Abstract

We present a novel method for rapidly acquiring optical coherence tomography (OCT) images at multiple backscattering angles. By angularly compounding these images, high levels of speckle reduction were achieved. Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) improvements of 3.4 dB were obtained from a homogeneous tissue phantom, which was in good agreement with the predictions of a statistical model of speckle that incorporated the optical parameters of the imaging system. In addition, the fast acquisition rate of the system (10 kHz A-line repetition rate) allowed angular compounding to be performed in vivo without significant motion artifacts. Speckle-reduced OCT images of human dermis show greatly improved delineation of tissue microstructure.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. M. Schmitt, S. H. Xiang, and K. M. Yung, "Speckle in optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 4, 95-105 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  2. D. C. Adler, T. H. Ko, and J. G. Fujimoto. "Speckle reduction in optical coherence tomography images by use of a spatially adaptive wavelet filter." Opt. Lett. 29, 2878 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  3. D. L. Marks, T. S. Ralston, and S. A. Boppart, "Speckle reduction by I-divergence regularization in optical coherence tomography," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 22, 2366-2371 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. M. Schmitt, "Array detection for speckle reduction in optical coherence microscopy," Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 1427-1439 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. Bashkansky and J. Reintjes, "Statistics and reduction of speckle in optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 25, 545-547 (2000).
  6. N. Iftimia, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, "Speckle reduction in optical coherence tomography by ‘path length encoded’ angular compounding," J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 260-263 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  7. A. E. Desjardins, B. J. Vakoc, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, "Speckle Reduction in OCT using Massively-Parallel Detection and Frequency-Domain Ranging," Opt. Express 14, 4736-4745 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  8. S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, W. Y. Oh, A. E. Desjardins, M. J. Suter, R. C. Chan, J. A. Evans, I-K Yang, N. S. Nishioka, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, "Comprehensive volumetric optical microscopy in vivo," Nat. Med. 12, 1429-1433 (2006).
  9. S. H. Yun, C. Boudoux, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, "High-speed wavelength-swept semiconductor laser with a polygon-scanner-based wavelength filter," Opt. Lett. 28, 1981-1983 (2003).
  10. W. Y. Oh, S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, 115 kHz tuning repetition rate ultrahigh-speed wavelength-swept semiconductor laser, Opt. Lett. 30, 3159-3161 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  11. S. Yun, G. Tearney, J. de Boer, N. Iftimia, and B. Bouma, "High-speed optical frequency-domain imaging," Opt. Express 11, 2953-2963 (2003)
  12. B. J. Vakoc, S. H. Yun, J. F. de Boer, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, "Phase-resolved optical frequency domain imaging," Opt. Express 13, 5483-5493 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  13. B. Karamata, K. Hassler, M. Laubscher, and T. Lasser, "Speckle statistics in optical coherence tomography," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 22, 593-596 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  14. R. Huber, M. Wojtkowski, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Fourier Domain Mode Locking (FDML): A new laser operating regime and applications for optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 14, 3225-3237 (2006).
    [CrossRef]

2006 (3)

2005 (4)

2004 (1)

2003 (3)

2000 (1)

1999 (1)

J. M. Schmitt, S. H. Xiang, and K. M. Yung, "Speckle in optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 4, 95-105 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

J. M. Schmitt, "Array detection for speckle reduction in optical coherence microscopy," Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 1427-1439 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Adler, D. C.

Bashkansky, M.

Boppart, S. A.

Boudoux, C.

Bouma, B.

Bouma, B. E.

Chan, R. C.

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, W. Y. Oh, A. E. Desjardins, M. J. Suter, R. C. Chan, J. A. Evans, I-K Yang, N. S. Nishioka, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, "Comprehensive volumetric optical microscopy in vivo," Nat. Med. 12, 1429-1433 (2006).

de Boer, J.

de Boer, J. F.

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, W. Y. Oh, A. E. Desjardins, M. J. Suter, R. C. Chan, J. A. Evans, I-K Yang, N. S. Nishioka, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, "Comprehensive volumetric optical microscopy in vivo," Nat. Med. 12, 1429-1433 (2006).

B. J. Vakoc, S. H. Yun, J. F. de Boer, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, "Phase-resolved optical frequency domain imaging," Opt. Express 13, 5483-5493 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Desjardins, A. E.

A. E. Desjardins, B. J. Vakoc, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, "Speckle Reduction in OCT using Massively-Parallel Detection and Frequency-Domain Ranging," Opt. Express 14, 4736-4745 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, W. Y. Oh, A. E. Desjardins, M. J. Suter, R. C. Chan, J. A. Evans, I-K Yang, N. S. Nishioka, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, "Comprehensive volumetric optical microscopy in vivo," Nat. Med. 12, 1429-1433 (2006).

Evans, J. A.

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, W. Y. Oh, A. E. Desjardins, M. J. Suter, R. C. Chan, J. A. Evans, I-K Yang, N. S. Nishioka, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, "Comprehensive volumetric optical microscopy in vivo," Nat. Med. 12, 1429-1433 (2006).

Fujimoto, J. G.

Hassler, K.

Huber, R.

Iftimia, N.

S. Yun, G. Tearney, J. de Boer, N. Iftimia, and B. Bouma, "High-speed optical frequency-domain imaging," Opt. Express 11, 2953-2963 (2003)

N. Iftimia, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, "Speckle reduction in optical coherence tomography by ‘path length encoded’ angular compounding," J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 260-263 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Karamata, B.

Ko, T. H.

Lasser, T.

Laubscher, M.

Marks, D. L.

Nishioka, N. S.

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, W. Y. Oh, A. E. Desjardins, M. J. Suter, R. C. Chan, J. A. Evans, I-K Yang, N. S. Nishioka, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, "Comprehensive volumetric optical microscopy in vivo," Nat. Med. 12, 1429-1433 (2006).

Oh, W. Y.

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, W. Y. Oh, A. E. Desjardins, M. J. Suter, R. C. Chan, J. A. Evans, I-K Yang, N. S. Nishioka, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, "Comprehensive volumetric optical microscopy in vivo," Nat. Med. 12, 1429-1433 (2006).

W. Y. Oh, S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, 115 kHz tuning repetition rate ultrahigh-speed wavelength-swept semiconductor laser, Opt. Lett. 30, 3159-3161 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ralston, T. S.

Reintjes, J.

Schmitt, J. M.

J. M. Schmitt, S. H. Xiang, and K. M. Yung, "Speckle in optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 4, 95-105 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Schmitt, "Array detection for speckle reduction in optical coherence microscopy," Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 1427-1439 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Shishkov, M.

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, W. Y. Oh, A. E. Desjardins, M. J. Suter, R. C. Chan, J. A. Evans, I-K Yang, N. S. Nishioka, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, "Comprehensive volumetric optical microscopy in vivo," Nat. Med. 12, 1429-1433 (2006).

Suter, M. J.

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, W. Y. Oh, A. E. Desjardins, M. J. Suter, R. C. Chan, J. A. Evans, I-K Yang, N. S. Nishioka, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, "Comprehensive volumetric optical microscopy in vivo," Nat. Med. 12, 1429-1433 (2006).

Tearney, G.

Tearney, G. J.

Vakoc, B. J.

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, W. Y. Oh, A. E. Desjardins, M. J. Suter, R. C. Chan, J. A. Evans, I-K Yang, N. S. Nishioka, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, "Comprehensive volumetric optical microscopy in vivo," Nat. Med. 12, 1429-1433 (2006).

A. E. Desjardins, B. J. Vakoc, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, "Speckle Reduction in OCT using Massively-Parallel Detection and Frequency-Domain Ranging," Opt. Express 14, 4736-4745 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. J. Vakoc, S. H. Yun, J. F. de Boer, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, "Phase-resolved optical frequency domain imaging," Opt. Express 13, 5483-5493 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wojtkowski, M.

Xiang, S. H.

J. M. Schmitt, S. H. Xiang, and K. M. Yung, "Speckle in optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 4, 95-105 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yang, I-K

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, W. Y. Oh, A. E. Desjardins, M. J. Suter, R. C. Chan, J. A. Evans, I-K Yang, N. S. Nishioka, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, "Comprehensive volumetric optical microscopy in vivo," Nat. Med. 12, 1429-1433 (2006).

Yun, S.

Yun, S. H.

Yung, K. M.

J. M. Schmitt, S. H. Xiang, and K. M. Yung, "Speckle in optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 4, 95-105 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt. (2)

N. Iftimia, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, "Speckle reduction in optical coherence tomography by ‘path length encoded’ angular compounding," J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 260-263 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Schmitt, S. H. Xiang, and K. M. Yung, "Speckle in optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 4, 95-105 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (2)

Nat. Med. (1)

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, W. Y. Oh, A. E. Desjardins, M. J. Suter, R. C. Chan, J. A. Evans, I-K Yang, N. S. Nishioka, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, "Comprehensive volumetric optical microscopy in vivo," Nat. Med. 12, 1429-1433 (2006).

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Phys. Med. Biol. (1)

J. M. Schmitt, "Array detection for speckle reduction in optical coherence microscopy," Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 1427-1439 (1997).
[CrossRef]

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