Abstract

Sources of coherent, monochromatic short-wavelength infrared (1-2 μm) light are essential in telecommunications, biomedical diagnosis, and optical sensing. Today’s semiconductor lasers are made by epitaxial growth on a lattice-matched single-crystal substrate. This strategy is incompatible with direct growth on silicon. Colloidal quantum dots synthesized in solution can, in contrast, be coated onto any surface. Here we show a 1.53 μm laser fabricated using a remarkably simple process: dipping a glass capillary into a colloidal suspension of semiconductor quantum dots. We developed the procedures to produce a smooth, low-scattering-loss film inside the capillary, resulting in a whispering gallery mode laser with a well-defined threshold. While there exist three prior reports of optical gain in infrared-emitting colloidal quantum dots [1, 2, 3], this work represents the first report of an infrared laser made using solution processing. We also report dλmax/dT, the temperature-sensitivity of lasing wavelength, of 0.03 nm/K, the lowest ever reported in a colloidal quantum dot system and 10 times lower than in traditional semiconductor quantum wells.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2005

E. H. Sargent, "Infrared quantum dots," Adv. Mater. 17, 515-522 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. S. Rong, A. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, "An all-silicon Raman laser," Nature 433, 292-294 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Chen, R. Rapaport, D. T. Fuchs, L. Lucas, A. J. Lovinger, S. Vilan, A. Aharoni, and U. Banin, "Optical gain from InAs nanocrystal quantum dots in a polymer matrix," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 251108-251110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

V. Sukhovatkin, S. Musikhin, I. Gorelikov, S. Cauchi, L. Bakueva, E. Kumacheva, and E. H. Sargent, "Room-temperature amplified spontaneous emission at 1300 nm in solution-processed PbS quantum-dot films," Opt. Lett. 30, 171-173 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

S. Kim, Y. T. Lim, E. G. Soltesz, A. M. De Grand, J. Lee, A. Nakayama, J. A. Parker, T. Mihaljevic, R. G. Laurence, D. M. Dor, L. H. Cohn, M. G. Bawendi, and J. V. Frangioni, "Near-infrared fluorescent type II quantum dots for sentinel lymph node mapping," Nat. Biotechnol. 22, 93-97 (2004).
[CrossRef]

V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci and M. Lipson, "All-optical control of light on a silicon chip," Nature 431, 1081-1083 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

M. A. Hines, and G. D. Scholes, "Colloidal PbS nanocrystals with size-tunable near-infrared emission: observation of post-synthesis self-narrowing of the particle size distribution," Adv. Mater. 15, 1844-1849 (2003)
[CrossRef]

R. D. Schaller, M. A. Petruschka, and V. I. Klimov, "Tunable near-infrared optical gain and amplified spontaneous emission using PbSe nanocrytals," J. Phys. Chem. B 107, 13765-13768 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

H. J. Eisler, V. C. Sundar, M. G. Bawendi, M. Walsh, H. I. Smith, and V. I. Klimov, "Color-selective semiconductor nanocrystal laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4614-4616 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Valenta, I. Pelant, and J. Linnros, "Waveguiding effects in the measurement of optical gain in a layer of Si nanocrystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1396-1398 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

J. D. Thomson, H. D. Summers, P. M. Smowton, E. Herrmann, P. Blood, M. Hopkinson, "Temperature dependence of the lasing wavelength of InGaAs quantum dot lasers," J. Appl. Phys. 90, 4859-4861 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

C. J. Karlsson, F. A. A Olsson, D. Letalick, M. Harris, "All-fiber multifunction continuous-wave coherent laser radar at 1.55 μm for range, speed, vibration, and wind measurements," Appl. Opt. 39, 3716-3726 (2000).
[CrossRef]

V. I. Klimov, A. A. Mikhailovsky, D. W. McBranch, C. A. Leatherdale, M. G. Bawendi, "Quantization of multiparticle Auger rates in semiconductor quantum dots," Science 287, 1011-1013 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. I. Klimov, A. A. Mikhailovsky, S. Xu, A. Malko, J. A. Hollingsworth, C. A. Leatherdale, H. J. Eisler, M. G. Bawendi, "Optical gain and stimulated emission in nanocrystal quantum dots," Science 290, 314-317 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. W. Wise, "Lead salt quantum dots: the limit of strong quantum confinement," Acc. Chem. Res. 33, 773-780 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999

V. I. Klimov, C. J. Schwarz, D. W. McBranch, C. A. Leatherdale, M. G. Bawendi, "Ultrafast dynamics of inter- and intraband transitions in semiconductor nanocrystals: implications for quantum-dot lasers," Phys. Rev. B 60, R2177-R2180 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. Wundke, J. Auxier, A. Schulzgen, N. Peyghambarian, and N. F. Borelli, "Room-temperature gain at 1.3 μm in PbS-doped glasses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3060-3062 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

1992

Aharoni, A.

G. Chen, R. Rapaport, D. T. Fuchs, L. Lucas, A. J. Lovinger, S. Vilan, A. Aharoni, and U. Banin, "Optical gain from InAs nanocrystal quantum dots in a polymer matrix," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 251108-251110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Almeida, V. R.

V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci and M. Lipson, "All-optical control of light on a silicon chip," Nature 431, 1081-1083 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Auxier, J.

K. Wundke, J. Auxier, A. Schulzgen, N. Peyghambarian, and N. F. Borelli, "Room-temperature gain at 1.3 μm in PbS-doped glasses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3060-3062 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bakueva, L.

Banin, U.

G. Chen, R. Rapaport, D. T. Fuchs, L. Lucas, A. J. Lovinger, S. Vilan, A. Aharoni, and U. Banin, "Optical gain from InAs nanocrystal quantum dots in a polymer matrix," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 251108-251110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Barrios, C. A.

V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci and M. Lipson, "All-optical control of light on a silicon chip," Nature 431, 1081-1083 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bawendi, M. G.

H. J. Eisler, V. C. Sundar, M. G. Bawendi, M. Walsh, H. I. Smith, and V. I. Klimov, "Color-selective semiconductor nanocrystal laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4614-4616 (2002).
[CrossRef]

V. I. Klimov, A. A. Mikhailovsky, S. Xu, A. Malko, J. A. Hollingsworth, C. A. Leatherdale, H. J. Eisler, M. G. Bawendi, "Optical gain and stimulated emission in nanocrystal quantum dots," Science 290, 314-317 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. I. Klimov, A. A. Mikhailovsky, D. W. McBranch, C. A. Leatherdale, M. G. Bawendi, "Quantization of multiparticle Auger rates in semiconductor quantum dots," Science 287, 1011-1013 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. I. Klimov, C. J. Schwarz, D. W. McBranch, C. A. Leatherdale, M. G. Bawendi, "Ultrafast dynamics of inter- and intraband transitions in semiconductor nanocrystals: implications for quantum-dot lasers," Phys. Rev. B 60, R2177-R2180 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Blood, P.

J. D. Thomson, H. D. Summers, P. M. Smowton, E. Herrmann, P. Blood, M. Hopkinson, "Temperature dependence of the lasing wavelength of InGaAs quantum dot lasers," J. Appl. Phys. 90, 4859-4861 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Borelli, N. F.

K. Wundke, J. Auxier, A. Schulzgen, N. Peyghambarian, and N. F. Borelli, "Room-temperature gain at 1.3 μm in PbS-doped glasses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3060-3062 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Cauchi, S.

Chen, G.

G. Chen, R. Rapaport, D. T. Fuchs, L. Lucas, A. J. Lovinger, S. Vilan, A. Aharoni, and U. Banin, "Optical gain from InAs nanocrystal quantum dots in a polymer matrix," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 251108-251110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cohen, O.

H. S. Rong, A. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, "An all-silicon Raman laser," Nature 433, 292-294 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eisler, H. J.

H. J. Eisler, V. C. Sundar, M. G. Bawendi, M. Walsh, H. I. Smith, and V. I. Klimov, "Color-selective semiconductor nanocrystal laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4614-4616 (2002).
[CrossRef]

V. I. Klimov, A. A. Mikhailovsky, S. Xu, A. Malko, J. A. Hollingsworth, C. A. Leatherdale, H. J. Eisler, M. G. Bawendi, "Optical gain and stimulated emission in nanocrystal quantum dots," Science 290, 314-317 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fang, A.

H. S. Rong, A. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, "An all-silicon Raman laser," Nature 433, 292-294 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fuchs, D. T.

G. Chen, R. Rapaport, D. T. Fuchs, L. Lucas, A. J. Lovinger, S. Vilan, A. Aharoni, and U. Banin, "Optical gain from InAs nanocrystal quantum dots in a polymer matrix," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 251108-251110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gorelikov, I.

Hak, D.

H. S. Rong, A. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, "An all-silicon Raman laser," Nature 433, 292-294 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Harris, M.

Herrmann, E.

J. D. Thomson, H. D. Summers, P. M. Smowton, E. Herrmann, P. Blood, M. Hopkinson, "Temperature dependence of the lasing wavelength of InGaAs quantum dot lasers," J. Appl. Phys. 90, 4859-4861 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hines, M. A.

M. A. Hines, and G. D. Scholes, "Colloidal PbS nanocrystals with size-tunable near-infrared emission: observation of post-synthesis self-narrowing of the particle size distribution," Adv. Mater. 15, 1844-1849 (2003)
[CrossRef]

Hollingsworth, J. A.

V. I. Klimov, A. A. Mikhailovsky, S. Xu, A. Malko, J. A. Hollingsworth, C. A. Leatherdale, H. J. Eisler, M. G. Bawendi, "Optical gain and stimulated emission in nanocrystal quantum dots," Science 290, 314-317 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hopkinson, M.

J. D. Thomson, H. D. Summers, P. M. Smowton, E. Herrmann, P. Blood, M. Hopkinson, "Temperature dependence of the lasing wavelength of InGaAs quantum dot lasers," J. Appl. Phys. 90, 4859-4861 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ilchenko, V. S.

Jones, R.

H. S. Rong, A. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, "An all-silicon Raman laser," Nature 433, 292-294 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Karlsson, C. J.

Kim, S.

S. Kim, Y. T. Lim, E. G. Soltesz, A. M. De Grand, J. Lee, A. Nakayama, J. A. Parker, T. Mihaljevic, R. G. Laurence, D. M. Dor, L. H. Cohn, M. G. Bawendi, and J. V. Frangioni, "Near-infrared fluorescent type II quantum dots for sentinel lymph node mapping," Nat. Biotechnol. 22, 93-97 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kimble, H. J.

Klimov, V. I.

R. D. Schaller, M. A. Petruschka, and V. I. Klimov, "Tunable near-infrared optical gain and amplified spontaneous emission using PbSe nanocrytals," J. Phys. Chem. B 107, 13765-13768 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Eisler, V. C. Sundar, M. G. Bawendi, M. Walsh, H. I. Smith, and V. I. Klimov, "Color-selective semiconductor nanocrystal laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4614-4616 (2002).
[CrossRef]

V. I. Klimov, A. A. Mikhailovsky, S. Xu, A. Malko, J. A. Hollingsworth, C. A. Leatherdale, H. J. Eisler, M. G. Bawendi, "Optical gain and stimulated emission in nanocrystal quantum dots," Science 290, 314-317 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. I. Klimov, A. A. Mikhailovsky, D. W. McBranch, C. A. Leatherdale, M. G. Bawendi, "Quantization of multiparticle Auger rates in semiconductor quantum dots," Science 287, 1011-1013 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. I. Klimov, C. J. Schwarz, D. W. McBranch, C. A. Leatherdale, M. G. Bawendi, "Ultrafast dynamics of inter- and intraband transitions in semiconductor nanocrystals: implications for quantum-dot lasers," Phys. Rev. B 60, R2177-R2180 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kumacheva, E.

Lalezari, R.

Leatherdale, C. A.

V. I. Klimov, A. A. Mikhailovsky, S. Xu, A. Malko, J. A. Hollingsworth, C. A. Leatherdale, H. J. Eisler, M. G. Bawendi, "Optical gain and stimulated emission in nanocrystal quantum dots," Science 290, 314-317 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. I. Klimov, A. A. Mikhailovsky, D. W. McBranch, C. A. Leatherdale, M. G. Bawendi, "Quantization of multiparticle Auger rates in semiconductor quantum dots," Science 287, 1011-1013 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. I. Klimov, C. J. Schwarz, D. W. McBranch, C. A. Leatherdale, M. G. Bawendi, "Ultrafast dynamics of inter- and intraband transitions in semiconductor nanocrystals: implications for quantum-dot lasers," Phys. Rev. B 60, R2177-R2180 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Letalick, D.

Lim, Y. T.

S. Kim, Y. T. Lim, E. G. Soltesz, A. M. De Grand, J. Lee, A. Nakayama, J. A. Parker, T. Mihaljevic, R. G. Laurence, D. M. Dor, L. H. Cohn, M. G. Bawendi, and J. V. Frangioni, "Near-infrared fluorescent type II quantum dots for sentinel lymph node mapping," Nat. Biotechnol. 22, 93-97 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Linnros, J.

J. Valenta, I. Pelant, and J. Linnros, "Waveguiding effects in the measurement of optical gain in a layer of Si nanocrystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1396-1398 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lipson, M.

V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci and M. Lipson, "All-optical control of light on a silicon chip," Nature 431, 1081-1083 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, A.

H. S. Rong, A. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, "An all-silicon Raman laser," Nature 433, 292-294 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lovinger, A. J.

G. Chen, R. Rapaport, D. T. Fuchs, L. Lucas, A. J. Lovinger, S. Vilan, A. Aharoni, and U. Banin, "Optical gain from InAs nanocrystal quantum dots in a polymer matrix," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 251108-251110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lucas, L.

G. Chen, R. Rapaport, D. T. Fuchs, L. Lucas, A. J. Lovinger, S. Vilan, A. Aharoni, and U. Banin, "Optical gain from InAs nanocrystal quantum dots in a polymer matrix," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 251108-251110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mabuchi, H.

Malko, A.

V. I. Klimov, A. A. Mikhailovsky, S. Xu, A. Malko, J. A. Hollingsworth, C. A. Leatherdale, H. J. Eisler, M. G. Bawendi, "Optical gain and stimulated emission in nanocrystal quantum dots," Science 290, 314-317 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McBranch, D. W.

V. I. Klimov, A. A. Mikhailovsky, D. W. McBranch, C. A. Leatherdale, M. G. Bawendi, "Quantization of multiparticle Auger rates in semiconductor quantum dots," Science 287, 1011-1013 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. I. Klimov, C. J. Schwarz, D. W. McBranch, C. A. Leatherdale, M. G. Bawendi, "Ultrafast dynamics of inter- and intraband transitions in semiconductor nanocrystals: implications for quantum-dot lasers," Phys. Rev. B 60, R2177-R2180 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mikhailovsky, A. A.

V. I. Klimov, A. A. Mikhailovsky, S. Xu, A. Malko, J. A. Hollingsworth, C. A. Leatherdale, H. J. Eisler, M. G. Bawendi, "Optical gain and stimulated emission in nanocrystal quantum dots," Science 290, 314-317 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. I. Klimov, A. A. Mikhailovsky, D. W. McBranch, C. A. Leatherdale, M. G. Bawendi, "Quantization of multiparticle Auger rates in semiconductor quantum dots," Science 287, 1011-1013 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Musikhin, S.

Nicolaescu, R.

H. S. Rong, A. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, "An all-silicon Raman laser," Nature 433, 292-294 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Olsson, F. A. A

Panepucci, R. R.

V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci and M. Lipson, "All-optical control of light on a silicon chip," Nature 431, 1081-1083 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Paniccia, M.

H. S. Rong, A. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, "An all-silicon Raman laser," Nature 433, 292-294 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pelant, I.

J. Valenta, I. Pelant, and J. Linnros, "Waveguiding effects in the measurement of optical gain in a layer of Si nanocrystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1396-1398 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Petruschka, M. A.

R. D. Schaller, M. A. Petruschka, and V. I. Klimov, "Tunable near-infrared optical gain and amplified spontaneous emission using PbSe nanocrytals," J. Phys. Chem. B 107, 13765-13768 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Peyghambarian, N.

K. Wundke, J. Auxier, A. Schulzgen, N. Peyghambarian, and N. F. Borelli, "Room-temperature gain at 1.3 μm in PbS-doped glasses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3060-3062 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rapaport, R.

G. Chen, R. Rapaport, D. T. Fuchs, L. Lucas, A. J. Lovinger, S. Vilan, A. Aharoni, and U. Banin, "Optical gain from InAs nanocrystal quantum dots in a polymer matrix," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 251108-251110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rempe, G.

Rong, H. S.

H. S. Rong, A. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, "An all-silicon Raman laser," Nature 433, 292-294 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sargent, E. H.

Schaller, R. D.

R. D. Schaller, M. A. Petruschka, and V. I. Klimov, "Tunable near-infrared optical gain and amplified spontaneous emission using PbSe nanocrytals," J. Phys. Chem. B 107, 13765-13768 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Scholes, G. D.

M. A. Hines, and G. D. Scholes, "Colloidal PbS nanocrystals with size-tunable near-infrared emission: observation of post-synthesis self-narrowing of the particle size distribution," Adv. Mater. 15, 1844-1849 (2003)
[CrossRef]

Schulzgen, A.

K. Wundke, J. Auxier, A. Schulzgen, N. Peyghambarian, and N. F. Borelli, "Room-temperature gain at 1.3 μm in PbS-doped glasses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3060-3062 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Schwarz, C. J.

V. I. Klimov, C. J. Schwarz, D. W. McBranch, C. A. Leatherdale, M. G. Bawendi, "Ultrafast dynamics of inter- and intraband transitions in semiconductor nanocrystals: implications for quantum-dot lasers," Phys. Rev. B 60, R2177-R2180 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Smith, H. I.

H. J. Eisler, V. C. Sundar, M. G. Bawendi, M. Walsh, H. I. Smith, and V. I. Klimov, "Color-selective semiconductor nanocrystal laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4614-4616 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Smowton, P. M.

J. D. Thomson, H. D. Summers, P. M. Smowton, E. Herrmann, P. Blood, M. Hopkinson, "Temperature dependence of the lasing wavelength of InGaAs quantum dot lasers," J. Appl. Phys. 90, 4859-4861 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Soltesz, E. G.

S. Kim, Y. T. Lim, E. G. Soltesz, A. M. De Grand, J. Lee, A. Nakayama, J. A. Parker, T. Mihaljevic, R. G. Laurence, D. M. Dor, L. H. Cohn, M. G. Bawendi, and J. V. Frangioni, "Near-infrared fluorescent type II quantum dots for sentinel lymph node mapping," Nat. Biotechnol. 22, 93-97 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Streed, E. W.

Sukhovatkin, V.

Summers, H. D.

J. D. Thomson, H. D. Summers, P. M. Smowton, E. Herrmann, P. Blood, M. Hopkinson, "Temperature dependence of the lasing wavelength of InGaAs quantum dot lasers," J. Appl. Phys. 90, 4859-4861 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sundar, V. C.

H. J. Eisler, V. C. Sundar, M. G. Bawendi, M. Walsh, H. I. Smith, and V. I. Klimov, "Color-selective semiconductor nanocrystal laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4614-4616 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Thompson, R. J.

Thomson, J. D.

J. D. Thomson, H. D. Summers, P. M. Smowton, E. Herrmann, P. Blood, M. Hopkinson, "Temperature dependence of the lasing wavelength of InGaAs quantum dot lasers," J. Appl. Phys. 90, 4859-4861 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Valenta, J.

J. Valenta, I. Pelant, and J. Linnros, "Waveguiding effects in the measurement of optical gain in a layer of Si nanocrystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1396-1398 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Vernooy, D. W.

Vilan, S.

G. Chen, R. Rapaport, D. T. Fuchs, L. Lucas, A. J. Lovinger, S. Vilan, A. Aharoni, and U. Banin, "Optical gain from InAs nanocrystal quantum dots in a polymer matrix," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 251108-251110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Walsh, M.

H. J. Eisler, V. C. Sundar, M. G. Bawendi, M. Walsh, H. I. Smith, and V. I. Klimov, "Color-selective semiconductor nanocrystal laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4614-4616 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wise, F. W.

F. W. Wise, "Lead salt quantum dots: the limit of strong quantum confinement," Acc. Chem. Res. 33, 773-780 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wundke, K.

K. Wundke, J. Auxier, A. Schulzgen, N. Peyghambarian, and N. F. Borelli, "Room-temperature gain at 1.3 μm in PbS-doped glasses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3060-3062 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Xu, S.

V. I. Klimov, A. A. Mikhailovsky, S. Xu, A. Malko, J. A. Hollingsworth, C. A. Leatherdale, H. J. Eisler, M. G. Bawendi, "Optical gain and stimulated emission in nanocrystal quantum dots," Science 290, 314-317 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Acc. Chem. Res.

F. W. Wise, "Lead salt quantum dots: the limit of strong quantum confinement," Acc. Chem. Res. 33, 773-780 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adv. Mater.

M. A. Hines, and G. D. Scholes, "Colloidal PbS nanocrystals with size-tunable near-infrared emission: observation of post-synthesis self-narrowing of the particle size distribution," Adv. Mater. 15, 1844-1849 (2003)
[CrossRef]

E. H. Sargent, "Infrared quantum dots," Adv. Mater. 17, 515-522 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

G. Chen, R. Rapaport, D. T. Fuchs, L. Lucas, A. J. Lovinger, S. Vilan, A. Aharoni, and U. Banin, "Optical gain from InAs nanocrystal quantum dots in a polymer matrix," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 251108-251110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Valenta, I. Pelant, and J. Linnros, "Waveguiding effects in the measurement of optical gain in a layer of Si nanocrystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1396-1398 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Eisler, V. C. Sundar, M. G. Bawendi, M. Walsh, H. I. Smith, and V. I. Klimov, "Color-selective semiconductor nanocrystal laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4614-4616 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. Wundke, J. Auxier, A. Schulzgen, N. Peyghambarian, and N. F. Borelli, "Room-temperature gain at 1.3 μm in PbS-doped glasses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3060-3062 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

J. D. Thomson, H. D. Summers, P. M. Smowton, E. Herrmann, P. Blood, M. Hopkinson, "Temperature dependence of the lasing wavelength of InGaAs quantum dot lasers," J. Appl. Phys. 90, 4859-4861 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. B

R. D. Schaller, M. A. Petruschka, and V. I. Klimov, "Tunable near-infrared optical gain and amplified spontaneous emission using PbSe nanocrytals," J. Phys. Chem. B 107, 13765-13768 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Biotechnol.

S. Kim, Y. T. Lim, E. G. Soltesz, A. M. De Grand, J. Lee, A. Nakayama, J. A. Parker, T. Mihaljevic, R. G. Laurence, D. M. Dor, L. H. Cohn, M. G. Bawendi, and J. V. Frangioni, "Near-infrared fluorescent type II quantum dots for sentinel lymph node mapping," Nat. Biotechnol. 22, 93-97 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nature

V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci and M. Lipson, "All-optical control of light on a silicon chip," Nature 431, 1081-1083 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. S. Rong, A. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, "An all-silicon Raman laser," Nature 433, 292-294 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. B

V. I. Klimov, C. J. Schwarz, D. W. McBranch, C. A. Leatherdale, M. G. Bawendi, "Ultrafast dynamics of inter- and intraband transitions in semiconductor nanocrystals: implications for quantum-dot lasers," Phys. Rev. B 60, R2177-R2180 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Science

V. I. Klimov, A. A. Mikhailovsky, S. Xu, A. Malko, J. A. Hollingsworth, C. A. Leatherdale, H. J. Eisler, M. G. Bawendi, "Optical gain and stimulated emission in nanocrystal quantum dots," Science 290, 314-317 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. I. Klimov, A. A. Mikhailovsky, D. W. McBranch, C. A. Leatherdale, M. G. Bawendi, "Quantization of multiparticle Auger rates in semiconductor quantum dots," Science 287, 1011-1013 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

L. A. Coldren and S. W. Corzine, Diode Lasers & Photonic Integrated Circuit (John Wiley & Sons Inc., 1995).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Room temperature absorption and photoluminescence spectrum of PbS nanocrystals in a hexane solution (bottom) and absorption spectrum of hexane (top). (b) Pump power dependence of normalized absorption changes (-∆α/α0) measured at the exciton absorption peak and on the red side of the photoluminescence peak as indicated in Fig. 1(a). At 1570 nm, where there is a minimum in the hexane absorption spectrum, the relative absorption change becomes larger than 1 for a pump fluence of 7.8 mJ/cm2 and optical gain is obtained.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Schematic drawing of the Shifting Excitation Spot (SES) setup, in which the position of the pump spot on the nanocrystal (NC) film is shifted with respect to the edge of the sample from where the photoluminescence (PL) is collected (b) Guided photoluminescence spectra of a 1.14 μm thick butylamine-capped PbS nanocrystal film, when pumped at various distances, z, from the sample edge (c) Change in guided photoluminescence intensity as a function of excitation spot position at wavelengths of 1220 nm, 1340 nm and 1465 nm. (d) Absorption coefficient obtained when the SES data is fit to the Lambert-Beer law. At short wavelengths the SES data is not following the absorption spectra obtained from transmission measurements due to the resolution of the setup, while at long wavelengths, where there is no nanocrystal absorption, waveguide losses of less than 10 cm-1 are measured.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Schematic drawing of microcapillary tube with a solid nanocrystal thin film on the inner wall. The inner diameter of the fused silica capillary is 75 μm and the outer diameter is 360 μm. (b) Cross-section optical microscope image of a typical microcapillary tube with a solid nanocrystal thin film on the inner wall with a width of less than 1 μm.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Absorption spectrum and normalized (below-threshold) photoluminescence spectra at room temperature (dash) and 80 K (dot) of the nanocrystals used as gain medium in a 75 μm diameter microcapillary. The increased Stokes shift at lower temperatures is a result of an increased energy transfer rate from smaller dots to larger dots. Also shown is the emission spectrum of the microcapillary laser when pumped above threshold at 80 K (note the scale is made 30x smaller than the photoluminescence spectrum at 80 K). (b) Pump fluence dependence of the nanocrystal emission from the microcapillary laser at the central lasing mode wavelength of 1532 nm operating at 80 K. A clear sharp threshold can be observed, with a threshold fluence of 177 μJ/cm2. The insets show the emission spectra at the corresponding pump powers, clearly demonstrating the appearance of a narrow lasing peak centred at 1532 nm.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Typical lasing spectrum of the PbS nanocrystal microcapillary laser at liquid nitrogen temperatures for pump fluences of 200 μJ/cm2 (dotted line) and 300 μJ/cm2 (solid line) displaying the increase of lasing modes with pump fluence. At a pump fluence of 300 μJ/cm2, a WGM profile can be observed with a corresponding modal index of ~1.7. (inset) Shift of the central lasing wavelength as function of temperature, with respect to the lasing wavelength at 80 K. An average red-shift of 0.03 nm/K (solid line) can be observed from 80 K to the maximum operating temperature of 250 K.

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