phys. 98,1-10 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Channel plasmon-polariton guiding by subwavelength metal grooves," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95,046802 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

T. Nikolajsen, K. Leosson, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, "Surface plasmon polariton based modulators and switches operating at telecom wavelengths," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85,5833-5835 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Krasavin, K. F. MacDonald, N. I. Zheludev, A. V. Zayats, "High-contrast modulation of light with light by control of surface plasmon polariton wave coupling," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85,3369-3371 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (4)

E. Devaux, T. W. Ebbesen, J.-C. Weeber, and A. Dereux, "Launching and decoupling surface plasmons via micro-gratings," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83,4936-4938 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Ditlbacher, J. R. Krenn, A. Hohenau, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, "Efficiency of local light-plasmon coupling," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83,3665-3667 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Søndergaard and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, "Vectorial model for multiple scattering by surface nanoparticles via surface polariton-to-polariton interactions," Phys. Rev. B 67,165405 (2003).
[CrossRef]

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Surface plasmon subwavelength optics," Nature (London) 424,824-830 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

H. Ditlbacher, J. R. Krenn, G. Schider, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, "Two-dimensional optics with surface plasmon polaritons," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81,1762-1764 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (3)

J.-C. Weeber, J. R. Krenn, A. Dereux, B. Lamprecht, Y. Lacroute, and J. P. Goudonnet, "Near-field observation of surface plasmon polariton propagation on thin metal stripes," Phys. Rev. B 64,045411 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, J. Erland, K. Leosson, P.M.W. Skovgaard, and J.M. Hvam, "Waveguiding in surface plasmon polariton band gap structures," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86,3008-3011 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Bouhelier, Th. Huser, H. Tamaru, H.-J. Güntherodt, D. W. Pohl, F. I. Baida and D. Van Labeke, "Plasmon optics of structured silver films," Phys. Rev. B 63,155404 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

B. Hecht, H. Bielefeldt, L. Novotny, Y. Inouye, and D. W. Pohl, "Local excitation, scattering, and interference of surface plasmons," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77,1889-1892 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1960 (1)

C. J. Powell and J. B. Swan, "Effect of oxidation on the characteristic loss spectra of aluminium and magnesium," Phys. Rev. 118,640-643 (1960).
[CrossRef]

1957 (1)

R. H. Ritchie, "Plasma losses by fast electrons in thin films," Phys. Rev. 106,874-881 (1957).
[CrossRef]

Atwater, H. A.

S. A. Maier and H. A. Atwater, "Plasmonics: Localization and guiding of electromagnetic energy in metal/dielectric structures," J. Appl. Phys. 98,1-10 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Aussenegg, F. R.

A. Drezet, A. Hohenau, A. L. Stepanov, H. Ditlbacher, B. Steinberger, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. R. Krenn, "Surface plasmon polariton Mach-Zehnder interferometer and oscillation fringes," Plasmonics 1,141-145 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Drezet, A. L. Stepanov, H. Ditlbacher, A. Hohenau, B. Steinberger, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. R. Krenn, "Surface plasmon propagation in an elliptical corral," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86,074104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Ditlbacher, J. R. Krenn, A. Hohenau, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, "Efficiency of local light-plasmon coupling," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83,3665-3667 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Ditlbacher, J. R. Krenn, G. Schider, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, "Two-dimensional optics with surface plasmon polaritons," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81,1762-1764 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Baida, F. I.

A. Bouhelier, Th. Huser, H. Tamaru, H.-J. Güntherodt, D. W. Pohl, F. I. Baida and D. Van Labeke, "Plasmon optics of structured silver films," Phys. Rev. B 63,155404 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Barnes, W. L.

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Surface plasmon subwavelength optics," Nature (London) 424,824-830 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bielefeldt, H.

B. Hecht, H. Bielefeldt, L. Novotny, Y. Inouye, and D. W. Pohl, "Local excitation, scattering, and interference of surface plasmons," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77,1889-1892 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bouhelier, A.

A. Bouhelier, Th. Huser, H. Tamaru, H.-J. Güntherodt, D. W. Pohl, F. I. Baida and D. Van Labeke, "Plasmon optics of structured silver films," Phys. Rev. B 63,155404 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bozhevolnyi, S. I.

A. B. Evlyukhin and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, "Surface plasmon polariton guiding by chains of nanoparticles," Laser Phys. Lett. 3,396-400 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. B. Evlyukhin, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, A. L. Stepanov, J. R. Krenn, "Splitting of a surface plasmon polariton beam by chains of nanoparticles," Appl. Phys. B 84,29-34 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J.-Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators," Nature (London) 440,508-511 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Channel plasmon-polariton guiding by subwavelength metal grooves," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95,046802 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Nikolajsen, K. Leosson, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, "Surface plasmon polariton based modulators and switches operating at telecom wavelengths," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85,5833-5835 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Søndergaard and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, "Vectorial model for multiple scattering by surface nanoparticles via surface polariton-to-polariton interactions," Phys. Rev. B 67,165405 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, J. Erland, K. Leosson, P.M.W. Skovgaard, and J.M. Hvam, "Waveguiding in surface plasmon polariton band gap structures," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86,3008-3011 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brown, D. E.

L. Yin, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, J. Pearson, J. M. Hiller, J. Hua, U. Welp, D. E. Brown, and C. W. Kimball, "Subwavelength focusing and guiding of surface plasmons," Nano Lett. 5,1399-1402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dereux, A.

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Surface plasmon subwavelength optics," Nature (London) 424,824-830 (2003).
[CrossRef]

E. Devaux, T. W. Ebbesen, J.-C. Weeber, and A. Dereux, "Launching and decoupling surface plasmons via micro-gratings," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83,4936-4938 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J.-C. Weeber, J. R. Krenn, A. Dereux, B. Lamprecht, Y. Lacroute, and J. P. Goudonnet, "Near-field observation of surface plasmon polariton propagation on thin metal stripes," Phys. Rev. B 64,045411 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Devaux, E.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J.-Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators," Nature (London) 440,508-511 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Channel plasmon-polariton guiding by subwavelength metal grooves," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95,046802 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Devaux, T. W. Ebbesen, J.-C. Weeber, and A. Dereux, "Launching and decoupling surface plasmons via micro-gratings," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83,4936-4938 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ditlbacher, H.

A. Drezet, A. Hohenau, A. L. Stepanov, H. Ditlbacher, B. Steinberger, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. R. Krenn, "Surface plasmon polariton Mach-Zehnder interferometer and oscillation fringes," Plasmonics 1,141-145 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Drezet, A. L. Stepanov, H. Ditlbacher, A. Hohenau, B. Steinberger, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. R. Krenn, "Surface plasmon propagation in an elliptical corral," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86,074104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Ditlbacher, J. R. Krenn, A. Hohenau, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, "Efficiency of local light-plasmon coupling," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83,3665-3667 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Ditlbacher, J. R. Krenn, G. Schider, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, "Two-dimensional optics with surface plasmon polaritons," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81,1762-1764 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Drezet, A.

A. Drezet, A. Hohenau, A. L. Stepanov, H. Ditlbacher, B. Steinberger, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. R. Krenn, "Surface plasmon polariton Mach-Zehnder interferometer and oscillation fringes," Plasmonics 1,141-145 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Drezet, A. L. Stepanov, H. Ditlbacher, A. Hohenau, B. Steinberger, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. R. Krenn, "Surface plasmon propagation in an elliptical corral," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86,074104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ebbesen, T. W.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J.-Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators," Nature (London) 440,508-511 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Channel plasmon-polariton guiding by subwavelength metal grooves," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95,046802 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Devaux, T. W. Ebbesen, J.-C. Weeber, and A. Dereux, "Launching and decoupling surface plasmons via micro-gratings," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83,4936-4938 (2003).
[CrossRef]

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Surface plasmon subwavelength optics," Nature (London) 424,824-830 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Erland, J.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, J. Erland, K. Leosson, P.M.W. Skovgaard, and J.M. Hvam, "Waveguiding in surface plasmon polariton band gap structures," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86,3008-3011 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Evlyukhin, A. B.

A. B. Evlyukhin and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, "Surface plasmon polariton guiding by chains of nanoparticles," Laser Phys. Lett. 3,396-400 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. B. Evlyukhin, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, A. L. Stepanov, J. R. Krenn, "Splitting of a surface plasmon polariton beam by chains of nanoparticles," Appl. Phys. B 84,29-34 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Goudonnet, J. P.

J.-C. Weeber, J. R. Krenn, A. Dereux, B. Lamprecht, Y. Lacroute, and J. P. Goudonnet, "Near-field observation of surface plasmon polariton propagation on thin metal stripes," Phys. Rev. B 64,045411 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Güntherodt, H.-J.

A. Bouhelier, Th. Huser, H. Tamaru, H.-J. Güntherodt, D. W. Pohl, F. I. Baida and D. Van Labeke, "Plasmon optics of structured silver films," Phys. Rev. B 63,155404 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hecht, B.

B. Hecht, H. Bielefeldt, L. Novotny, Y. Inouye, and D. W. Pohl, "Local excitation, scattering, and interference of surface plasmons," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77,1889-1892 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hiller, J. M.

L. Yin, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, J. Pearson, J. M. Hiller, J. Hua, U. Welp, D. E. Brown, and C. W. Kimball, "Subwavelength focusing and guiding of surface plasmons," Nano Lett. 5,1399-1402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hohenau, A.

A. Drezet, A. Hohenau, A. L. Stepanov, H. Ditlbacher, B. Steinberger, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. R. Krenn, "Surface plasmon polariton Mach-Zehnder interferometer and oscillation fringes," Plasmonics 1,141-145 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Drezet, A. L. Stepanov, H. Ditlbacher, A. Hohenau, B. Steinberger, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. R. Krenn, "Surface plasmon propagation in an elliptical corral," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86,074104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Ditlbacher, J. R. Krenn, A. Hohenau, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, "Efficiency of local light-plasmon coupling," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83,3665-3667 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hua, J.

L. Yin, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, J. Pearson, J. M. Hiller, J. Hua, U. Welp, D. E. Brown, and C. W. Kimball, "Subwavelength focusing and guiding of surface plasmons," Nano Lett. 5,1399-1402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huser, Th.

A. Bouhelier, Th. Huser, H. Tamaru, H.-J. Güntherodt, D. W. Pohl, F. I. Baida and D. Van Labeke, "Plasmon optics of structured silver films," Phys. Rev. B 63,155404 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hvam, J.M.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, J. Erland, K. Leosson, P.M.W. Skovgaard, and J.M. Hvam, "Waveguiding in surface plasmon polariton band gap structures," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86,3008-3011 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Inouye, Y.

B. Hecht, H. Bielefeldt, L. Novotny, Y. Inouye, and D. W. Pohl, "Local excitation, scattering, and interference of surface plasmons," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77,1889-1892 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kimball, C. W.

L. Yin, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, J. Pearson, J. M. Hiller, J. Hua, U. Welp, D. E. Brown, and C. W. Kimball, "Subwavelength focusing and guiding of surface plasmons," Nano Lett. 5,1399-1402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krasavin, A. V.

A. V. Krasavin, K. F. MacDonald, N. I. Zheludev, A. V. Zayats, "High-contrast modulation of light with light by control of surface plasmon polariton wave coupling," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85,3369-3371 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Krenn, J. R.

A. Drezet, A. Hohenau, A. L. Stepanov, H. Ditlbacher, B. Steinberger, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. R. Krenn, "Surface plasmon polariton Mach-Zehnder interferometer and oscillation fringes," Plasmonics 1,141-145 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. B. Evlyukhin, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, A. L. Stepanov, J. R. Krenn, "Splitting of a surface plasmon polariton beam by chains of nanoparticles," Appl. Phys. B 84,29-34 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Drezet, A. L. Stepanov, H. Ditlbacher, A. Hohenau, B. Steinberger, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. R. Krenn, "Surface plasmon propagation in an elliptical corral," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86,074104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Ditlbacher, J. R. Krenn, A. Hohenau, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, "Efficiency of local light-plasmon coupling," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83,3665-3667 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Ditlbacher, J. R. Krenn, G. Schider, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, "Two-dimensional optics with surface plasmon polaritons," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81,1762-1764 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J.-C. Weeber, J. R. Krenn, A. Dereux, B. Lamprecht, Y. Lacroute, and J. P. Goudonnet, "Near-field observation of surface plasmon polariton propagation on thin metal stripes," Phys. Rev. B 64,045411 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lacroute, Y.

J.-C. Weeber, J. R. Krenn, A. Dereux, B. Lamprecht, Y. Lacroute, and J. P. Goudonnet, "Near-field observation of surface plasmon polariton propagation on thin metal stripes," Phys. Rev. B 64,045411 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Laluet, J.-Y.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J.-Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators," Nature (London) 440,508-511 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lamprecht, B.

J.-C. Weeber, J. R. Krenn, A. Dereux, B. Lamprecht, Y. Lacroute, and J. P. Goudonnet, "Near-field observation of surface plasmon polariton propagation on thin metal stripes," Phys. Rev. B 64,045411 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lee, H.

Z. Liu, J. M. Steele, H. Lee, X. Zhang, "Tuning the focus of a plasmonic lens by the incident angle," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88,171108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Leitner, A.

A. Drezet, A. Hohenau, A. L. Stepanov, H. Ditlbacher, B. Steinberger, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. R. Krenn, "Surface plasmon polariton Mach-Zehnder interferometer and oscillation fringes," Plasmonics 1,141-145 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Drezet, A. L. Stepanov, H. Ditlbacher, A. Hohenau, B. Steinberger, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. R. Krenn, "Surface plasmon propagation in an elliptical corral," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86,074104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Ditlbacher, J. R. Krenn, A. Hohenau, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, "Efficiency of local light-plasmon coupling," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83,3665-3667 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Ditlbacher, J. R. Krenn, G. Schider, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, "Two-dimensional optics with surface plasmon polaritons," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81,1762-1764 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Leosson, K.

T. Nikolajsen, K. Leosson, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, "Surface plasmon polariton based modulators and switches operating at telecom wavelengths," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85,5833-5835 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, J. Erland, K. Leosson, P.M.W. Skovgaard, and J.M. Hvam, "Waveguiding in surface plasmon polariton band gap structures," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86,3008-3011 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, Z.

Z. Liu, J. M. Steele, H. Lee, X. Zhang, "Tuning the focus of a plasmonic lens by the incident angle," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88,171108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Z. Liu, J. M. Steele, W. Srituravanich, Y. Pikus, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, "Focusing surface plasmons with a plasmonic lens," Nano Lett. 5,1726-1729 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

MacDonald, K. F.

A. V. Krasavin, K. F. MacDonald, N. I. Zheludev, A. V. Zayats, "High-contrast modulation of light with light by control of surface plasmon polariton wave coupling," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85,3369-3371 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Maier, S. A.

S. A. Maier and H. A. Atwater, "Plasmonics: Localization and guiding of electromagnetic energy in metal/dielectric structures," J. Appl. Phys. 98,1-10 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nikolajsen, T.

T. Nikolajsen, K. Leosson, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, "Surface plasmon polariton based modulators and switches operating at telecom wavelengths," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85,5833-5835 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Novotny, L.

B. Hecht, H. Bielefeldt, L. Novotny, Y. Inouye, and D. W. Pohl, "Local excitation, scattering, and interference of surface plasmons," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77,1889-1892 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pearson, J.

L. Yin, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, J. Pearson, J. M. Hiller, J. Hua, U. Welp, D. E. Brown, and C. W. Kimball, "Subwavelength focusing and guiding of surface plasmons," Nano Lett. 5,1399-1402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pikus, Y.

Z. Liu, J. M. Steele, W. Srituravanich, Y. Pikus, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, "Focusing surface plasmons with a plasmonic lens," Nano Lett. 5,1726-1729 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pohl, D. W.

A. Bouhelier, Th. Huser, H. Tamaru, H.-J. Güntherodt, D. W. Pohl, F. I. Baida and D. Van Labeke, "Plasmon optics of structured silver films," Phys. Rev. B 63,155404 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. Hecht, H. Bielefeldt, L. Novotny, Y. Inouye, and D. W. Pohl, "Local excitation, scattering, and interference of surface plasmons," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77,1889-1892 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Powell, C. J.

C. J. Powell and J. B. Swan, "Effect of oxidation on the characteristic loss spectra of aluminium and magnesium," Phys. Rev. 118,640-643 (1960).
[CrossRef]

Ritchie, R. H.

R. H. Ritchie, "Plasma losses by fast electrons in thin films," Phys. Rev. 106,874-881 (1957).
[CrossRef]

Schider, G.

H. Ditlbacher, J. R. Krenn, G. Schider, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, "Two-dimensional optics with surface plasmon polaritons," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81,1762-1764 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Skovgaard, P.M.W.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, J. Erland, K. Leosson, P.M.W. Skovgaard, and J.M. Hvam, "Waveguiding in surface plasmon polariton band gap structures," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86,3008-3011 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Søndergaard, T.

T. Søndergaard and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, "Vectorial model for multiple scattering by surface nanoparticles via surface polariton-to-polariton interactions," Phys. Rev. B 67,165405 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Srituravanich, W.

Z. Liu, J. M. Steele, W. Srituravanich, Y. Pikus, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, "Focusing surface plasmons with a plasmonic lens," Nano Lett. 5,1726-1729 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Steele, J. M.

Z. Liu, J. M. Steele, H. Lee, X. Zhang, "Tuning the focus of a plasmonic lens by the incident angle," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88,171108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Z. Liu, J. M. Steele, W. Srituravanich, Y. Pikus, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, "Focusing surface plasmons with a plasmonic lens," Nano Lett. 5,1726-1729 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Steinberger, B.

A. Drezet, A. Hohenau, A. L. Stepanov, H. Ditlbacher, B. Steinberger, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. R. Krenn, "Surface plasmon polariton Mach-Zehnder interferometer and oscillation fringes," Plasmonics 1,141-145 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Drezet, A. L. Stepanov, H. Ditlbacher, A. Hohenau, B. Steinberger, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. R. Krenn, "Surface plasmon propagation in an elliptical corral," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86,074104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Stepanov, A. L.

A. B. Evlyukhin, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, A. L. Stepanov, J. R. Krenn, "Splitting of a surface plasmon polariton beam by chains of nanoparticles," Appl. Phys. B 84,29-34 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Drezet, A. Hohenau, A. L. Stepanov, H. Ditlbacher, B. Steinberger, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. R. Krenn, "Surface plasmon polariton Mach-Zehnder interferometer and oscillation fringes," Plasmonics 1,141-145 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Drezet, A. L. Stepanov, H. Ditlbacher, A. Hohenau, B. Steinberger, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. R. Krenn, "Surface plasmon propagation in an elliptical corral," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86,074104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sun, C.

Z. Liu, J. M. Steele, W. Srituravanich, Y. Pikus, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, "Focusing surface plasmons with a plasmonic lens," Nano Lett. 5,1726-1729 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Swan, J. B.

C. J. Powell and J. B. Swan, "Effect of oxidation on the characteristic loss spectra of aluminium and magnesium," Phys. Rev. 118,640-643 (1960).
[CrossRef]

Tamaru, H.

A. Bouhelier, Th. Huser, H. Tamaru, H.-J. Güntherodt, D. W. Pohl, F. I. Baida and D. Van Labeke, "Plasmon optics of structured silver films," Phys. Rev. B 63,155404 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Van Labeke, D.

A. Bouhelier, Th. Huser, H. Tamaru, H.-J. Güntherodt, D. W. Pohl, F. I. Baida and D. Van Labeke, "Plasmon optics of structured silver films," Phys. Rev. B 63,155404 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Vlasko-Vlasov, V. K.

L. Yin, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, J. Pearson, J. M. Hiller, J. Hua, U. Welp, D. E. Brown, and C. W. Kimball, "Subwavelength focusing and guiding of surface plasmons," Nano Lett. 5,1399-1402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Volkov, V. S.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J.-Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators," Nature (London) 440,508-511 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Channel plasmon-polariton guiding by subwavelength metal grooves," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95,046802 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weeber, J.-C.

E. Devaux, T. W. Ebbesen, J.-C. Weeber, and A. Dereux, "Launching and decoupling surface plasmons via micro-gratings," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83,4936-4938 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J.-C. Weeber, J. R. Krenn, A. Dereux, B. Lamprecht, Y. Lacroute, and J. P. Goudonnet, "Near-field observation of surface plasmon polariton propagation on thin metal stripes," Phys. Rev. B 64,045411 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Welp, U.

L. Yin, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, J. Pearson, J. M. Hiller, J. Hua, U. Welp, D. E. Brown, and C. W. Kimball, "Subwavelength focusing and guiding of surface plasmons," Nano Lett. 5,1399-1402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yin, L.

L. Yin, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, J. Pearson, J. M. Hiller, J. Hua, U. Welp, D. E. Brown, and C. W. Kimball, "Subwavelength focusing and guiding of surface plasmons," Nano Lett. 5,1399-1402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zayats, A. V.

A. V. Krasavin, K. F. MacDonald, N. I. Zheludev, A. V. Zayats, "High-contrast modulation of light with light by control of surface plasmon polariton wave coupling," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85,3369-3371 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.

Z. Liu, J. M. Steele, H. Lee, X. Zhang, "Tuning the focus of a plasmonic lens by the incident angle," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88,171108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Z. Liu, J. M. Steele, W. Srituravanich, Y. Pikus, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, "Focusing surface plasmons with a plasmonic lens," Nano Lett. 5,1726-1729 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zheludev, N. I.

A. V. Krasavin, K. F. MacDonald, N. I. Zheludev, A. V. Zayats, "High-contrast modulation of light with light by control of surface plasmon polariton wave coupling," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85,3369-3371 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

A. B. Evlyukhin, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, A. L. Stepanov, J. R. Krenn, "Splitting of a surface plasmon polariton beam by chains of nanoparticles," Appl. Phys. B 84,29-34 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (7)

E. Devaux, T. W. Ebbesen, J.-C. Weeber, and A. Dereux, "Launching and decoupling surface plasmons via micro-gratings," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83,4936-4938 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Ditlbacher, J. R. Krenn, A. Hohenau, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, "Efficiency of local light-plasmon coupling," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83,3665-3667 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Nikolajsen, K. Leosson, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, "Surface plasmon polariton based modulators and switches operating at telecom wavelengths," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85,5833-5835 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Krasavin, K. F. MacDonald, N. I. Zheludev, A. V. Zayats, "High-contrast modulation of light with light by control of surface plasmon polariton wave coupling," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85,3369-3371 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Ditlbacher, J. R. Krenn, G. Schider, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, "Two-dimensional optics with surface plasmon polaritons," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81,1762-1764 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Z. Liu, J. M. Steele, H. Lee, X. Zhang, "Tuning the focus of a plasmonic lens by the incident angle," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88,171108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Drezet, A. L. Stepanov, H. Ditlbacher, A. Hohenau, B. Steinberger, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. R. Krenn, "Surface plasmon propagation in an elliptical corral," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86,074104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

S. A. Maier and H. A. Atwater, "Plasmonics: Localization and guiding of electromagnetic energy in metal/dielectric structures," J. Appl. Phys. 98,1-10 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Laser Phys. Lett. (1)

A. B. Evlyukhin and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, "Surface plasmon polariton guiding by chains of nanoparticles," Laser Phys. Lett. 3,396-400 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (2)

Z. Liu, J. M. Steele, W. Srituravanich, Y. Pikus, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, "Focusing surface plasmons with a plasmonic lens," Nano Lett. 5,1726-1729 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Yin, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, J. Pearson, J. M. Hiller, J. Hua, U. Welp, D. E. Brown, and C. W. Kimball, "Subwavelength focusing and guiding of surface plasmons," Nano Lett. 5,1399-1402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature (London) (2)

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Surface plasmon subwavelength optics," Nature (London) 424,824-830 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J.-Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators," Nature (London) 440,508-511 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. (2)

R. H. Ritchie, "Plasma losses by fast electrons in thin films," Phys. Rev. 106,874-881 (1957).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Powell and J. B. Swan, "Effect of oxidation on the characteristic loss spectra of aluminium and magnesium," Phys. Rev. 118,640-643 (1960).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (3)

J.-C. Weeber, J. R. Krenn, A. Dereux, B. Lamprecht, Y. Lacroute, and J. P. Goudonnet, "Near-field observation of surface plasmon polariton propagation on thin metal stripes," Phys. Rev. B 64,045411 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Bouhelier, Th. Huser, H. Tamaru, H.-J. Güntherodt, D. W. Pohl, F. I. Baida and D. Van Labeke, "Plasmon optics of structured silver films," Phys. Rev. B 63,155404 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. Søndergaard and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, "Vectorial model for multiple scattering by surface nanoparticles via surface polariton-to-polariton interactions," Phys. Rev. B 67,165405 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

B. Hecht, H. Bielefeldt, L. Novotny, Y. Inouye, and D. W. Pohl, "Local excitation, scattering, and interference of surface plasmons," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77,1889-1892 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, J. Erland, K. Leosson, P.M.W. Skovgaard, and J.M. Hvam, "Waveguiding in surface plasmon polariton band gap structures," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86,3008-3011 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Channel plasmon-polariton guiding by subwavelength metal grooves," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95,046802 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Plasmonics (1)

A. Drezet, A. Hohenau, A. L. Stepanov, H. Ditlbacher, B. Steinberger, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. R. Krenn, "Surface plasmon polariton Mach-Zehnder interferometer and oscillation fringes," Plasmonics 1,141-145 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) SEM image of the outmost part of the parabolic chain structure with the focal distance of 63 nm. (b) Free SPP mode excited on a 100-nm-wide stright (gold) ridge. SPP propagation directions are shown by arrows. (c) SPP excited on a 100-nm-wide stright (gold) ridge in front of the parabolic structure which modifies the right-propagation part of the mode.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

LRM images (λ0 = 800 nm) of SPP beam propagation inside parabolic structures of nanoparticles (width = 250 nm, centre-to-centre separation = 320 nm) with the focal distances of (a) 250 nm (parabola 1), (b) 175 nm (parabola 2), (c) 125 nm (parabola 3), (d) 90 nm (parabola 4), (e) 63 nm (parabola 5). Arrows indicate the locations of cross sections shown in Fig. 3.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Normalized with respect to the SPP beam propagation distance cross sections of LRM images shown in Figs. 1(b)–1(f).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

LRM images of SPP beam propagation inside (a-c) parabola 1, (d-f) parabola 2, and (g-i) parabola 5 for different wavelengths of SPP excitation: (a, d, g) 700, (b, e, h) 780, and (c, f, i) 860 nm.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a) LRM image of SPP beam propagation inside parabola 1, and (b, c) the electric field intensity distributions calculated at the height of 150 nm above the surface plane for the same parabola with the SPP beam diameter being (b) 3 and (c) 6 μm. The excitation wavelength is 800 nm.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

(a) Geometry of the considered elliptical structure along with that of parabola 1, and (b, c) the electric field intensity distributions calculated for the elliptical structure focusing with the SPP beam diameter being (b) 3 and (c) 6 μm. The excitation wavelength is 800 nm.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Characteristics calculated from the SPP intensity cross sections shown in Fig. 3

Metrics