Abstract

We observe non-exponential absorption as a function of path length for pulses propagating in pure water. Two types of pulses with differing time duration, bandwidth, and repetition rate were compared with simulated absorption predictions. Deviations from exponential behaviour occurred when the launched pulse had a temporal width of 60fs and a repetition rate of 1 kHz. Under these conditions we observe more than 2 orders of magnitude less absorption after propagation through 6 m of water compared to Beer’s law prediction. No significant deviation was observed for launched pulses of varying bandwidth with temporal widths of 900fs and repetition rates of 80MHz.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. M.D. Crisp, "Propagation of small-area pulses of coherent light through a resonant medium," Phys. Rev. A 1, 1604-1611 (1970).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. Sweetser and I. Walmsley, "Linear pulse propagation in stationary and nonstationary multilevel media in the transient regime," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 601-612 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  3. O. Avenel, E. Varoquaux, and G.A. Williams, "Comment on Observation of the Formation of the 0 π Pulse," Phys.Rev.Lett. 53, 2058 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  4. T.W. Barrett, "Energy transfer & propagation and the dielectrics of materials: transient versus steady state effects," in Ultra-Wide Band Radar Proceedings from the First Los Alamos Symposium, (CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.1991).
  5. Seung-Ho Choi, and Ulf Österberg,"Observation of optical precursors in water," Phys.Rev.Lett. 92, 193903-193905 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. U. Gibson and U. ¨Osterberg,"Optical precursors and Beer’s law violations; non-exponential propagation losses in water," Opt. Express 13, 2105-2110(2005). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-6-2105
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. J.M. Khosrofian and B.A. Garetz, "Measurement of a gaussian laser beam diameter through the direct inversion of knife-edge data," Appl. Opt.,  22, 3406-3410(1983).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. D. Segelstein. The Complex Refractive Index of Water, University of Missouri-Kansas City: M.Sc. Thesis(1981).
  9. E. Harder, J.D. Evans, A. Tokmakoff, and B.J. Berne, "Polarizable molecules in the vibrational spectroscopy of water," PNAS,  102, 11611-11616 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. H. Nienhuys, S. Woutersen, R.A. van Santen, and H.J. Bakker, "Mechanism for vibrational relaxation in water investigated by femtosecond infrared spectroscopy," J. Chem. Phys.,  111, 1494-1500 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  11. B.R. Masters, P.T.C. So, C. Buehler, N. Barry, J.D. Sutin, W.W. Mantulin, and E. Gratton, "Mitigating thermal mechanical damage potential during two-photon dermal imaging," J. Biomedical Optics,  9, 1265-1270 (2004).
    [CrossRef]

2005 (1)

E. Harder, J.D. Evans, A. Tokmakoff, and B.J. Berne, "Polarizable molecules in the vibrational spectroscopy of water," PNAS,  102, 11611-11616 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

B.R. Masters, P.T.C. So, C. Buehler, N. Barry, J.D. Sutin, W.W. Mantulin, and E. Gratton, "Mitigating thermal mechanical damage potential during two-photon dermal imaging," J. Biomedical Optics,  9, 1265-1270 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Seung-Ho Choi, and Ulf Österberg,"Observation of optical precursors in water," Phys.Rev.Lett. 92, 193903-193905 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

H. Nienhuys, S. Woutersen, R.A. van Santen, and H.J. Bakker, "Mechanism for vibrational relaxation in water investigated by femtosecond infrared spectroscopy," J. Chem. Phys.,  111, 1494-1500 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

1983 (2)

J.M. Khosrofian and B.A. Garetz, "Measurement of a gaussian laser beam diameter through the direct inversion of knife-edge data," Appl. Opt.,  22, 3406-3410(1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Avenel, E. Varoquaux, and G.A. Williams, "Comment on Observation of the Formation of the 0 π Pulse," Phys.Rev.Lett. 53, 2058 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1970 (1)

M.D. Crisp, "Propagation of small-area pulses of coherent light through a resonant medium," Phys. Rev. A 1, 1604-1611 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Avenel, O.

O. Avenel, E. Varoquaux, and G.A. Williams, "Comment on Observation of the Formation of the 0 π Pulse," Phys.Rev.Lett. 53, 2058 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Bakker, H.J.

H. Nienhuys, S. Woutersen, R.A. van Santen, and H.J. Bakker, "Mechanism for vibrational relaxation in water investigated by femtosecond infrared spectroscopy," J. Chem. Phys.,  111, 1494-1500 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Barry, N.

B.R. Masters, P.T.C. So, C. Buehler, N. Barry, J.D. Sutin, W.W. Mantulin, and E. Gratton, "Mitigating thermal mechanical damage potential during two-photon dermal imaging," J. Biomedical Optics,  9, 1265-1270 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Berne, B.J.

E. Harder, J.D. Evans, A. Tokmakoff, and B.J. Berne, "Polarizable molecules in the vibrational spectroscopy of water," PNAS,  102, 11611-11616 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Buehler, C.

B.R. Masters, P.T.C. So, C. Buehler, N. Barry, J.D. Sutin, W.W. Mantulin, and E. Gratton, "Mitigating thermal mechanical damage potential during two-photon dermal imaging," J. Biomedical Optics,  9, 1265-1270 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Choi, Seung-Ho

Seung-Ho Choi, and Ulf Österberg,"Observation of optical precursors in water," Phys.Rev.Lett. 92, 193903-193905 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Crisp, M.D.

M.D. Crisp, "Propagation of small-area pulses of coherent light through a resonant medium," Phys. Rev. A 1, 1604-1611 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Evans, J.D.

E. Harder, J.D. Evans, A. Tokmakoff, and B.J. Berne, "Polarizable molecules in the vibrational spectroscopy of water," PNAS,  102, 11611-11616 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Garetz, B.A.

Gratton, E.

B.R. Masters, P.T.C. So, C. Buehler, N. Barry, J.D. Sutin, W.W. Mantulin, and E. Gratton, "Mitigating thermal mechanical damage potential during two-photon dermal imaging," J. Biomedical Optics,  9, 1265-1270 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Harder, E.

E. Harder, J.D. Evans, A. Tokmakoff, and B.J. Berne, "Polarizable molecules in the vibrational spectroscopy of water," PNAS,  102, 11611-11616 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Khosrofian, J.M.

Mantulin, W.W.

B.R. Masters, P.T.C. So, C. Buehler, N. Barry, J.D. Sutin, W.W. Mantulin, and E. Gratton, "Mitigating thermal mechanical damage potential during two-photon dermal imaging," J. Biomedical Optics,  9, 1265-1270 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Masters, B.R.

B.R. Masters, P.T.C. So, C. Buehler, N. Barry, J.D. Sutin, W.W. Mantulin, and E. Gratton, "Mitigating thermal mechanical damage potential during two-photon dermal imaging," J. Biomedical Optics,  9, 1265-1270 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nienhuys, H.

H. Nienhuys, S. Woutersen, R.A. van Santen, and H.J. Bakker, "Mechanism for vibrational relaxation in water investigated by femtosecond infrared spectroscopy," J. Chem. Phys.,  111, 1494-1500 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Österberg, Ulf

Seung-Ho Choi, and Ulf Österberg,"Observation of optical precursors in water," Phys.Rev.Lett. 92, 193903-193905 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

So, P.T.C.

B.R. Masters, P.T.C. So, C. Buehler, N. Barry, J.D. Sutin, W.W. Mantulin, and E. Gratton, "Mitigating thermal mechanical damage potential during two-photon dermal imaging," J. Biomedical Optics,  9, 1265-1270 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sutin, J.D.

B.R. Masters, P.T.C. So, C. Buehler, N. Barry, J.D. Sutin, W.W. Mantulin, and E. Gratton, "Mitigating thermal mechanical damage potential during two-photon dermal imaging," J. Biomedical Optics,  9, 1265-1270 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sweetser, J.

Tokmakoff, A.

E. Harder, J.D. Evans, A. Tokmakoff, and B.J. Berne, "Polarizable molecules in the vibrational spectroscopy of water," PNAS,  102, 11611-11616 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Santen, R.A.

H. Nienhuys, S. Woutersen, R.A. van Santen, and H.J. Bakker, "Mechanism for vibrational relaxation in water investigated by femtosecond infrared spectroscopy," J. Chem. Phys.,  111, 1494-1500 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Varoquaux, E.

O. Avenel, E. Varoquaux, and G.A. Williams, "Comment on Observation of the Formation of the 0 π Pulse," Phys.Rev.Lett. 53, 2058 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Walmsley, I.

Williams, G.A.

O. Avenel, E. Varoquaux, and G.A. Williams, "Comment on Observation of the Formation of the 0 π Pulse," Phys.Rev.Lett. 53, 2058 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Woutersen, S.

H. Nienhuys, S. Woutersen, R.A. van Santen, and H.J. Bakker, "Mechanism for vibrational relaxation in water investigated by femtosecond infrared spectroscopy," J. Chem. Phys.,  111, 1494-1500 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

J. Biomedical Optics (1)

B.R. Masters, P.T.C. So, C. Buehler, N. Barry, J.D. Sutin, W.W. Mantulin, and E. Gratton, "Mitigating thermal mechanical damage potential during two-photon dermal imaging," J. Biomedical Optics,  9, 1265-1270 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

H. Nienhuys, S. Woutersen, R.A. van Santen, and H.J. Bakker, "Mechanism for vibrational relaxation in water investigated by femtosecond infrared spectroscopy," J. Chem. Phys.,  111, 1494-1500 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

M.D. Crisp, "Propagation of small-area pulses of coherent light through a resonant medium," Phys. Rev. A 1, 1604-1611 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Phys.Rev.Lett. (2)

O. Avenel, E. Varoquaux, and G.A. Williams, "Comment on Observation of the Formation of the 0 π Pulse," Phys.Rev.Lett. 53, 2058 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Seung-Ho Choi, and Ulf Österberg,"Observation of optical precursors in water," Phys.Rev.Lett. 92, 193903-193905 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

PNAS (1)

E. Harder, J.D. Evans, A. Tokmakoff, and B.J. Berne, "Polarizable molecules in the vibrational spectroscopy of water," PNAS,  102, 11611-11616 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (3)

D. Segelstein. The Complex Refractive Index of Water, University of Missouri-Kansas City: M.Sc. Thesis(1981).

U. Gibson and U. ¨Osterberg,"Optical precursors and Beer’s law violations; non-exponential propagation losses in water," Opt. Express 13, 2105-2110(2005). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-6-2105
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T.W. Barrett, "Energy transfer & propagation and the dielectrics of materials: transient versus steady state effects," in Ultra-Wide Band Radar Proceedings from the First Los Alamos Symposium, (CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.1991).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Picture of reflecting chamber used in these experiments

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Detailed diagram of MaiTai Laser setup

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Input Spectra of MaiTai and Tsunami Lasers

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Results showing non-exponential absorption for short pulses

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