Abstract

We report on space-selective precipitation of nonlinear optical crystals in an Er3+-doped BaO-TiO2-SiO2 glass by using a focused femtosecond laser with 800 nm, 250 kHz and 150 fs. An intense green emission due to upconversion luminescence is observed around the focal point of the femtosecond laser beam at the initial stage of the laser irradiation. A blue emission due to second harmonic generation begins to emerge from the irradiation region after 40 s irradiation. Micro-Raman spectra indicate that nonlinear optical crystals (Ba2TiSi2O8) are precipitated after the laser irradiation. The irradiation time for crystallization in Er3+-doped BaO-TiO2-SiO2 glasses is longer than that in BaO-TiO2-SiO2 glasses under the same irradiation conditions. The mechanisms responsible for the observed phenomena are discussed.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. Y. Wang and J. Ohwaki, "New transparent vitroceramics codoped with Er3+ and Yb3+ for efficient frequency upconversion," Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 3268-3270 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  2. Y. Takahashi, Y. Benino, T. Fujiwara, and T. Komatsu, "Large second-order optical nonlinearities of fresnoite-type crystals in transparent surface-crystallized glasses," J. Appl. Phys. 95, 3503-3508 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. Nogami, A. Kato, and Y. Tanaka, "Sol-gel preparation of CdSxSe1−x solid solution microcrystal-doped glasses," J. Mat. Sci. 28, 4129-4133 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  4. R. Ihara, T. Honma, Y. Benino, T. Fujiwara, R. Sato, and T. Komatsu, "Writing of two-dimensional crystal curved lines at the surface of Sm2O3-Bi2O3-B2O3 glass by samarium atom heat processing," Solid State Commun. 136, 273-277 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  5. K. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, "Photowritten optical waveguides in various glasses with ultrashort pulse laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329-3331 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  6. K. Miura, J. Qiu, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, "Space-selective growth of frequency-conversion crystals in glasses with ultrashort infrared laser pulses," Opt. Lett. 25, 408-410 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  7. Y. Yonesaki, K. Miura, R. Araki, K. Fujita, and K. Hirao, "Space-selective precipitation of non-linear optical crystals inside silicate glasses using near-infrared femtosecond laser," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 351, 885-892 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  8. X. Jiang, J. Qiu, H. Zeng, and S. Zhu, "Femtosecond laser induced growth of LiNbO3 crystal in glass," J. Inorg. Mater. 19, 935-938 (2004).
  9. J. Qiu, X. Jiang, C. Zhu, M. Shirai, J. Si, N. Jiang, and K. Hirao, "Manipulation of gold nanoparticles inside transparent materials," Angwe. Chem. Int. Ed. 43, 2230-2234 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  10. S. K. Sundaram, C. B. Schaffer, E. Mazur, "Microexplosions in tellurite glasses," Appl. Phys. A 76, 379-384 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  11. Y. Dai, B. Yu, B. Lu, J. R. Qiu, X. Yan, X. Jiang, C. Zhu, "Thermal stress-induced birefringence in borate glass irradiated by femtosecond laser pulses," Chin. Phys. Lett. 22, 2626-2629 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  12. S. Kawasaki, T. Honma, Y. Benino, T. Fujiwara, R. Sato, and T. Komatsu, "Writing of crystal-dots and lines by YAG laser irradiation and their morphologies in samarium tellurite glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 325, 61-69 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  13. S. Xu, G. Wang, S. Dai, J. Zhang, L. Hu, and Z. Jiang, "Infrared to visible upconversion in Er3+-doped lead oxyfluorosilicate glasses," J. Lumin. 109, 187-192 (2004).
  14. S. A. Markgraf, S. K. Sharma, and A. S. Bhalla, "Raman study of fresnoite-type materials: Polarized single crystal, crystalline powders, and glasses," J. Mater. Res. 8, 635-648 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  15. Th. G. Mayerhöfer, and H. H. Dunken, "Single-crystal IR spectroscopic investigation on fresnoite, Sr-fresnoite and Ge-fresnoite," Vib. Spectrosc. 25, 185-195 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  16. Y. Takahashi, K. Kitamura, Y. Benino, T. Fujiwara and T. Komatsu, "Second-order optical nonlinear and luminescent properties of Ba2TiSi2O8 nanocrystallized glass," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 091110 (2005).
    [CrossRef]

2005 (4)

Y. Yonesaki, K. Miura, R. Araki, K. Fujita, and K. Hirao, "Space-selective precipitation of non-linear optical crystals inside silicate glasses using near-infrared femtosecond laser," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 351, 885-892 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Dai, B. Yu, B. Lu, J. R. Qiu, X. Yan, X. Jiang, C. Zhu, "Thermal stress-induced birefringence in borate glass irradiated by femtosecond laser pulses," Chin. Phys. Lett. 22, 2626-2629 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Takahashi, K. Kitamura, Y. Benino, T. Fujiwara and T. Komatsu, "Second-order optical nonlinear and luminescent properties of Ba2TiSi2O8 nanocrystallized glass," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 091110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Ihara, T. Honma, Y. Benino, T. Fujiwara, R. Sato, and T. Komatsu, "Writing of two-dimensional crystal curved lines at the surface of Sm2O3-Bi2O3-B2O3 glass by samarium atom heat processing," Solid State Commun. 136, 273-277 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (4)

Y. Takahashi, Y. Benino, T. Fujiwara, and T. Komatsu, "Large second-order optical nonlinearities of fresnoite-type crystals in transparent surface-crystallized glasses," J. Appl. Phys. 95, 3503-3508 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Xu, G. Wang, S. Dai, J. Zhang, L. Hu, and Z. Jiang, "Infrared to visible upconversion in Er3+-doped lead oxyfluorosilicate glasses," J. Lumin. 109, 187-192 (2004).

X. Jiang, J. Qiu, H. Zeng, and S. Zhu, "Femtosecond laser induced growth of LiNbO3 crystal in glass," J. Inorg. Mater. 19, 935-938 (2004).

J. Qiu, X. Jiang, C. Zhu, M. Shirai, J. Si, N. Jiang, and K. Hirao, "Manipulation of gold nanoparticles inside transparent materials," Angwe. Chem. Int. Ed. 43, 2230-2234 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

S. K. Sundaram, C. B. Schaffer, E. Mazur, "Microexplosions in tellurite glasses," Appl. Phys. A 76, 379-384 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Kawasaki, T. Honma, Y. Benino, T. Fujiwara, R. Sato, and T. Komatsu, "Writing of crystal-dots and lines by YAG laser irradiation and their morphologies in samarium tellurite glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 325, 61-69 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

Th. G. Mayerhöfer, and H. H. Dunken, "Single-crystal IR spectroscopic investigation on fresnoite, Sr-fresnoite and Ge-fresnoite," Vib. Spectrosc. 25, 185-195 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

1997 (1)

K. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, "Photowritten optical waveguides in various glasses with ultrashort pulse laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329-3331 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1993 (3)

M. Nogami, A. Kato, and Y. Tanaka, "Sol-gel preparation of CdSxSe1−x solid solution microcrystal-doped glasses," J. Mat. Sci. 28, 4129-4133 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Y. Wang and J. Ohwaki, "New transparent vitroceramics codoped with Er3+ and Yb3+ for efficient frequency upconversion," Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 3268-3270 (1993).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Markgraf, S. K. Sharma, and A. S. Bhalla, "Raman study of fresnoite-type materials: Polarized single crystal, crystalline powders, and glasses," J. Mater. Res. 8, 635-648 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Araki, R.

Y. Yonesaki, K. Miura, R. Araki, K. Fujita, and K. Hirao, "Space-selective precipitation of non-linear optical crystals inside silicate glasses using near-infrared femtosecond laser," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 351, 885-892 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Benino, Y.

R. Ihara, T. Honma, Y. Benino, T. Fujiwara, R. Sato, and T. Komatsu, "Writing of two-dimensional crystal curved lines at the surface of Sm2O3-Bi2O3-B2O3 glass by samarium atom heat processing," Solid State Commun. 136, 273-277 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Takahashi, K. Kitamura, Y. Benino, T. Fujiwara and T. Komatsu, "Second-order optical nonlinear and luminescent properties of Ba2TiSi2O8 nanocrystallized glass," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 091110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Takahashi, Y. Benino, T. Fujiwara, and T. Komatsu, "Large second-order optical nonlinearities of fresnoite-type crystals in transparent surface-crystallized glasses," J. Appl. Phys. 95, 3503-3508 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Kawasaki, T. Honma, Y. Benino, T. Fujiwara, R. Sato, and T. Komatsu, "Writing of crystal-dots and lines by YAG laser irradiation and their morphologies in samarium tellurite glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 325, 61-69 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bhalla, A. S.

S. A. Markgraf, S. K. Sharma, and A. S. Bhalla, "Raman study of fresnoite-type materials: Polarized single crystal, crystalline powders, and glasses," J. Mater. Res. 8, 635-648 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Dai, S.

S. Xu, G. Wang, S. Dai, J. Zhang, L. Hu, and Z. Jiang, "Infrared to visible upconversion in Er3+-doped lead oxyfluorosilicate glasses," J. Lumin. 109, 187-192 (2004).

Dai, Y.

Y. Dai, B. Yu, B. Lu, J. R. Qiu, X. Yan, X. Jiang, C. Zhu, "Thermal stress-induced birefringence in borate glass irradiated by femtosecond laser pulses," Chin. Phys. Lett. 22, 2626-2629 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dunken, H. H.

Th. G. Mayerhöfer, and H. H. Dunken, "Single-crystal IR spectroscopic investigation on fresnoite, Sr-fresnoite and Ge-fresnoite," Vib. Spectrosc. 25, 185-195 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Fujita, K.

Y. Yonesaki, K. Miura, R. Araki, K. Fujita, and K. Hirao, "Space-selective precipitation of non-linear optical crystals inside silicate glasses using near-infrared femtosecond laser," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 351, 885-892 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fujiwara, T.

R. Ihara, T. Honma, Y. Benino, T. Fujiwara, R. Sato, and T. Komatsu, "Writing of two-dimensional crystal curved lines at the surface of Sm2O3-Bi2O3-B2O3 glass by samarium atom heat processing," Solid State Commun. 136, 273-277 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Takahashi, K. Kitamura, Y. Benino, T. Fujiwara and T. Komatsu, "Second-order optical nonlinear and luminescent properties of Ba2TiSi2O8 nanocrystallized glass," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 091110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Takahashi, Y. Benino, T. Fujiwara, and T. Komatsu, "Large second-order optical nonlinearities of fresnoite-type crystals in transparent surface-crystallized glasses," J. Appl. Phys. 95, 3503-3508 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Kawasaki, T. Honma, Y. Benino, T. Fujiwara, R. Sato, and T. Komatsu, "Writing of crystal-dots and lines by YAG laser irradiation and their morphologies in samarium tellurite glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 325, 61-69 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hirao, K.

Y. Yonesaki, K. Miura, R. Araki, K. Fujita, and K. Hirao, "Space-selective precipitation of non-linear optical crystals inside silicate glasses using near-infrared femtosecond laser," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 351, 885-892 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Qiu, X. Jiang, C. Zhu, M. Shirai, J. Si, N. Jiang, and K. Hirao, "Manipulation of gold nanoparticles inside transparent materials," Angwe. Chem. Int. Ed. 43, 2230-2234 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Miura, J. Qiu, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, "Space-selective growth of frequency-conversion crystals in glasses with ultrashort infrared laser pulses," Opt. Lett. 25, 408-410 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, "Photowritten optical waveguides in various glasses with ultrashort pulse laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329-3331 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Honma, T.

R. Ihara, T. Honma, Y. Benino, T. Fujiwara, R. Sato, and T. Komatsu, "Writing of two-dimensional crystal curved lines at the surface of Sm2O3-Bi2O3-B2O3 glass by samarium atom heat processing," Solid State Commun. 136, 273-277 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Kawasaki, T. Honma, Y. Benino, T. Fujiwara, R. Sato, and T. Komatsu, "Writing of crystal-dots and lines by YAG laser irradiation and their morphologies in samarium tellurite glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 325, 61-69 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hu, L.

S. Xu, G. Wang, S. Dai, J. Zhang, L. Hu, and Z. Jiang, "Infrared to visible upconversion in Er3+-doped lead oxyfluorosilicate glasses," J. Lumin. 109, 187-192 (2004).

Ihara, R.

R. Ihara, T. Honma, Y. Benino, T. Fujiwara, R. Sato, and T. Komatsu, "Writing of two-dimensional crystal curved lines at the surface of Sm2O3-Bi2O3-B2O3 glass by samarium atom heat processing," Solid State Commun. 136, 273-277 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Inouye, H.

K. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, "Photowritten optical waveguides in various glasses with ultrashort pulse laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329-3331 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, N.

J. Qiu, X. Jiang, C. Zhu, M. Shirai, J. Si, N. Jiang, and K. Hirao, "Manipulation of gold nanoparticles inside transparent materials," Angwe. Chem. Int. Ed. 43, 2230-2234 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, X.

Y. Dai, B. Yu, B. Lu, J. R. Qiu, X. Yan, X. Jiang, C. Zhu, "Thermal stress-induced birefringence in borate glass irradiated by femtosecond laser pulses," Chin. Phys. Lett. 22, 2626-2629 (2005).
[CrossRef]

X. Jiang, J. Qiu, H. Zeng, and S. Zhu, "Femtosecond laser induced growth of LiNbO3 crystal in glass," J. Inorg. Mater. 19, 935-938 (2004).

J. Qiu, X. Jiang, C. Zhu, M. Shirai, J. Si, N. Jiang, and K. Hirao, "Manipulation of gold nanoparticles inside transparent materials," Angwe. Chem. Int. Ed. 43, 2230-2234 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, Z.

S. Xu, G. Wang, S. Dai, J. Zhang, L. Hu, and Z. Jiang, "Infrared to visible upconversion in Er3+-doped lead oxyfluorosilicate glasses," J. Lumin. 109, 187-192 (2004).

Kato, A.

M. Nogami, A. Kato, and Y. Tanaka, "Sol-gel preparation of CdSxSe1−x solid solution microcrystal-doped glasses," J. Mat. Sci. 28, 4129-4133 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kawasaki, S.

S. Kawasaki, T. Honma, Y. Benino, T. Fujiwara, R. Sato, and T. Komatsu, "Writing of crystal-dots and lines by YAG laser irradiation and their morphologies in samarium tellurite glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 325, 61-69 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kitamura, K.

Y. Takahashi, K. Kitamura, Y. Benino, T. Fujiwara and T. Komatsu, "Second-order optical nonlinear and luminescent properties of Ba2TiSi2O8 nanocrystallized glass," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 091110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Komatsu, T.

Y. Takahashi, K. Kitamura, Y. Benino, T. Fujiwara and T. Komatsu, "Second-order optical nonlinear and luminescent properties of Ba2TiSi2O8 nanocrystallized glass," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 091110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Ihara, T. Honma, Y. Benino, T. Fujiwara, R. Sato, and T. Komatsu, "Writing of two-dimensional crystal curved lines at the surface of Sm2O3-Bi2O3-B2O3 glass by samarium atom heat processing," Solid State Commun. 136, 273-277 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Takahashi, Y. Benino, T. Fujiwara, and T. Komatsu, "Large second-order optical nonlinearities of fresnoite-type crystals in transparent surface-crystallized glasses," J. Appl. Phys. 95, 3503-3508 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Kawasaki, T. Honma, Y. Benino, T. Fujiwara, R. Sato, and T. Komatsu, "Writing of crystal-dots and lines by YAG laser irradiation and their morphologies in samarium tellurite glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 325, 61-69 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lu, B.

Y. Dai, B. Yu, B. Lu, J. R. Qiu, X. Yan, X. Jiang, C. Zhu, "Thermal stress-induced birefringence in borate glass irradiated by femtosecond laser pulses," Chin. Phys. Lett. 22, 2626-2629 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Markgraf, S. A.

S. A. Markgraf, S. K. Sharma, and A. S. Bhalla, "Raman study of fresnoite-type materials: Polarized single crystal, crystalline powders, and glasses," J. Mater. Res. 8, 635-648 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Mayerhöfer, Th. G.

Th. G. Mayerhöfer, and H. H. Dunken, "Single-crystal IR spectroscopic investigation on fresnoite, Sr-fresnoite and Ge-fresnoite," Vib. Spectrosc. 25, 185-195 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Mazur, E.

S. K. Sundaram, C. B. Schaffer, E. Mazur, "Microexplosions in tellurite glasses," Appl. Phys. A 76, 379-384 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mitsuyu, T.

K. Miura, J. Qiu, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, "Space-selective growth of frequency-conversion crystals in glasses with ultrashort infrared laser pulses," Opt. Lett. 25, 408-410 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, "Photowritten optical waveguides in various glasses with ultrashort pulse laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329-3331 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Miura, K.

Y. Yonesaki, K. Miura, R. Araki, K. Fujita, and K. Hirao, "Space-selective precipitation of non-linear optical crystals inside silicate glasses using near-infrared femtosecond laser," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 351, 885-892 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Miura, J. Qiu, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, "Space-selective growth of frequency-conversion crystals in glasses with ultrashort infrared laser pulses," Opt. Lett. 25, 408-410 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, "Photowritten optical waveguides in various glasses with ultrashort pulse laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329-3331 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Nogami, M.

M. Nogami, A. Kato, and Y. Tanaka, "Sol-gel preparation of CdSxSe1−x solid solution microcrystal-doped glasses," J. Mat. Sci. 28, 4129-4133 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Ohwaki, J.

Y. Wang and J. Ohwaki, "New transparent vitroceramics codoped with Er3+ and Yb3+ for efficient frequency upconversion," Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 3268-3270 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Qiu, J.

X. Jiang, J. Qiu, H. Zeng, and S. Zhu, "Femtosecond laser induced growth of LiNbO3 crystal in glass," J. Inorg. Mater. 19, 935-938 (2004).

J. Qiu, X. Jiang, C. Zhu, M. Shirai, J. Si, N. Jiang, and K. Hirao, "Manipulation of gold nanoparticles inside transparent materials," Angwe. Chem. Int. Ed. 43, 2230-2234 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Miura, J. Qiu, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, "Space-selective growth of frequency-conversion crystals in glasses with ultrashort infrared laser pulses," Opt. Lett. 25, 408-410 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, "Photowritten optical waveguides in various glasses with ultrashort pulse laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329-3331 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Qiu, J. R.

Y. Dai, B. Yu, B. Lu, J. R. Qiu, X. Yan, X. Jiang, C. Zhu, "Thermal stress-induced birefringence in borate glass irradiated by femtosecond laser pulses," Chin. Phys. Lett. 22, 2626-2629 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sato, R.

R. Ihara, T. Honma, Y. Benino, T. Fujiwara, R. Sato, and T. Komatsu, "Writing of two-dimensional crystal curved lines at the surface of Sm2O3-Bi2O3-B2O3 glass by samarium atom heat processing," Solid State Commun. 136, 273-277 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Kawasaki, T. Honma, Y. Benino, T. Fujiwara, R. Sato, and T. Komatsu, "Writing of crystal-dots and lines by YAG laser irradiation and their morphologies in samarium tellurite glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 325, 61-69 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Schaffer, C. B.

S. K. Sundaram, C. B. Schaffer, E. Mazur, "Microexplosions in tellurite glasses," Appl. Phys. A 76, 379-384 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sharma, S. K.

S. A. Markgraf, S. K. Sharma, and A. S. Bhalla, "Raman study of fresnoite-type materials: Polarized single crystal, crystalline powders, and glasses," J. Mater. Res. 8, 635-648 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Shirai, M.

J. Qiu, X. Jiang, C. Zhu, M. Shirai, J. Si, N. Jiang, and K. Hirao, "Manipulation of gold nanoparticles inside transparent materials," Angwe. Chem. Int. Ed. 43, 2230-2234 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Si, J.

J. Qiu, X. Jiang, C. Zhu, M. Shirai, J. Si, N. Jiang, and K. Hirao, "Manipulation of gold nanoparticles inside transparent materials," Angwe. Chem. Int. Ed. 43, 2230-2234 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sundaram, S. K.

S. K. Sundaram, C. B. Schaffer, E. Mazur, "Microexplosions in tellurite glasses," Appl. Phys. A 76, 379-384 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Takahashi, Y.

Y. Takahashi, K. Kitamura, Y. Benino, T. Fujiwara and T. Komatsu, "Second-order optical nonlinear and luminescent properties of Ba2TiSi2O8 nanocrystallized glass," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 091110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Takahashi, Y. Benino, T. Fujiwara, and T. Komatsu, "Large second-order optical nonlinearities of fresnoite-type crystals in transparent surface-crystallized glasses," J. Appl. Phys. 95, 3503-3508 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, Y.

M. Nogami, A. Kato, and Y. Tanaka, "Sol-gel preparation of CdSxSe1−x solid solution microcrystal-doped glasses," J. Mat. Sci. 28, 4129-4133 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Wang, G.

S. Xu, G. Wang, S. Dai, J. Zhang, L. Hu, and Z. Jiang, "Infrared to visible upconversion in Er3+-doped lead oxyfluorosilicate glasses," J. Lumin. 109, 187-192 (2004).

Wang, Y.

Y. Wang and J. Ohwaki, "New transparent vitroceramics codoped with Er3+ and Yb3+ for efficient frequency upconversion," Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 3268-3270 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Xu, S.

S. Xu, G. Wang, S. Dai, J. Zhang, L. Hu, and Z. Jiang, "Infrared to visible upconversion in Er3+-doped lead oxyfluorosilicate glasses," J. Lumin. 109, 187-192 (2004).

Yan, X.

Y. Dai, B. Yu, B. Lu, J. R. Qiu, X. Yan, X. Jiang, C. Zhu, "Thermal stress-induced birefringence in borate glass irradiated by femtosecond laser pulses," Chin. Phys. Lett. 22, 2626-2629 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yonesaki, Y.

Y. Yonesaki, K. Miura, R. Araki, K. Fujita, and K. Hirao, "Space-selective precipitation of non-linear optical crystals inside silicate glasses using near-infrared femtosecond laser," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 351, 885-892 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yu, B.

Y. Dai, B. Yu, B. Lu, J. R. Qiu, X. Yan, X. Jiang, C. Zhu, "Thermal stress-induced birefringence in borate glass irradiated by femtosecond laser pulses," Chin. Phys. Lett. 22, 2626-2629 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zeng, H.

X. Jiang, J. Qiu, H. Zeng, and S. Zhu, "Femtosecond laser induced growth of LiNbO3 crystal in glass," J. Inorg. Mater. 19, 935-938 (2004).

Zhang, J.

S. Xu, G. Wang, S. Dai, J. Zhang, L. Hu, and Z. Jiang, "Infrared to visible upconversion in Er3+-doped lead oxyfluorosilicate glasses," J. Lumin. 109, 187-192 (2004).

Zhu, C.

Y. Dai, B. Yu, B. Lu, J. R. Qiu, X. Yan, X. Jiang, C. Zhu, "Thermal stress-induced birefringence in borate glass irradiated by femtosecond laser pulses," Chin. Phys. Lett. 22, 2626-2629 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Qiu, X. Jiang, C. Zhu, M. Shirai, J. Si, N. Jiang, and K. Hirao, "Manipulation of gold nanoparticles inside transparent materials," Angwe. Chem. Int. Ed. 43, 2230-2234 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, S.

X. Jiang, J. Qiu, H. Zeng, and S. Zhu, "Femtosecond laser induced growth of LiNbO3 crystal in glass," J. Inorg. Mater. 19, 935-938 (2004).

Angwe. Chem. Int. Ed. (1)

J. Qiu, X. Jiang, C. Zhu, M. Shirai, J. Si, N. Jiang, and K. Hirao, "Manipulation of gold nanoparticles inside transparent materials," Angwe. Chem. Int. Ed. 43, 2230-2234 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. A (1)

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Y. Takahashi, K. Kitamura, Y. Benino, T. Fujiwara and T. Komatsu, "Second-order optical nonlinear and luminescent properties of Ba2TiSi2O8 nanocrystallized glass," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 091110 (2005).
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K. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, "Photowritten optical waveguides in various glasses with ultrashort pulse laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329-3331 (1997).
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Chin. Phys. Lett. (1)

Y. Dai, B. Yu, B. Lu, J. R. Qiu, X. Yan, X. Jiang, C. Zhu, "Thermal stress-induced birefringence in borate glass irradiated by femtosecond laser pulses," Chin. Phys. Lett. 22, 2626-2629 (2005).
[CrossRef]

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Y. Takahashi, Y. Benino, T. Fujiwara, and T. Komatsu, "Large second-order optical nonlinearities of fresnoite-type crystals in transparent surface-crystallized glasses," J. Appl. Phys. 95, 3503-3508 (2004).
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X. Jiang, J. Qiu, H. Zeng, and S. Zhu, "Femtosecond laser induced growth of LiNbO3 crystal in glass," J. Inorg. Mater. 19, 935-938 (2004).

J. Lumin. (1)

S. Xu, G. Wang, S. Dai, J. Zhang, L. Hu, and Z. Jiang, "Infrared to visible upconversion in Er3+-doped lead oxyfluorosilicate glasses," J. Lumin. 109, 187-192 (2004).

J. Mat. Sci. (1)

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J. Non-Cryst. Solids (2)

Y. Yonesaki, K. Miura, R. Araki, K. Fujita, and K. Hirao, "Space-selective precipitation of non-linear optical crystals inside silicate glasses using near-infrared femtosecond laser," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 351, 885-892 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Kawasaki, T. Honma, Y. Benino, T. Fujiwara, R. Sato, and T. Komatsu, "Writing of crystal-dots and lines by YAG laser irradiation and their morphologies in samarium tellurite glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 325, 61-69 (2003).
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R. Ihara, T. Honma, Y. Benino, T. Fujiwara, R. Sato, and T. Komatsu, "Writing of two-dimensional crystal curved lines at the surface of Sm2O3-Bi2O3-B2O3 glass by samarium atom heat processing," Solid State Commun. 136, 273-277 (2005).
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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Photographs around the focal region during femtosecond laser irradiation in Er3+-doped glass after (a) 10 s, and (b) 60 s, respectively. (c) Time dependence of emission spectra during femtosecond laser irradiation.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Micrographs of the focal regions illuminated by (a) natural light and (b) polarized light after femtosecond laser irradiation (laser power: 750–950 mW, irradiation time: 1/125-64 s). (c) Polarized optical micrograph of the line written by femtosecond laser irradiation (laser power: 950 mW, scanning rate: 2 μm s-1).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a). Dependence between the diameter of femtosecond laser-induced dot and the laser irradiation time, and (b). correlation between the diameter of femtosecond laser-induced dots and the third root of the laser irradiation time t1/3 in the Er3+-doped BaO-TiO2-SiO2 glass sample.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Absorption spectrum of the Er3+-doped BaO-TiO2-SiO2 glass sample.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Micro-Raman spectra of the BaO-TiO2-SiO2 glass (0 s), and the focal region of the laser beam inside glass after femtosecond laser irradiation for 60 s.

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