Abstract

We demonstrate a novel broadband pulse compression and modelocking scheme by using two-photon absorption in silicon waveguides. Experimentally we obtain greater than 20 fold pulse compression and 200ps modelocked pulses. The free carrier lifetime and the width of the modulation signal are found to be two critical parameters affecting the output pulse width. Theoretical calculations indicate that optical pulses of less than 20ps width are achievable by using the same technique.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. E. R. Thoen, E. M. Koontz, M. Joschko, P. Langlois, T. R. Schibli, F. X. Kartner, E. P. Ippen, and L. A. Kolodziejski, "Two-photon absorption in semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3927-3929 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2006 (5)

H. S. Rong, Y. H. Kuo, S. B. Xu, A. S. Liu, R. Jones, and M. Paniccia, "Monolithic integrated Raman silicon laser," Opt. Express 14, 6705-6712 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. F. Xu, B. Schmidt, J. Shakya, and M. Lipson, "Cascaded silicon micro-ring modulators for WDM optical interconnection," Opt. Express 14, 9430-9435 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, T. Shoji, and S. Itabashi, "All-optical efficient wavelength conversion using silicon photonic wire waveguide," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1046-1048 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. Dulkeith, Y. A. Vlasov, X. G. Chen, N. C. Panoiu, and R. M. Osgood, "Self-phase-modulation in submicron silicon-on-insulator photonic wires," Opt. Express 14, 5524-5534 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, J. E. Sharping, B. S. Schmidt, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, "Broad-band optical parametric gain on a silicon photonic chip," Nature 441, 960-963 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (5)

2004 (4)

T. K. Liang, and H. K. Tsang, "Role of free carriers from two-photon absorption in Raman amplification in silicon-on-insulator waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2745-2747 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. K. Liang, and H. K. Tsang, "Efficient Raman amplification in silicon-on-insulator waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3343-3345 (2004).
[CrossRef]

O. Boyraz, and B. Jalali, "Demonstration of a silicon Raman laser," Opt. Express 12, 5269-5273 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Boyraz, P. Koonath, V. Raghunathan, and B. Jalali, "All optical switching and continuum generation in silicon waveguides," Opt. Express 12, 4094-4102 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

2002 (1)

T. K. Liang, H. K. Tsang, I. E. Day, J. Drake, A. P. Knights, and M. Asghari, "Silicon waveguide two-photon absorption detector at 1.5 mu m wavelength for autocorrelation measurements," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1323-1325 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

E. R. Thoen, E. M. Koontz, M. Joschko, P. Langlois, T. R. Schibli, F. X. Kartner, E. P. Ippen, and L. A. Kolodziejski, "Two-photon absorption in semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3927-3929 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

R. A. Soref, "Silicon-based optoelectronics," Proceedings of the IEEE 81, 1687 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

R. Soref, and B. Bennett, "Electrooptical effects in silicon," IEEE J. Quantum Electron.,  23, 123 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Akiyama, S.

Asghari, M.

T. K. Liang, H. K. Tsang, I. E. Day, J. Drake, A. P. Knights, and M. Asghari, "Silicon waveguide two-photon absorption detector at 1.5 mu m wavelength for autocorrelation measurements," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1323-1325 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Baets, R.

Bennett, B.

R. Soref, and B. Bennett, "Electrooptical effects in silicon," IEEE J. Quantum Electron.,  23, 123 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Boyraz, O.

Chen, X. G.

Claps, R.

Cohen, O.

H. S. Rong, A. S. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, "An all-silicon Raman laser," Nature 433, 292-294 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. S. Rong, R. Jones, A. S. Liu, O. Cohen, D. Hak, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, "A continuous-wave Raman silicon laser," Nature 433, 725-728 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Day, I. E.

T. K. Liang, H. K. Tsang, I. E. Day, J. Drake, A. P. Knights, and M. Asghari, "Silicon waveguide two-photon absorption detector at 1.5 mu m wavelength for autocorrelation measurements," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1323-1325 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Dimitropoulos, D.

Drake, J.

T. K. Liang, H. K. Tsang, I. E. Day, J. Drake, A. P. Knights, and M. Asghari, "Silicon waveguide two-photon absorption detector at 1.5 mu m wavelength for autocorrelation measurements," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1323-1325 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Dulkeith, E.

Dumon, P.

Fang, A.

H. S. Rong, R. Jones, A. S. Liu, O. Cohen, D. Hak, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, "A continuous-wave Raman silicon laser," Nature 433, 725-728 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. S. Rong, A. S. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, "An all-silicon Raman laser," Nature 433, 292-294 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Foster, M. A.

M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, J. E. Sharping, B. S. Schmidt, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, "Broad-band optical parametric gain on a silicon photonic chip," Nature 441, 960-963 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fukuda, H.

K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, T. Shoji, and S. Itabashi, "All-optical efficient wavelength conversion using silicon photonic wire waveguide," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1046-1048 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gaeta, A. L.

M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, J. E. Sharping, B. S. Schmidt, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, "Broad-band optical parametric gain on a silicon photonic chip," Nature 441, 960-963 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Golling, M.

R. Grange, M. Haiml, R. Paschotta, G. J. Spuhler, L. Krainer, M. Golling, O. Ostinelli, and U. Keller, "New regime of inverse saturable absorption for self-stabilizing passively mode-locked lasers," Appl. Phys. B-Lasers O. 80, 151-158 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gopinath, J. T.

Grange, R.

R. Grange, M. Haiml, R. Paschotta, G. J. Spuhler, L. Krainer, M. Golling, O. Ostinelli, and U. Keller, "New regime of inverse saturable absorption for self-stabilizing passively mode-locked lasers," Appl. Phys. B-Lasers O. 80, 151-158 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Grawert, F. J.

Haiml, M.

R. Grange, M. Haiml, R. Paschotta, G. J. Spuhler, L. Krainer, M. Golling, O. Ostinelli, and U. Keller, "New regime of inverse saturable absorption for self-stabilizing passively mode-locked lasers," Appl. Phys. B-Lasers O. 80, 151-158 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hak, D.

H. S. Rong, A. S. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, "An all-silicon Raman laser," Nature 433, 292-294 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. S. Rong, R. Jones, A. S. Liu, O. Cohen, D. Hak, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, "A continuous-wave Raman silicon laser," Nature 433, 725-728 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Han, Y.

Ilday, F. O.

Ippen, E. P.

F. J. Grawert, J. T. Gopinath, F. O. Ilday, H. M. Shen, E. P. Ippen, F. X. Kartner, S. Akiyama, J. Liu, K. Wada, and L. C. Kimerling, "220-fs erbium-ytterbium: glass laser mode locked by a broadband low-loss silicon/germanium saturable absorber," Opt. Lett. 30, 329-331 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. R. Thoen, E. M. Koontz, M. Joschko, P. Langlois, T. R. Schibli, F. X. Kartner, E. P. Ippen, and L. A. Kolodziejski, "Two-photon absorption in semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3927-3929 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Itabashi, S.

K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, T. Shoji, and S. Itabashi, "All-optical efficient wavelength conversion using silicon photonic wire waveguide," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1046-1048 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jalali, B.

Jones, R.

H. S. Rong, Y. H. Kuo, S. B. Xu, A. S. Liu, R. Jones, and M. Paniccia, "Monolithic integrated Raman silicon laser," Opt. Express 14, 6705-6712 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. S. Rong, A. S. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, "An all-silicon Raman laser," Nature 433, 292-294 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. S. Rong, R. Jones, A. S. Liu, O. Cohen, D. Hak, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, "A continuous-wave Raman silicon laser," Nature 433, 725-728 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Joschko, M.

E. R. Thoen, E. M. Koontz, M. Joschko, P. Langlois, T. R. Schibli, F. X. Kartner, E. P. Ippen, and L. A. Kolodziejski, "Two-photon absorption in semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3927-3929 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kartner, F. X.

F. J. Grawert, J. T. Gopinath, F. O. Ilday, H. M. Shen, E. P. Ippen, F. X. Kartner, S. Akiyama, J. Liu, K. Wada, and L. C. Kimerling, "220-fs erbium-ytterbium: glass laser mode locked by a broadband low-loss silicon/germanium saturable absorber," Opt. Lett. 30, 329-331 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. R. Thoen, E. M. Koontz, M. Joschko, P. Langlois, T. R. Schibli, F. X. Kartner, E. P. Ippen, and L. A. Kolodziejski, "Two-photon absorption in semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3927-3929 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kawanishi, T.

Keller, U.

R. Grange, M. Haiml, R. Paschotta, G. J. Spuhler, L. Krainer, M. Golling, O. Ostinelli, and U. Keller, "New regime of inverse saturable absorption for self-stabilizing passively mode-locked lasers," Appl. Phys. B-Lasers O. 80, 151-158 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kimerling, L. C.

Knights, A. P.

T. K. Liang, H. K. Tsang, I. E. Day, J. Drake, A. P. Knights, and M. Asghari, "Silicon waveguide two-photon absorption detector at 1.5 mu m wavelength for autocorrelation measurements," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1323-1325 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kolodziejski, L. A.

E. R. Thoen, E. M. Koontz, M. Joschko, P. Langlois, T. R. Schibli, F. X. Kartner, E. P. Ippen, and L. A. Kolodziejski, "Two-photon absorption in semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3927-3929 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Koonath, P.

Koontz, E. M.

E. R. Thoen, E. M. Koontz, M. Joschko, P. Langlois, T. R. Schibli, F. X. Kartner, E. P. Ippen, and L. A. Kolodziejski, "Two-photon absorption in semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3927-3929 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Krainer, L.

R. Grange, M. Haiml, R. Paschotta, G. J. Spuhler, L. Krainer, M. Golling, O. Ostinelli, and U. Keller, "New regime of inverse saturable absorption for self-stabilizing passively mode-locked lasers," Appl. Phys. B-Lasers O. 80, 151-158 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, Y. H.

Langlois, P.

E. R. Thoen, E. M. Koontz, M. Joschko, P. Langlois, T. R. Schibli, F. X. Kartner, E. P. Ippen, and L. A. Kolodziejski, "Two-photon absorption in semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3927-3929 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Liang, T. K.

T. K. Liang, L. R. Nunes, T. Sakamoto, K. Sasagawa, T. Kawanishi, M. Tsuchiya, G. R. A. Priem, D. Van Thourhout, P. Dumon, R. Baets, and H. K. Tsang, "Ultrafast all-optical switching by cross-absorption modulation in silicon wire waveguides," Opt. Express 13, 7298-7303 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. K. Liang, and H. K. Tsang, "Role of free carriers from two-photon absorption in Raman amplification in silicon-on-insulator waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2745-2747 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. K. Liang, and H. K. Tsang, "Efficient Raman amplification in silicon-on-insulator waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3343-3345 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. K. Liang, H. K. Tsang, I. E. Day, J. Drake, A. P. Knights, and M. Asghari, "Silicon waveguide two-photon absorption detector at 1.5 mu m wavelength for autocorrelation measurements," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1323-1325 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lipson, M.

Q. F. Xu, B. Schmidt, J. Shakya, and M. Lipson, "Cascaded silicon micro-ring modulators for WDM optical interconnection," Opt. Express 14, 9430-9435 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, J. E. Sharping, B. S. Schmidt, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, "Broad-band optical parametric gain on a silicon photonic chip," Nature 441, 960-963 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, A. S.

H. S. Rong, Y. H. Kuo, S. B. Xu, A. S. Liu, R. Jones, and M. Paniccia, "Monolithic integrated Raman silicon laser," Opt. Express 14, 6705-6712 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. S. Rong, R. Jones, A. S. Liu, O. Cohen, D. Hak, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, "A continuous-wave Raman silicon laser," Nature 433, 725-728 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. S. Rong, A. S. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, "An all-silicon Raman laser," Nature 433, 292-294 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, J.

Nicolaescu, R.

H. S. Rong, A. S. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, "An all-silicon Raman laser," Nature 433, 292-294 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nunes, L. R.

Osgood, R. M.

Ostinelli, O.

R. Grange, M. Haiml, R. Paschotta, G. J. Spuhler, L. Krainer, M. Golling, O. Ostinelli, and U. Keller, "New regime of inverse saturable absorption for self-stabilizing passively mode-locked lasers," Appl. Phys. B-Lasers O. 80, 151-158 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Paniccia, M.

H. S. Rong, Y. H. Kuo, S. B. Xu, A. S. Liu, R. Jones, and M. Paniccia, "Monolithic integrated Raman silicon laser," Opt. Express 14, 6705-6712 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. S. Rong, A. S. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, "An all-silicon Raman laser," Nature 433, 292-294 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. S. Rong, R. Jones, A. S. Liu, O. Cohen, D. Hak, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, "A continuous-wave Raman silicon laser," Nature 433, 725-728 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Panoiu, N. C.

Paschotta, R.

R. Grange, M. Haiml, R. Paschotta, G. J. Spuhler, L. Krainer, M. Golling, O. Ostinelli, and U. Keller, "New regime of inverse saturable absorption for self-stabilizing passively mode-locked lasers," Appl. Phys. B-Lasers O. 80, 151-158 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Priem, G. R. A.

Raghunathan, V.

Rong, H. S.

H. S. Rong, Y. H. Kuo, S. B. Xu, A. S. Liu, R. Jones, and M. Paniccia, "Monolithic integrated Raman silicon laser," Opt. Express 14, 6705-6712 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. S. Rong, R. Jones, A. S. Liu, O. Cohen, D. Hak, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, "A continuous-wave Raman silicon laser," Nature 433, 725-728 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. S. Rong, A. S. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, "An all-silicon Raman laser," Nature 433, 292-294 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sakamoto, T.

Sasagawa, K.

Schibli, T. R.

E. R. Thoen, E. M. Koontz, M. Joschko, P. Langlois, T. R. Schibli, F. X. Kartner, E. P. Ippen, and L. A. Kolodziejski, "Two-photon absorption in semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3927-3929 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, B.

Q. F. Xu, B. Schmidt, J. Shakya, and M. Lipson, "Cascaded silicon micro-ring modulators for WDM optical interconnection," Opt. Express 14, 9430-9435 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, B. S.

M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, J. E. Sharping, B. S. Schmidt, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, "Broad-band optical parametric gain on a silicon photonic chip," Nature 441, 960-963 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shakya, J.

Q. F. Xu, B. Schmidt, J. Shakya, and M. Lipson, "Cascaded silicon micro-ring modulators for WDM optical interconnection," Opt. Express 14, 9430-9435 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sharping, J. E.

M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, J. E. Sharping, B. S. Schmidt, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, "Broad-band optical parametric gain on a silicon photonic chip," Nature 441, 960-963 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shen, H. M.

Shoji, T.

K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, T. Shoji, and S. Itabashi, "All-optical efficient wavelength conversion using silicon photonic wire waveguide," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1046-1048 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Soref, R.

R. Soref, and B. Bennett, "Electrooptical effects in silicon," IEEE J. Quantum Electron.,  23, 123 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Soref, R. A.

R. A. Soref, "Silicon-based optoelectronics," Proceedings of the IEEE 81, 1687 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Spuhler, G. J.

R. Grange, M. Haiml, R. Paschotta, G. J. Spuhler, L. Krainer, M. Golling, O. Ostinelli, and U. Keller, "New regime of inverse saturable absorption for self-stabilizing passively mode-locked lasers," Appl. Phys. B-Lasers O. 80, 151-158 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Thoen, E. R.

E. R. Thoen, E. M. Koontz, M. Joschko, P. Langlois, T. R. Schibli, F. X. Kartner, E. P. Ippen, and L. A. Kolodziejski, "Two-photon absorption in semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3927-3929 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tsang, H. K.

T. K. Liang, L. R. Nunes, T. Sakamoto, K. Sasagawa, T. Kawanishi, M. Tsuchiya, G. R. A. Priem, D. Van Thourhout, P. Dumon, R. Baets, and H. K. Tsang, "Ultrafast all-optical switching by cross-absorption modulation in silicon wire waveguides," Opt. Express 13, 7298-7303 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. K. Liang, and H. K. Tsang, "Efficient Raman amplification in silicon-on-insulator waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3343-3345 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. K. Liang, and H. K. Tsang, "Role of free carriers from two-photon absorption in Raman amplification in silicon-on-insulator waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2745-2747 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. K. Liang, H. K. Tsang, I. E. Day, J. Drake, A. P. Knights, and M. Asghari, "Silicon waveguide two-photon absorption detector at 1.5 mu m wavelength for autocorrelation measurements," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1323-1325 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tsuchiya, M.

Tsuchizawa, T.

K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, T. Shoji, and S. Itabashi, "All-optical efficient wavelength conversion using silicon photonic wire waveguide," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1046-1048 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Turner, A. C.

M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, J. E. Sharping, B. S. Schmidt, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, "Broad-band optical parametric gain on a silicon photonic chip," Nature 441, 960-963 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Van Thourhout, D.

Vlasov, Y. A.

Wada, K.

Watanabe, T.

K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, T. Shoji, and S. Itabashi, "All-optical efficient wavelength conversion using silicon photonic wire waveguide," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1046-1048 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Xu, Q. F.

Q. F. Xu, B. Schmidt, J. Shakya, and M. Lipson, "Cascaded silicon micro-ring modulators for WDM optical interconnection," Opt. Express 14, 9430-9435 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Xu, S. B.

Yamada, K.

K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, T. Shoji, and S. Itabashi, "All-optical efficient wavelength conversion using silicon photonic wire waveguide," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1046-1048 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

T. K. Liang, H. K. Tsang, I. E. Day, J. Drake, A. P. Knights, and M. Asghari, "Silicon waveguide two-photon absorption detector at 1.5 mu m wavelength for autocorrelation measurements," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1323-1325 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. K. Liang, and H. K. Tsang, "Role of free carriers from two-photon absorption in Raman amplification in silicon-on-insulator waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2745-2747 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. K. Liang, and H. K. Tsang, "Efficient Raman amplification in silicon-on-insulator waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3343-3345 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. R. Thoen, E. M. Koontz, M. Joschko, P. Langlois, T. R. Schibli, F. X. Kartner, E. P. Ippen, and L. A. Kolodziejski, "Two-photon absorption in semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3927-3929 (1999).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

R. Soref, and B. Bennett, "Electrooptical effects in silicon," IEEE J. Quantum Electron.,  23, 123 (1987).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, T. Shoji, and S. Itabashi, "All-optical efficient wavelength conversion using silicon photonic wire waveguide," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1046-1048 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nature (3)

M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, J. E. Sharping, B. S. Schmidt, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, "Broad-band optical parametric gain on a silicon photonic chip," Nature 441, 960-963 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. S. Rong, A. S. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, "An all-silicon Raman laser," Nature 433, 292-294 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. S. Rong, R. Jones, A. S. Liu, O. Cohen, D. Hak, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, "A continuous-wave Raman silicon laser," Nature 433, 725-728 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (8)

H. S. Rong, Y. H. Kuo, S. B. Xu, A. S. Liu, R. Jones, and M. Paniccia, "Monolithic integrated Raman silicon laser," Opt. Express 14, 6705-6712 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Boyraz, and B. Jalali, "Demonstration of a silicon Raman laser," Opt. Express 12, 5269-5273 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Boyraz, and B. Jalali, "Demonstration of directly modulated silicon Raman laser," Opt. Express 13, 796-800 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Claps, D. Dimitropoulos, V. Raghunathan, Y. Han, and B. Jalali, "Observation of stimulated Raman amplification in silicon waveguides," Opt. Express 11, 1731-1739 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. F. Xu, B. Schmidt, J. Shakya, and M. Lipson, "Cascaded silicon micro-ring modulators for WDM optical interconnection," Opt. Express 14, 9430-9435 (2006).
[CrossRef]

O. Boyraz, P. Koonath, V. Raghunathan, and B. Jalali, "All optical switching and continuum generation in silicon waveguides," Opt. Express 12, 4094-4102 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Dulkeith, Y. A. Vlasov, X. G. Chen, N. C. Panoiu, and R. M. Osgood, "Self-phase-modulation in submicron silicon-on-insulator photonic wires," Opt. Express 14, 5524-5534 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. K. Liang, L. R. Nunes, T. Sakamoto, K. Sasagawa, T. Kawanishi, M. Tsuchiya, G. R. A. Priem, D. Van Thourhout, P. Dumon, R. Baets, and H. K. Tsang, "Ultrafast all-optical switching by cross-absorption modulation in silicon wire waveguides," Opt. Express 13, 7298-7303 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proceedings of the IEEE (1)

R. A. Soref, "Silicon-based optoelectronics," Proceedings of the IEEE 81, 1687 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

R. Grange, M. Haiml, R. Paschotta, G. J. Spuhler, L. Krainer, M. Golling, O. Ostinelli, and U. Keller, "New regime of inverse saturable absorption for self-stabilizing passively mode-locked lasers," Appl. Phys. B-Lasers O. 80, 151-158 (2005).
[CrossRef]

E. Tien, N. S. Yuksek, F. Qian, O. Boyraz, "Pulse Compression and Modelocking by Using TPA in Silicon Waveguides", in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics CLEO 2007, paper CMHH6.

U. Keller, "Ultrafast solid-state lasers," in Progress In Optics,46(Elsevier Science Bv, Amsterdam, 2004), pp. 1-115.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a). Schematic description of free-carrier accumulation for pulse compression. A high-intensity optical pulse will leave paint of free carriers behind, which will contribute to pulse attenuation at the trailing edge and hence compression. b) Temporal variation of free-carrier concentration and losses generated by 100ps optical pulses. The loss difference between the front and end of the pulse can be as high as 16cm-1 for optical pulses with 100W peak power values.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Simulation results of modelocking by using 400ps modulation signals. A 400ps modulation signal compresses to 20ps after 20 roundtrips inside the cavity.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Experimental setup used for TPA based modelocking scheme. SOI: Silicon on insulator waveguide, OSA: Optical spectrum analyzer, EDFA: erbium doped fiber amplifier.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Pulse compression results inside the laser cavity. Power values are measured at the output of the cavity.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

200 ps pulses measured at the laser output.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

RF spectrum measured of the laser output.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Effect of long modulation signals on laser output and formation of pedestal. Pulses longer than free carrier lifetime will form a long pedestal at the output.

Equations (3)

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N = τ o β I 2 2 h ν
N z t = τ o β 0 L p t 2 t z dz 2 hv A eff 2 L p
α FC z t = 1.45 × 10 17 ( 1.55 λ ) 2 N z t ( cm 1 )

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