Abstract

Placing a Brewster-angle axicon inside a laser resonator makes it possible to produce a radially-polarized (RP) oscillation pattern distributed on a thin ring or a portion of a ring. Laser-diode end-pumped, Nd:Y3Al5O12 and Nd:YVO4 lasers were studied. Spatially coherent RP beams distributed on circular arcs were obtained with a polarization contrast ratio up to 80:1. Incoherent RP outputs on a full ring were also produced with a polarization contrast ratio of about 5:1. Applications of these beams to increase absorption efficiency in laser-matter interaction are discussed.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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2005 (4)

J-F. Bisson, Yu.V. Senatsky and K. Ueda "Generation of Laguerre-Gaussian modes in Nd:YAG laser using diffractive optical pumping," Laser Phys. Lett. 2,327-333 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Higashiguchi, C. Rajyaguru, S. Kubodera et al." Efficient soft x-ray emission source at 13,5 nm by use of a femtosecond-laser-produced Li-based microplasma," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 231502, 2005.
[CrossRef]

M. Roth, E. Wyss, H. Glur, and H.P. Weber "Generation of radially polarized beams in a Nd:YAG laser with self-adaptive overcompensation of the thermal lens," Opt. Lett. 30, 1665-1667 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Kozawa and S. Sato "Generation of a radially polarized laser beam by use of a conical Brewster prism," Opt. Lett. 30, 3063-3065, 2005.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (5)

C. Ho "Effects of polarizations of a laser on absorption in a paraboloid of revolution-shaped welding or drilling cavity," J. Appl. Phys. 96,5393- 5401 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Mozer, M. Ahmed, F. Pigeon, O. Parriaux, E. Wyss, and Th. Graf "Generation of radially polarized beams in Nd:YAG lasers with polarization selective mirrors," Laser Phys. Lett. 1, 234-236 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Wu "Formation of off-axis beams in an axially pumped sold-state laser," Opt.Express 12, 3459-3464 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Volodchenko, M. Kurdoglyan, Chil-Min Kim, Gyu Ug Kim "Observation and Investigation of off-axis modes in high-power Nd: YAG laser,"Appl.Opt. 43,4768-4773 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Zhan "Trapping metallic Rayleigh particles with radial polarization," Opt.Express 12, 3377 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (2)

2002 (1)

Y. Sato and T. Taira, "Spectroscopic properties of neodymium-doped yttrium orthovanadate single crystals with high-resolution measurement," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.,  41, 5999-6002 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

A. Khilo, E. Katranji, and A. Ryzhevich "Axicon-based Bessel resonator: analytical description and experiment," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18, 1986-1992 (2001).
[CrossRef]

L. Novotny, M. Beversluis, K. Youngworth, and T. Brown "Longitudinal field modes probed by single molecules," Phys.Rev.Lett. 86, 23, 5251-5254 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (2)

R. Oron, S. Blit, N. Davidson, and A. Friesam "The formation of laser beams with pure azimuthal or radial polarization," Appl.Phys.Lett. 77, 3322-3324 (2000).
[CrossRef]

V. G. Niziev and A. V. Nesterov "Laser beams with axially symmetric polarization," J. Phys. D.:Appl. Phys. 33, 1817-1822 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

V. G. Niziev and A. V. Nesterov "Influence of the beam polarization on laser cutting efficiency," J. Phys. D.:Appl. Phys. 32, 1455-1461 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

D. Dick and F. Hanson, "M modes in a diode side-pumped Nd:glass slab laser," Opt.Lett. 16, 476-477 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989 (1)

1983 (1)

J. Fontana and R. Pantell, "A high-energy laser accelerator for electrons using the inverse Cherenkov effect," J.Appl.Phys. 54, 4285-4288 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

M. Rioux, R. Tremblay, and P. Bélanger "Linear, annular and radial focusing with axicons and applications to laser machining," Appl.Opt. 17, 1532-1536 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1977 (2)

K.R. Manes, V. C. Rupert, J. M. Auerbach, P. Lee, J. E. Swain,"Polarization and Angular Dependence of 1.06 μm Laser-Light Absorption by Planar Plasmas," Phys. Rev. Lett. 39, 281-284 (1977).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Balmer, T. P. Donaldson," Resonance Absorption of 1.06-μm Laser Radiation in Laser-Generated Plasma," Phys. Rev. Lett.,  39, 1084-1087 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

Y. Mushiake, K. Matsumura, N. Nakajima "Generation of radially polarized optical beam mode by laser oscillation," Proc.IEEE 60,1107 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Ahmed, M.

T. Mozer, M. Ahmed, F. Pigeon, O. Parriaux, E. Wyss, and Th. Graf "Generation of radially polarized beams in Nd:YAG lasers with polarization selective mirrors," Laser Phys. Lett. 1, 234-236 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Auerbach, J. M.

K.R. Manes, V. C. Rupert, J. M. Auerbach, P. Lee, J. E. Swain,"Polarization and Angular Dependence of 1.06 μm Laser-Light Absorption by Planar Plasmas," Phys. Rev. Lett. 39, 281-284 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Balmer, J. E.

J. E. Balmer, T. P. Donaldson," Resonance Absorption of 1.06-μm Laser Radiation in Laser-Generated Plasma," Phys. Rev. Lett.,  39, 1084-1087 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Bélanger, P.

M. Rioux, R. Tremblay, and P. Bélanger "Linear, annular and radial focusing with axicons and applications to laser machining," Appl.Opt. 17, 1532-1536 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beversluis, M.

L. Novotny, M. Beversluis, K. Youngworth, and T. Brown "Longitudinal field modes probed by single molecules," Phys.Rev.Lett. 86, 23, 5251-5254 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bisson, J-F.

J-F. Bisson, Yu.V. Senatsky and K. Ueda "Generation of Laguerre-Gaussian modes in Nd:YAG laser using diffractive optical pumping," Laser Phys. Lett. 2,327-333 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Blit, S.

R. Oron, S. Blit, N. Davidson, and A. Friesam "The formation of laser beams with pure azimuthal or radial polarization," Appl.Phys.Lett. 77, 3322-3324 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Brown, T.

L. Novotny, M. Beversluis, K. Youngworth, and T. Brown "Longitudinal field modes probed by single molecules," Phys.Rev.Lett. 86, 23, 5251-5254 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dagan, E.

Davidson, N.

R. Oron, S. Blit, N. Davidson, and A. Friesam "The formation of laser beams with pure azimuthal or radial polarization," Appl.Phys.Lett. 77, 3322-3324 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Dick, D.

D. Dick and F. Hanson, "M modes in a diode side-pumped Nd:glass slab laser," Opt.Lett. 16, 476-477 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Donaldson, T. P.

J. E. Balmer, T. P. Donaldson," Resonance Absorption of 1.06-μm Laser Radiation in Laser-Generated Plasma," Phys. Rev. Lett.,  39, 1084-1087 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Dorn, R.

R. Dorn, S. Quabis, and G. Leuches "Sharper focus for a radially polarized beam," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 233901 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fontana, J.

J. Fontana and R. Pantell, "A high-energy laser accelerator for electrons using the inverse Cherenkov effect," J.Appl.Phys. 54, 4285-4288 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Friesam, A.

R. Oron, S. Blit, N. Davidson, and A. Friesam "The formation of laser beams with pure azimuthal or radial polarization," Appl.Phys.Lett. 77, 3322-3324 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Glur, H.

Goday, A.

Graf, Th.

T. Mozer, M. Ahmed, F. Pigeon, O. Parriaux, E. Wyss, and Th. Graf "Generation of radially polarized beams in Nd:YAG lasers with polarization selective mirrors," Laser Phys. Lett. 1, 234-236 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hanson, F.

D. Dick and F. Hanson, "M modes in a diode side-pumped Nd:glass slab laser," Opt.Lett. 16, 476-477 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Higashiguchi, T.

T. Higashiguchi, C. Rajyaguru, S. Kubodera et al." Efficient soft x-ray emission source at 13,5 nm by use of a femtosecond-laser-produced Li-based microplasma," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 231502, 2005.
[CrossRef]

Ho, C.

C. Ho "Effects of polarizations of a laser on absorption in a paraboloid of revolution-shaped welding or drilling cavity," J. Appl. Phys. 96,5393- 5401 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jackel, S.

Katranji, E.

Khilo, A.

Kozawa, Y.

Kubodera, S.

T. Higashiguchi, C. Rajyaguru, S. Kubodera et al." Efficient soft x-ray emission source at 13,5 nm by use of a femtosecond-laser-produced Li-based microplasma," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 231502, 2005.
[CrossRef]

Kurdoglyan, M.

K. Volodchenko, M. Kurdoglyan, Chil-Min Kim, Gyu Ug Kim "Observation and Investigation of off-axis modes in high-power Nd: YAG laser,"Appl.Opt. 43,4768-4773 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, P.

K.R. Manes, V. C. Rupert, J. M. Auerbach, P. Lee, J. E. Swain,"Polarization and Angular Dependence of 1.06 μm Laser-Light Absorption by Planar Plasmas," Phys. Rev. Lett. 39, 281-284 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Leuches, G.

R. Dorn, S. Quabis, and G. Leuches "Sharper focus for a radially polarized beam," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 233901 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Manes, K.R.

K.R. Manes, V. C. Rupert, J. M. Auerbach, P. Lee, J. E. Swain,"Polarization and Angular Dependence of 1.06 μm Laser-Light Absorption by Planar Plasmas," Phys. Rev. Lett. 39, 281-284 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Matsumura, K.

Y. Mushiake, K. Matsumura, N. Nakajima "Generation of radially polarized optical beam mode by laser oscillation," Proc.IEEE 60,1107 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Meir, A.

Moshe, I.

Mozer, T.

T. Mozer, M. Ahmed, F. Pigeon, O. Parriaux, E. Wyss, and Th. Graf "Generation of radially polarized beams in Nd:YAG lasers with polarization selective mirrors," Laser Phys. Lett. 1, 234-236 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mushiake, Y.

Y. Mushiake, K. Matsumura, N. Nakajima "Generation of radially polarized optical beam mode by laser oscillation," Proc.IEEE 60,1107 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Nakajima, N.

Y. Mushiake, K. Matsumura, N. Nakajima "Generation of radially polarized optical beam mode by laser oscillation," Proc.IEEE 60,1107 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Nesterov, A. V.

V. G. Niziev and A. V. Nesterov "Laser beams with axially symmetric polarization," J. Phys. D.:Appl. Phys. 33, 1817-1822 (2000).
[CrossRef]

V. G. Niziev and A. V. Nesterov "Influence of the beam polarization on laser cutting efficiency," J. Phys. D.:Appl. Phys. 32, 1455-1461 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Niziev, V. G.

V. G. Niziev and A. V. Nesterov "Laser beams with axially symmetric polarization," J. Phys. D.:Appl. Phys. 33, 1817-1822 (2000).
[CrossRef]

V. G. Niziev and A. V. Nesterov "Influence of the beam polarization on laser cutting efficiency," J. Phys. D.:Appl. Phys. 32, 1455-1461 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Novotny, L.

L. Novotny, M. Beversluis, K. Youngworth, and T. Brown "Longitudinal field modes probed by single molecules," Phys.Rev.Lett. 86, 23, 5251-5254 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oron, R.

R. Oron, S. Blit, N. Davidson, and A. Friesam "The formation of laser beams with pure azimuthal or radial polarization," Appl.Phys.Lett. 77, 3322-3324 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Pantell, R.

J. Fontana and R. Pantell, "A high-energy laser accelerator for electrons using the inverse Cherenkov effect," J.Appl.Phys. 54, 4285-4288 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Parriaux, O.

T. Mozer, M. Ahmed, F. Pigeon, O. Parriaux, E. Wyss, and Th. Graf "Generation of radially polarized beams in Nd:YAG lasers with polarization selective mirrors," Laser Phys. Lett. 1, 234-236 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pigeon, F.

T. Mozer, M. Ahmed, F. Pigeon, O. Parriaux, E. Wyss, and Th. Graf "Generation of radially polarized beams in Nd:YAG lasers with polarization selective mirrors," Laser Phys. Lett. 1, 234-236 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Quabis, S.

R. Dorn, S. Quabis, and G. Leuches "Sharper focus for a radially polarized beam," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 233901 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rajyaguru, C.

T. Higashiguchi, C. Rajyaguru, S. Kubodera et al." Efficient soft x-ray emission source at 13,5 nm by use of a femtosecond-laser-produced Li-based microplasma," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 231502, 2005.
[CrossRef]

Rioux, M.

M. Rioux, R. Tremblay, and P. Bélanger "Linear, annular and radial focusing with axicons and applications to laser machining," Appl.Opt. 17, 1532-1536 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roth, M.

Rupert, V. C.

K.R. Manes, V. C. Rupert, J. M. Auerbach, P. Lee, J. E. Swain,"Polarization and Angular Dependence of 1.06 μm Laser-Light Absorption by Planar Plasmas," Phys. Rev. Lett. 39, 281-284 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Ryzhevich, A.

Sato, S.

Sato, Y.

Y. Sato and T. Taira, "Spectroscopic properties of neodymium-doped yttrium orthovanadate single crystals with high-resolution measurement," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.,  41, 5999-6002 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Senatsky, Yu.V.

J-F. Bisson, Yu.V. Senatsky and K. Ueda "Generation of Laguerre-Gaussian modes in Nd:YAG laser using diffractive optical pumping," Laser Phys. Lett. 2,327-333 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sterman, B.

Swain, J. E.

K.R. Manes, V. C. Rupert, J. M. Auerbach, P. Lee, J. E. Swain,"Polarization and Angular Dependence of 1.06 μm Laser-Light Absorption by Planar Plasmas," Phys. Rev. Lett. 39, 281-284 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Taira, T.

Y. Sato and T. Taira, "Spectroscopic properties of neodymium-doped yttrium orthovanadate single crystals with high-resolution measurement," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.,  41, 5999-6002 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tremblay, R.

M. Rioux, R. Tremblay, and P. Bélanger "Linear, annular and radial focusing with axicons and applications to laser machining," Appl.Opt. 17, 1532-1536 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ueda, K.

J-F. Bisson, Yu.V. Senatsky and K. Ueda "Generation of Laguerre-Gaussian modes in Nd:YAG laser using diffractive optical pumping," Laser Phys. Lett. 2,327-333 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Volodchenko, K.

K. Volodchenko, M. Kurdoglyan, Chil-Min Kim, Gyu Ug Kim "Observation and Investigation of off-axis modes in high-power Nd: YAG laser,"Appl.Opt. 43,4768-4773 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weber, H.P.

Wu, H.

H. Wu "Formation of off-axis beams in an axially pumped sold-state laser," Opt.Express 12, 3459-3464 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wyss, E.

M. Roth, E. Wyss, H. Glur, and H.P. Weber "Generation of radially polarized beams in a Nd:YAG laser with self-adaptive overcompensation of the thermal lens," Opt. Lett. 30, 1665-1667 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Mozer, M. Ahmed, F. Pigeon, O. Parriaux, E. Wyss, and Th. Graf "Generation of radially polarized beams in Nd:YAG lasers with polarization selective mirrors," Laser Phys. Lett. 1, 234-236 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yatsiv, S.

Youngworth, K.

L. Novotny, M. Beversluis, K. Youngworth, and T. Brown "Longitudinal field modes probed by single molecules," Phys.Rev.Lett. 86, 23, 5251-5254 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhan, Q.

Q. Zhan "Trapping metallic Rayleigh particles with radial polarization," Opt.Express 12, 3377 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

T. Higashiguchi, C. Rajyaguru, S. Kubodera et al." Efficient soft x-ray emission source at 13,5 nm by use of a femtosecond-laser-produced Li-based microplasma," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 231502, 2005.
[CrossRef]

Appl.Opt. (2)

M. Rioux, R. Tremblay, and P. Bélanger "Linear, annular and radial focusing with axicons and applications to laser machining," Appl.Opt. 17, 1532-1536 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Volodchenko, M. Kurdoglyan, Chil-Min Kim, Gyu Ug Kim "Observation and Investigation of off-axis modes in high-power Nd: YAG laser,"Appl.Opt. 43,4768-4773 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl.Phys.Lett. (1)

R. Oron, S. Blit, N. Davidson, and A. Friesam "The formation of laser beams with pure azimuthal or radial polarization," Appl.Phys.Lett. 77, 3322-3324 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

C. Ho "Effects of polarizations of a laser on absorption in a paraboloid of revolution-shaped welding or drilling cavity," J. Appl. Phys. 96,5393- 5401 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

J. Phys. D.:Appl. Phys. (2)

V. G. Niziev and A. V. Nesterov "Laser beams with axially symmetric polarization," J. Phys. D.:Appl. Phys. 33, 1817-1822 (2000).
[CrossRef]

V. G. Niziev and A. V. Nesterov "Influence of the beam polarization on laser cutting efficiency," J. Phys. D.:Appl. Phys. 32, 1455-1461 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J.Appl.Phys. (1)

J. Fontana and R. Pantell, "A high-energy laser accelerator for electrons using the inverse Cherenkov effect," J.Appl.Phys. 54, 4285-4288 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

Y. Sato and T. Taira, "Spectroscopic properties of neodymium-doped yttrium orthovanadate single crystals with high-resolution measurement," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.,  41, 5999-6002 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Laser Phys. Lett. (2)

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Sketch of the experimental set-up. Ray tracings (not in scale) are for the two kinds of beams (type 1 and type 2). Right: photograph of the Nd: YAG laser output on a screen showing the simultaneous oscillation of type 2 (outer ring) and type 1 ring- and arc-like beams.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

CCD pictures of the Nd:YAG laser output for the ring output beam (Type 2). (a) Near field pattern; the chaotic intensity distribution (inset). Field: 6.5 mm (H) X 4.9 mm (V). (b) Far field distribution at the focus of a lens with focal length of 10 cm. The beam diameter (FWHM) is about 70 (x direction) and 90 μ m (y direction). The associated beam divergence was estimated close to 10-3.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

CCD pictures of the Nd:YVO4 for the arc output beam, type-1. (a) Near field pattern distributed on two arcs covering about 140 degrees. right: enlarged portion of a part of the arc, the multilobe structure can be seen. (b) Far field pattern of one arc. Direction of transmission of the analyzer in red; The far-field is linearly polarized with the main polarization axis directed parallel to the bisecting axis of the arc.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Type 1 beam obtained with Nd:YAG laser showing both the ring plus two pairs of lobes. The intensity distribution is shown in inset.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

CCD pictures of the Nd:YVO4 laser near-field patterns after passing through an analyzer (type-1). As the analyzer is rotated, portions of the arc orthogonal to the analyzer transmission axis are extinguished.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Polarization direction (left) and polarization contrast ratio (right) of the sliced Nd:YAG laser, type 2 ring-like output beam as a function of the slit angle. The measured error with the radial polarization direction is shown in the inset.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Same as Fig. 6 for Nd:YVO4 laser arc-like, type 1 oscillation beam as a function of the slit angle. The zero angle corresponds to the transmission axis of the analyzer aligned with the middle of the arc.

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