Abstract

We describe a Profiling Optical and Water Return (POWR) system that has been developed and used extensively at sea. The POWR system is a collection of oceanographic instruments used to measure the inherent optical properties (IOPs) of the upper 100m of the ocean while simultaneously collecting up to eight water samples at various depths for chemical and biological analysis. IOPs are local measurements that are directly related to the properties of the water at the depth sampled; hence it is critical that the water samples be taken at the same time and location as the IOPs. Used during three major experiments, the POWR system has proven valuable for relating IOPs to in-water constituents in support of ocean color remote sensing data product validation, optical model validation, and other interdisciplinary programs.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. G. C. Chang, T. D. Dickey, A. D. Schofield, A. D. Weidemann, E. Boss, W. S. Pegau, M. A. Moline, and S. M. Glenn, "Nearshore physical processes and bio-optical properties in the New York Bight," J. Geophys. Res. 107, (2002)
    [CrossRef]
  2. P. L. Donaghay, H. M. Rines, and J. M. Sieburth, "Simultaneous sampling of fine scale biological, chemical and physical structure in stratified waters," Arch Hydrobiology 36, 97-108 (1992)
  3. M. M. Dekshenieks, P. L. Donaghay, J. M. Sullivan, J. E. B. Rines, T. R. Osborn, and M. S. Twardowski, "Temporal and spatial occurrence of thin phytoplankton layers in relation to physical processes", Mar Ecol Prog Ser 233, 61-71, (2001)
    [CrossRef]
  4. C. O. Davis, J. Bowles, R. A. Leathers, D. Korwan, T. V. Downes, W. A. Snyder, W. J. Rhea, W. Chen, J. Fisher, P. Bissett, and R. Reisse, "Ocean PHILLS hyperspectral imager: design, characterization, and calibration", Opt. Express 10, (2002)
    [PubMed]
  5. R. C. Smith, C. R. Booth, and J. L. Star, "Oceanographic BioOptical Profiling System," Appl. Opt. 23, (1984)
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. R. C. Smith and D. W. Menzies, "Oceanographic Bio-Optical Profiling System II," SPIE 2693, (1997)
  7. Hyperspectral Coupled Ocean Dynamics Experiments (HyCODE), http://www.opl.ucsb.edu/hycode.html
  8. Long-term Ecosystem Observatory at a 15 Meter Depth (LEO-15), http://marine.rutgers.edu/mrs/LEO/LEO15.html
  9. 2002 SIMBIOS CoJet Experiment (CoJet-7), http://seabass.gsfc.nasa.gov/docs/SIMBIOS_Annual_2002.pdf
  10. Asian Dust Above Monterey-2003 (ADAM-2003), http://www.nrl.navy.mil/pressRelease.php?Y=2003&R=32-03r
  11. W. S. Pegau, D. Gray, J. R. V. Zaneveld, "Absorption of visible and near-infrared light in water: the dependence on temperature and salinity," Appl. Opt. 36, 6035-6046 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. J. R. V. Zaneveld, J. C. Kitchen, and C. C. Moore, "Scattering error correction of reflecting tube absorption meters," in Ocean Optics XII, S. Ackleson, ed., Proc. SPIE 2258, 44-55 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  13. R. A. Maffione and D. R. Dana, "Instruments and methods for measuring the backward-scattering coefficient of ocean waters," Appl. Opt. 36, 6057-6067. (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. D. K. Clark, M. A. Yarbrough, M. E. Feinholz, S. Flora, W. Broenkow, Y. S. Kim, B. C. Johnson, S. W. Brown, M. Yuen, and J. L. Mueller, "MOBY, a radiometric buoy for performance monitoring and vicarious calibration of satellite ocean color sensors: Measurement and data analysis protocols," Ocean Optics Protocols for Satellite Ocean Color Sensor Validation, Revision 3, Vol. 2. J. L. Mueller and G. S. Fargion, eds., Greenbelt, MD, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. NASA/TM--2002-21004:138-170 (2002)
  15. H. R. Gordon and K. Ding, "Self-shading of in-water optical instruments," Limnol. Oceanogr. 37, 491-500 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  16. J. R. V. Zaneveld, and W. S. Pegau, "A model for the reflectance of thin layers, fronts, and internal waves and its inversion," Oceanography 11, 44-47, (1998)
  17. C. D. Mobley and L. K. Sundman, "Hydrolight 4.2 Users’ Guide," Sequoia Scientific, Inc., Redmond, WA, 87 pages, (2001)

2002 (2)

G. C. Chang, T. D. Dickey, A. D. Schofield, A. D. Weidemann, E. Boss, W. S. Pegau, M. A. Moline, and S. M. Glenn, "Nearshore physical processes and bio-optical properties in the New York Bight," J. Geophys. Res. 107, (2002)
[CrossRef]

C. O. Davis, J. Bowles, R. A. Leathers, D. Korwan, T. V. Downes, W. A. Snyder, W. J. Rhea, W. Chen, J. Fisher, P. Bissett, and R. Reisse, "Ocean PHILLS hyperspectral imager: design, characterization, and calibration", Opt. Express 10, (2002)
[PubMed]

2001 (1)

M. M. Dekshenieks, P. L. Donaghay, J. M. Sullivan, J. E. B. Rines, T. R. Osborn, and M. S. Twardowski, "Temporal and spatial occurrence of thin phytoplankton layers in relation to physical processes", Mar Ecol Prog Ser 233, 61-71, (2001)
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

J. R. V. Zaneveld, and W. S. Pegau, "A model for the reflectance of thin layers, fronts, and internal waves and its inversion," Oceanography 11, 44-47, (1998)

1997 (2)

1992 (2)

H. R. Gordon and K. Ding, "Self-shading of in-water optical instruments," Limnol. Oceanogr. 37, 491-500 (1992).
[CrossRef]

P. L. Donaghay, H. M. Rines, and J. M. Sieburth, "Simultaneous sampling of fine scale biological, chemical and physical structure in stratified waters," Arch Hydrobiology 36, 97-108 (1992)

1984 (1)

R. C. Smith, C. R. Booth, and J. L. Star, "Oceanographic BioOptical Profiling System," Appl. Opt. 23, (1984)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bissett, P.

C. O. Davis, J. Bowles, R. A. Leathers, D. Korwan, T. V. Downes, W. A. Snyder, W. J. Rhea, W. Chen, J. Fisher, P. Bissett, and R. Reisse, "Ocean PHILLS hyperspectral imager: design, characterization, and calibration", Opt. Express 10, (2002)
[PubMed]

Booth, C. R.

R. C. Smith, C. R. Booth, and J. L. Star, "Oceanographic BioOptical Profiling System," Appl. Opt. 23, (1984)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boss, E.

G. C. Chang, T. D. Dickey, A. D. Schofield, A. D. Weidemann, E. Boss, W. S. Pegau, M. A. Moline, and S. M. Glenn, "Nearshore physical processes and bio-optical properties in the New York Bight," J. Geophys. Res. 107, (2002)
[CrossRef]

Bowles, J.

C. O. Davis, J. Bowles, R. A. Leathers, D. Korwan, T. V. Downes, W. A. Snyder, W. J. Rhea, W. Chen, J. Fisher, P. Bissett, and R. Reisse, "Ocean PHILLS hyperspectral imager: design, characterization, and calibration", Opt. Express 10, (2002)
[PubMed]

Chang, G. C.

G. C. Chang, T. D. Dickey, A. D. Schofield, A. D. Weidemann, E. Boss, W. S. Pegau, M. A. Moline, and S. M. Glenn, "Nearshore physical processes and bio-optical properties in the New York Bight," J. Geophys. Res. 107, (2002)
[CrossRef]

Chen, W.

C. O. Davis, J. Bowles, R. A. Leathers, D. Korwan, T. V. Downes, W. A. Snyder, W. J. Rhea, W. Chen, J. Fisher, P. Bissett, and R. Reisse, "Ocean PHILLS hyperspectral imager: design, characterization, and calibration", Opt. Express 10, (2002)
[PubMed]

Dana, D. R.

Davis, C. O.

C. O. Davis, J. Bowles, R. A. Leathers, D. Korwan, T. V. Downes, W. A. Snyder, W. J. Rhea, W. Chen, J. Fisher, P. Bissett, and R. Reisse, "Ocean PHILLS hyperspectral imager: design, characterization, and calibration", Opt. Express 10, (2002)
[PubMed]

Dekshenieks, M. M.

M. M. Dekshenieks, P. L. Donaghay, J. M. Sullivan, J. E. B. Rines, T. R. Osborn, and M. S. Twardowski, "Temporal and spatial occurrence of thin phytoplankton layers in relation to physical processes", Mar Ecol Prog Ser 233, 61-71, (2001)
[CrossRef]

Dickey, T. D.

G. C. Chang, T. D. Dickey, A. D. Schofield, A. D. Weidemann, E. Boss, W. S. Pegau, M. A. Moline, and S. M. Glenn, "Nearshore physical processes and bio-optical properties in the New York Bight," J. Geophys. Res. 107, (2002)
[CrossRef]

Ding, K.

H. R. Gordon and K. Ding, "Self-shading of in-water optical instruments," Limnol. Oceanogr. 37, 491-500 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Donaghay, P. L.

M. M. Dekshenieks, P. L. Donaghay, J. M. Sullivan, J. E. B. Rines, T. R. Osborn, and M. S. Twardowski, "Temporal and spatial occurrence of thin phytoplankton layers in relation to physical processes", Mar Ecol Prog Ser 233, 61-71, (2001)
[CrossRef]

P. L. Donaghay, H. M. Rines, and J. M. Sieburth, "Simultaneous sampling of fine scale biological, chemical and physical structure in stratified waters," Arch Hydrobiology 36, 97-108 (1992)

Downes, T. V.

C. O. Davis, J. Bowles, R. A. Leathers, D. Korwan, T. V. Downes, W. A. Snyder, W. J. Rhea, W. Chen, J. Fisher, P. Bissett, and R. Reisse, "Ocean PHILLS hyperspectral imager: design, characterization, and calibration", Opt. Express 10, (2002)
[PubMed]

Fisher, J.

C. O. Davis, J. Bowles, R. A. Leathers, D. Korwan, T. V. Downes, W. A. Snyder, W. J. Rhea, W. Chen, J. Fisher, P. Bissett, and R. Reisse, "Ocean PHILLS hyperspectral imager: design, characterization, and calibration", Opt. Express 10, (2002)
[PubMed]

Glenn, S. M.

G. C. Chang, T. D. Dickey, A. D. Schofield, A. D. Weidemann, E. Boss, W. S. Pegau, M. A. Moline, and S. M. Glenn, "Nearshore physical processes and bio-optical properties in the New York Bight," J. Geophys. Res. 107, (2002)
[CrossRef]

Gordon, H. R.

H. R. Gordon and K. Ding, "Self-shading of in-water optical instruments," Limnol. Oceanogr. 37, 491-500 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Gray, D.

Korwan, D.

C. O. Davis, J. Bowles, R. A. Leathers, D. Korwan, T. V. Downes, W. A. Snyder, W. J. Rhea, W. Chen, J. Fisher, P. Bissett, and R. Reisse, "Ocean PHILLS hyperspectral imager: design, characterization, and calibration", Opt. Express 10, (2002)
[PubMed]

Leathers, R. A.

C. O. Davis, J. Bowles, R. A. Leathers, D. Korwan, T. V. Downes, W. A. Snyder, W. J. Rhea, W. Chen, J. Fisher, P. Bissett, and R. Reisse, "Ocean PHILLS hyperspectral imager: design, characterization, and calibration", Opt. Express 10, (2002)
[PubMed]

Maffione, R. A.

Moline, M. A.

G. C. Chang, T. D. Dickey, A. D. Schofield, A. D. Weidemann, E. Boss, W. S. Pegau, M. A. Moline, and S. M. Glenn, "Nearshore physical processes and bio-optical properties in the New York Bight," J. Geophys. Res. 107, (2002)
[CrossRef]

Osborn, T. R.

M. M. Dekshenieks, P. L. Donaghay, J. M. Sullivan, J. E. B. Rines, T. R. Osborn, and M. S. Twardowski, "Temporal and spatial occurrence of thin phytoplankton layers in relation to physical processes", Mar Ecol Prog Ser 233, 61-71, (2001)
[CrossRef]

Pegau, W. S.

G. C. Chang, T. D. Dickey, A. D. Schofield, A. D. Weidemann, E. Boss, W. S. Pegau, M. A. Moline, and S. M. Glenn, "Nearshore physical processes and bio-optical properties in the New York Bight," J. Geophys. Res. 107, (2002)
[CrossRef]

J. R. V. Zaneveld, and W. S. Pegau, "A model for the reflectance of thin layers, fronts, and internal waves and its inversion," Oceanography 11, 44-47, (1998)

W. S. Pegau, D. Gray, J. R. V. Zaneveld, "Absorption of visible and near-infrared light in water: the dependence on temperature and salinity," Appl. Opt. 36, 6035-6046 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reisse, R.

C. O. Davis, J. Bowles, R. A. Leathers, D. Korwan, T. V. Downes, W. A. Snyder, W. J. Rhea, W. Chen, J. Fisher, P. Bissett, and R. Reisse, "Ocean PHILLS hyperspectral imager: design, characterization, and calibration", Opt. Express 10, (2002)
[PubMed]

Rhea, W. J.

C. O. Davis, J. Bowles, R. A. Leathers, D. Korwan, T. V. Downes, W. A. Snyder, W. J. Rhea, W. Chen, J. Fisher, P. Bissett, and R. Reisse, "Ocean PHILLS hyperspectral imager: design, characterization, and calibration", Opt. Express 10, (2002)
[PubMed]

Rines, H. M.

P. L. Donaghay, H. M. Rines, and J. M. Sieburth, "Simultaneous sampling of fine scale biological, chemical and physical structure in stratified waters," Arch Hydrobiology 36, 97-108 (1992)

Rines, J. E. B.

M. M. Dekshenieks, P. L. Donaghay, J. M. Sullivan, J. E. B. Rines, T. R. Osborn, and M. S. Twardowski, "Temporal and spatial occurrence of thin phytoplankton layers in relation to physical processes", Mar Ecol Prog Ser 233, 61-71, (2001)
[CrossRef]

Schofield, A. D.

G. C. Chang, T. D. Dickey, A. D. Schofield, A. D. Weidemann, E. Boss, W. S. Pegau, M. A. Moline, and S. M. Glenn, "Nearshore physical processes and bio-optical properties in the New York Bight," J. Geophys. Res. 107, (2002)
[CrossRef]

Sieburth, J. M.

P. L. Donaghay, H. M. Rines, and J. M. Sieburth, "Simultaneous sampling of fine scale biological, chemical and physical structure in stratified waters," Arch Hydrobiology 36, 97-108 (1992)

Smith, R. C.

R. C. Smith, C. R. Booth, and J. L. Star, "Oceanographic BioOptical Profiling System," Appl. Opt. 23, (1984)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Snyder, W. A.

C. O. Davis, J. Bowles, R. A. Leathers, D. Korwan, T. V. Downes, W. A. Snyder, W. J. Rhea, W. Chen, J. Fisher, P. Bissett, and R. Reisse, "Ocean PHILLS hyperspectral imager: design, characterization, and calibration", Opt. Express 10, (2002)
[PubMed]

Star, J. L.

R. C. Smith, C. R. Booth, and J. L. Star, "Oceanographic BioOptical Profiling System," Appl. Opt. 23, (1984)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sullivan, J. M.

M. M. Dekshenieks, P. L. Donaghay, J. M. Sullivan, J. E. B. Rines, T. R. Osborn, and M. S. Twardowski, "Temporal and spatial occurrence of thin phytoplankton layers in relation to physical processes", Mar Ecol Prog Ser 233, 61-71, (2001)
[CrossRef]

Twardowski, M. S.

M. M. Dekshenieks, P. L. Donaghay, J. M. Sullivan, J. E. B. Rines, T. R. Osborn, and M. S. Twardowski, "Temporal and spatial occurrence of thin phytoplankton layers in relation to physical processes", Mar Ecol Prog Ser 233, 61-71, (2001)
[CrossRef]

Weidemann, A. D.

G. C. Chang, T. D. Dickey, A. D. Schofield, A. D. Weidemann, E. Boss, W. S. Pegau, M. A. Moline, and S. M. Glenn, "Nearshore physical processes and bio-optical properties in the New York Bight," J. Geophys. Res. 107, (2002)
[CrossRef]

Zaneveld, J. R. V.

J. R. V. Zaneveld, and W. S. Pegau, "A model for the reflectance of thin layers, fronts, and internal waves and its inversion," Oceanography 11, 44-47, (1998)

W. S. Pegau, D. Gray, J. R. V. Zaneveld, "Absorption of visible and near-infrared light in water: the dependence on temperature and salinity," Appl. Opt. 36, 6035-6046 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (3)

Arch Hydrobiology (1)

P. L. Donaghay, H. M. Rines, and J. M. Sieburth, "Simultaneous sampling of fine scale biological, chemical and physical structure in stratified waters," Arch Hydrobiology 36, 97-108 (1992)

J. Geophys. Res. (1)

G. C. Chang, T. D. Dickey, A. D. Schofield, A. D. Weidemann, E. Boss, W. S. Pegau, M. A. Moline, and S. M. Glenn, "Nearshore physical processes and bio-optical properties in the New York Bight," J. Geophys. Res. 107, (2002)
[CrossRef]

Limnol. Oceanogr. (1)

H. R. Gordon and K. Ding, "Self-shading of in-water optical instruments," Limnol. Oceanogr. 37, 491-500 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Mar Ecol Prog Ser (1)

M. M. Dekshenieks, P. L. Donaghay, J. M. Sullivan, J. E. B. Rines, T. R. Osborn, and M. S. Twardowski, "Temporal and spatial occurrence of thin phytoplankton layers in relation to physical processes", Mar Ecol Prog Ser 233, 61-71, (2001)
[CrossRef]

Oceanography (1)

J. R. V. Zaneveld, and W. S. Pegau, "A model for the reflectance of thin layers, fronts, and internal waves and its inversion," Oceanography 11, 44-47, (1998)

Opt. Express (1)

C. O. Davis, J. Bowles, R. A. Leathers, D. Korwan, T. V. Downes, W. A. Snyder, W. J. Rhea, W. Chen, J. Fisher, P. Bissett, and R. Reisse, "Ocean PHILLS hyperspectral imager: design, characterization, and calibration", Opt. Express 10, (2002)
[PubMed]

Other (8)

J. R. V. Zaneveld, J. C. Kitchen, and C. C. Moore, "Scattering error correction of reflecting tube absorption meters," in Ocean Optics XII, S. Ackleson, ed., Proc. SPIE 2258, 44-55 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Smith and D. W. Menzies, "Oceanographic Bio-Optical Profiling System II," SPIE 2693, (1997)

Hyperspectral Coupled Ocean Dynamics Experiments (HyCODE), http://www.opl.ucsb.edu/hycode.html

Long-term Ecosystem Observatory at a 15 Meter Depth (LEO-15), http://marine.rutgers.edu/mrs/LEO/LEO15.html

2002 SIMBIOS CoJet Experiment (CoJet-7), http://seabass.gsfc.nasa.gov/docs/SIMBIOS_Annual_2002.pdf

Asian Dust Above Monterey-2003 (ADAM-2003), http://www.nrl.navy.mil/pressRelease.php?Y=2003&R=32-03r

C. D. Mobley and L. K. Sundman, "Hydrolight 4.2 Users’ Guide," Sequoia Scientific, Inc., Redmond, WA, 87 pages, (2001)

D. K. Clark, M. A. Yarbrough, M. E. Feinholz, S. Flora, W. Broenkow, Y. S. Kim, B. C. Johnson, S. W. Brown, M. Yuen, and J. L. Mueller, "MOBY, a radiometric buoy for performance monitoring and vicarious calibration of satellite ocean color sensors: Measurement and data analysis protocols," Ocean Optics Protocols for Satellite Ocean Color Sensor Validation, Revision 3, Vol. 2. J. L. Mueller and G. S. Fargion, eds., Greenbelt, MD, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. NASA/TM--2002-21004:138-170 (2002)

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

The POWR system in winch-lowered configuration (left) and free-fall configuration (right) with custom-designed syntactic foam floats (yellow cylinders and orange ring).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Example POWR data profile showing a highly structured water column. bp(532) represents particulate scattering at 532nm, [chl] represents chlorophyll concentration as estimated by measurements of stimulated chlorophyll fluorescence, and salinity and temperature are from the Seabird CTD.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Example fluorometer profile calibrated using HPLC measurements from water bottles collected at 3m, 20m, and 47m.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Example fluorometer profile calibrated using laboratory HPLC measurements from water bottles collected at 3m, 20m, and 47m.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Example comparison of Rrs modeled from POWR data with above-water measurements using a hand-held Spectrometer, and PHILLS hyperspectral imagery.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Instrumentation used in POWR system

Metrics