Abstract

Guidance in a liquid core is possible with microstructured optical fibers, opening up many possibilities for chemical and biochemical fiber-optic sensing. In this work we demonstrate how the bandgaps of a hollow core microstructured polymer optical fiber scale with the refractive index of liquid introduced into the holes of the microstructure. Such a fiber is then filled with an aqueous solution of (-)-fructose, and the resulting optical rotation measured. Hence, we show that hollow core microstructured polymer optical fibers can be used for sensing, whilst also fabricating a chiral optical fiber based on material chirality, which has many applications in its own right.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell and D. M. Atkin, "All-silica singe-mode optical fiber with photonic crystal cladding," Opt. Lett. 21, 1547-1549 (1996)
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allen, "Single-mode photonic bandgap guidance of light in air," Science 285, 1537-1539 (1999)
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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  11. A. Argyros, M. A. van Eijkelenborg, M. C. J. Large, and I. M. Bassett, "Hollow-core microstructured polymer optical fiber," Opt. Lett. 31, 172-174 (2006)
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. G. Antonopoulos, F. Benabid, T. A. Birks, D. M. Bird, G. Bouwmans, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, "Experimental demonstration of refractive index scaling in photonic bandgap fibers," in Proceedings of the Conference on Lasers and Electro-optcs2 (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Long Beach, 2004) p. 2
  17. A. Argyros, M. A. van Eijkelenborg, M. C. J. Large, and I. M. Bassett, "Hollow-core microstructured polymer optical fiber," Opt. Lett. 31, 172-174 (2006)
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. J. Cheng, C. Wei, K. Hsu, and T. Young, "Direct-write laser micromachining and universal surface modification of PMMA for device development," Sens. Actuators B,  99, 186-196 (2003)
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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2006 (2)

2005 (1)

2004 (6)

2003 (2)

Y. L. Hoo, J. Wei, C. Shi, H. L. Ho, D. N Wang, and S. C. Ruan, "Design and modeling of a photonic crystal fiber gas sensor," Appl. Opt. 42, 3509-3515 (2003)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Cheng, C. Wei, K. Hsu, and T. Young, "Direct-write laser micromachining and universal surface modification of PMMA for device development," Sens. Actuators B,  99, 186-196 (2003)
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

2001 (1)

1999 (2)

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allen, "Single-mode photonic bandgap guidance of light in air," Science 285, 1537-1539 (1999)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. M. Monro, D. J. Richardson, and P. J. Bennett, "Developing holey fibres for evanescent field devices," Electron. Lett. 35, 1188-1189 (1999)
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

1994 (1)

1992 (1)

B. Culshaw, F. Muhammad, G. Stewart, S. Murray, D. Pinchbeck, J. Norris, S. Cassidy, M. Wilkinson, D. Williams, I. Crisp, R. Van Ewyk, and A. McGhee, "Evanescent wave methane detection using optical fibres," Electron. Lett. 28, 2232-2234 (1992)
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

1986 (1)

M. A. Duguay, Y. Kokubun, T. L. Koch, and L. Pfeiffer, "Antiresonant reflecting optical waveguides in SiO2-Si multilayer structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 13-15 (1986)
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

1950 (1)

J. Mizuguchi, "Electrolytic preparation of sugars. IV. Electrolytic preparation of xylose from corn stalks and fructose from inulin," Yakugaku Zasshi 70, 510-513 (1950)

Abeeluck, A. K.

Allen, D. C.

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allen, "Single-mode photonic bandgap guidance of light in air," Science 285, 1537-1539 (1999)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Andrade, J. D.

Argyros, A.

Atkin, D. M.

Bang, O.

Bassett, I. M.

Benner, R. E.

Bennett, P. J.

T. M. Monro, D. J. Richardson, and P. J. Bennett, "Developing holey fibres for evanescent field devices," Electron. Lett. 35, 1188-1189 (1999)
[CrossRef]

Biancalana, F.

Bird, D. M.

Birks, T.

Birks, T. A.

Bjarklev, A.

Carlsen, A.

Cassidy, S.

B. Culshaw, F. Muhammad, G. Stewart, S. Murray, D. Pinchbeck, J. Norris, S. Cassidy, M. Wilkinson, D. Williams, I. Crisp, R. Van Ewyk, and A. McGhee, "Evanescent wave methane detection using optical fibres," Electron. Lett. 28, 2232-2234 (1992)
[CrossRef]

Cheng, J.

J. Cheng, C. Wei, K. Hsu, and T. Young, "Direct-write laser micromachining and universal surface modification of PMMA for device development," Sens. Actuators B,  99, 186-196 (2003)
[CrossRef]

Chien, M.

Cregan, R. F.

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allen, "Single-mode photonic bandgap guidance of light in air," Science 285, 1537-1539 (1999)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Crisp, I.

B. Culshaw, F. Muhammad, G. Stewart, S. Murray, D. Pinchbeck, J. Norris, S. Cassidy, M. Wilkinson, D. Williams, I. Crisp, R. Van Ewyk, and A. McGhee, "Evanescent wave methane detection using optical fibres," Electron. Lett. 28, 2232-2234 (1992)
[CrossRef]

Culshaw, B.

B. Culshaw, F. Muhammad, G. Stewart, S. Murray, D. Pinchbeck, J. Norris, S. Cassidy, M. Wilkinson, D. Williams, I. Crisp, R. Van Ewyk, and A. McGhee, "Evanescent wave methane detection using optical fibres," Electron. Lett. 28, 2232-2234 (1992)
[CrossRef]

Duguay, M. A.

M. A. Duguay, Y. Kokubun, T. L. Koch, and L. Pfeiffer, "Antiresonant reflecting optical waveguides in SiO2-Si multilayer structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 13-15 (1986)
[CrossRef]

Eggelton, B. J.

Emiliyanov, G.

Fini, J. M.

J. M. Fini, "Microstructure fibres for optical sensing in gases and liquids," Meas. Sci. Technol. 15, 1120-1128 (2004)
[CrossRef]

Folkenberg, J. R.

Grebel, H.

Han, S. H.

Hansen, T. P.

Headley, C.

Hedley, T. D.

Ho, H. L.

Hoiby, P. E.

Hoo, Y. L.

Hsu, K.

J. Cheng, C. Wei, K. Hsu, and T. Young, "Direct-write laser micromachining and universal surface modification of PMMA for device development," Sens. Actuators B,  99, 186-196 (2003)
[CrossRef]

Jensen, J. B.

Joly, N.

Kang, J. W.

Kim, J. J.

Kim, Y.

Knight, J.

Knight, J. C.

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allen, "Single-mode photonic bandgap guidance of light in air," Science 285, 1537-1539 (1999)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell and D. M. Atkin, "All-silica singe-mode optical fiber with photonic crystal cladding," Opt. Lett. 21, 1547-1549 (1996)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koch, T. L.

M. A. Duguay, Y. Kokubun, T. L. Koch, and L. Pfeiffer, "Antiresonant reflecting optical waveguides in SiO2-Si multilayer structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 13-15 (1986)
[CrossRef]

Kokubun, Y.

M. A. Duguay, Y. Kokubun, T. L. Koch, and L. Pfeiffer, "Antiresonant reflecting optical waveguides in SiO2-Si multilayer structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 13-15 (1986)
[CrossRef]

Large, M. C. J.

Lee, J. S.

Litchinister, N. M.

Lu, I.

Ludvigsen, H.

T. Ritari, J. Tuominen, H. Ludvigsen, J. C. Petersen, H. Sorensen, T. P. Hansen, and H. R. Simonsen, "Gas sensing using air-guiding photonic crystal fibers," Opt. Express 17, 4080-4087 (2004)
[CrossRef]

Mangan, B. J.

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allen, "Single-mode photonic bandgap guidance of light in air," Science 285, 1537-1539 (1999)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McGhee, A.

B. Culshaw, F. Muhammad, G. Stewart, S. Murray, D. Pinchbeck, J. Norris, S. Cassidy, M. Wilkinson, D. Williams, I. Crisp, R. Van Ewyk, and A. McGhee, "Evanescent wave methane detection using optical fibres," Electron. Lett. 28, 2232-2234 (1992)
[CrossRef]

Mizuguchi, J.

J. Mizuguchi, "Electrolytic preparation of sugars. IV. Electrolytic preparation of xylose from corn stalks and fructose from inulin," Yakugaku Zasshi 70, 510-513 (1950)

Monro, T. M.

T. M. Monro, D. J. Richardson, and P. J. Bennett, "Developing holey fibres for evanescent field devices," Electron. Lett. 35, 1188-1189 (1999)
[CrossRef]

Muhammad, F.

B. Culshaw, F. Muhammad, G. Stewart, S. Murray, D. Pinchbeck, J. Norris, S. Cassidy, M. Wilkinson, D. Williams, I. Crisp, R. Van Ewyk, and A. McGhee, "Evanescent wave methane detection using optical fibres," Electron. Lett. 28, 2232-2234 (1992)
[CrossRef]

Murray, S.

B. Culshaw, F. Muhammad, G. Stewart, S. Murray, D. Pinchbeck, J. Norris, S. Cassidy, M. Wilkinson, D. Williams, I. Crisp, R. Van Ewyk, and A. McGhee, "Evanescent wave methane detection using optical fibres," Electron. Lett. 28, 2232-2234 (1992)
[CrossRef]

Newby, K.

Nielsen, K.

Nielsen, L. B.

Noordegraaf, D.

Norris, J.

B. Culshaw, F. Muhammad, G. Stewart, S. Murray, D. Pinchbeck, J. Norris, S. Cassidy, M. Wilkinson, D. Williams, I. Crisp, R. Van Ewyk, and A. McGhee, "Evanescent wave methane detection using optical fibres," Electron. Lett. 28, 2232-2234 (1992)
[CrossRef]

Pedersen, L. H.

Peng, W.

Petersen, J. C.

T. Ritari, J. Tuominen, H. Ludvigsen, J. C. Petersen, H. Sorensen, T. P. Hansen, and H. R. Simonsen, "Gas sensing using air-guiding photonic crystal fibers," Opt. Express 17, 4080-4087 (2004)
[CrossRef]

Pfeiffer, L.

M. A. Duguay, Y. Kokubun, T. L. Koch, and L. Pfeiffer, "Antiresonant reflecting optical waveguides in SiO2-Si multilayer structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 13-15 (1986)
[CrossRef]

Pickeral, G.

Pinchbeck, D.

B. Culshaw, F. Muhammad, G. Stewart, S. Murray, D. Pinchbeck, J. Norris, S. Cassidy, M. Wilkinson, D. Williams, I. Crisp, R. Van Ewyk, and A. McGhee, "Evanescent wave methane detection using optical fibres," Electron. Lett. 28, 2232-2234 (1992)
[CrossRef]

Pottage, J. M.

Qui, R. C.

Reichert, W. M.

Richardson, D. J.

T. M. Monro, D. J. Richardson, and P. J. Bennett, "Developing holey fibres for evanescent field devices," Electron. Lett. 35, 1188-1189 (1999)
[CrossRef]

Riishede, J.

Ritari, T.

T. Ritari, J. Tuominen, H. Ludvigsen, J. C. Petersen, H. Sorensen, T. P. Hansen, and H. R. Simonsen, "Gas sensing using air-guiding photonic crystal fibers," Opt. Express 17, 4080-4087 (2004)
[CrossRef]

Roberts, P. J.

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allen, "Single-mode photonic bandgap guidance of light in air," Science 285, 1537-1539 (1999)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ruan, S. C.

Russell, P.

Russell, P. S.

Russell, P. St. J.

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allen, "Single-mode photonic bandgap guidance of light in air," Science 285, 1537-1539 (1999)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell and D. M. Atkin, "All-silica singe-mode optical fiber with photonic crystal cladding," Opt. Lett. 21, 1547-1549 (1996)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shi, C.

Shin, Y. D.

Simonsen, H. R.

T. Ritari, J. Tuominen, H. Ludvigsen, J. C. Petersen, H. Sorensen, T. P. Hansen, and H. R. Simonsen, "Gas sensing using air-guiding photonic crystal fibers," Opt. Express 17, 4080-4087 (2004)
[CrossRef]

Sorensen, H.

T. Ritari, J. Tuominen, H. Ludvigsen, J. C. Petersen, H. Sorensen, T. P. Hansen, and H. R. Simonsen, "Gas sensing using air-guiding photonic crystal fibers," Opt. Express 17, 4080-4087 (2004)
[CrossRef]

Stewart, G.

B. Culshaw, F. Muhammad, G. Stewart, S. Murray, D. Pinchbeck, J. Norris, S. Cassidy, M. Wilkinson, D. Williams, I. Crisp, R. Van Ewyk, and A. McGhee, "Evanescent wave methane detection using optical fibres," Electron. Lett. 28, 2232-2234 (1992)
[CrossRef]

Tuominen, J.

T. Ritari, J. Tuominen, H. Ludvigsen, J. C. Petersen, H. Sorensen, T. P. Hansen, and H. R. Simonsen, "Gas sensing using air-guiding photonic crystal fibers," Opt. Express 17, 4080-4087 (2004)
[CrossRef]

van Eijkelenborg, M. A.

Van Ewyk, R.

B. Culshaw, F. Muhammad, G. Stewart, S. Murray, D. Pinchbeck, J. Norris, S. Cassidy, M. Wilkinson, D. Williams, I. Crisp, R. Van Ewyk, and A. McGhee, "Evanescent wave methane detection using optical fibres," Electron. Lett. 28, 2232-2234 (1992)
[CrossRef]

Wadsworth, W.

Wang, A.

Wang, D. N

Wei, C.

J. Cheng, C. Wei, K. Hsu, and T. Young, "Direct-write laser micromachining and universal surface modification of PMMA for device development," Sens. Actuators B,  99, 186-196 (2003)
[CrossRef]

Wei, J.

Wilkinson, M.

B. Culshaw, F. Muhammad, G. Stewart, S. Murray, D. Pinchbeck, J. Norris, S. Cassidy, M. Wilkinson, D. Williams, I. Crisp, R. Van Ewyk, and A. McGhee, "Evanescent wave methane detection using optical fibres," Electron. Lett. 28, 2232-2234 (1992)
[CrossRef]

Williams, D.

B. Culshaw, F. Muhammad, G. Stewart, S. Murray, D. Pinchbeck, J. Norris, S. Cassidy, M. Wilkinson, D. Williams, I. Crisp, R. Van Ewyk, and A. McGhee, "Evanescent wave methane detection using optical fibres," Electron. Lett. 28, 2232-2234 (1992)
[CrossRef]

Wu, J. W.

Young, T.

J. Cheng, C. Wei, K. Hsu, and T. Young, "Direct-write laser micromachining and universal surface modification of PMMA for device development," Sens. Actuators B,  99, 186-196 (2003)
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

M. A. Duguay, Y. Kokubun, T. L. Koch, and L. Pfeiffer, "Antiresonant reflecting optical waveguides in SiO2-Si multilayer structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 13-15 (1986)
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (2)

T. M. Monro, D. J. Richardson, and P. J. Bennett, "Developing holey fibres for evanescent field devices," Electron. Lett. 35, 1188-1189 (1999)
[CrossRef]

B. Culshaw, F. Muhammad, G. Stewart, S. Murray, D. Pinchbeck, J. Norris, S. Cassidy, M. Wilkinson, D. Williams, I. Crisp, R. Van Ewyk, and A. McGhee, "Evanescent wave methane detection using optical fibres," Electron. Lett. 28, 2232-2234 (1992)
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

J. M. Fini, "Microstructure fibres for optical sensing in gases and liquids," Meas. Sci. Technol. 15, 1120-1128 (2004)
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (7)

Science (1)

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allen, "Single-mode photonic bandgap guidance of light in air," Science 285, 1537-1539 (1999)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sens. Actuators B (1)

J. Cheng, C. Wei, K. Hsu, and T. Young, "Direct-write laser micromachining and universal surface modification of PMMA for device development," Sens. Actuators B,  99, 186-196 (2003)
[CrossRef]

Yakugaku Zasshi (1)

J. Mizuguchi, "Electrolytic preparation of sugars. IV. Electrolytic preparation of xylose from corn stalks and fructose from inulin," Yakugaku Zasshi 70, 510-513 (1950)

Other (3)

T. W. G. Solomons and C. B. Fryhle, Organic chemistry,8th edition (John Wiley and Sons 2004), Chap 5.

G. Antonopoulos, F. Benabid, T. A. Birks, D. M. Bird, G. Bouwmans, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, "Experimental demonstration of refractive index scaling in photonic bandgap fibers," in Proceedings of the Conference on Lasers and Electro-optcs2 (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Long Beach, 2004) p. 2

G. Vienne, M. Yan, T. Luo, T. K. Liang, P. Ho, and C. Lin, "Liquid core fibers based on hollow core microstructured fibers," in Proceedings of IEE conference on lasers and electrooptics/Pacific Rim (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Tokyo, 2005) pp. 551-552

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

The HC-mPOF used in this work.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Transmission through an air filled (black curve) and water filled (gray curve) HC-mPOF.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Peak frequency showing shift in air- and water-filled mPOF

Equations (2)

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λ = λ 0 [ 1 ( 1 n 2 ) 1 ( 1 n 0 2 ) ] 1 2
[ α ] = α lc

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