Abstract

Most aspheric surfaces have been tested by interferometer with some null correctors. This approach, however, often fails when there are many aspherical terms or test surface is very steep because it is not easy to design the conventional null lens or CGH (Computer Generated Hologram). On the other hand, 3-D profilometer can measure aspheric surfaces without any null correctors; however, it takes some time to measure, which makes it unsuitable for the production line in the factory. In this paper, we apply the Hartmann test to the measurement of steep convex aspheric surfaces of which diameter is about 16 mm. In order to increase the measurement accuracy, we calibrated the test setup using a CGH that simulates the ideal test surface. We demonstrated that the significant amount of error in the test setup could be removed by this calibration process. The test results showed only 2 nm rms WFE (wave front error) difference even though the WFE of test setup was worsened by more than 0.13 μm rms. Since this method makes it possible to measure highly aspheric surface quickly and accurately, it can be used in the production line.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. D. Malacara, "Null tests using compensators," in Optical shop testing (Wiley, New York, 1992), Ch. 12.
  2. D. Malacara, "Hartmann and other screen tests," in Optical shop testing (Wiley, New York, 1992), Ch. 10.
  3. J. H. Burge, "Fizeau interferometry for large convex surfaces," in Optical manufacturing and testing, V.J.Doherty, and H.P.Stahl, eds., Proc. SPIE 2536, 127-138 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  4. T. H. Kim, J. Burge, Y. W. Lee, and S.S. Kim, "Null test for highly paraboloidal mirror," Appl. Opt. 43, 3614-3618 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. V. A. Zverev, S. A. Rodionov, M. N. Sokol'skii, and V. V. Usoskin, "Testing of the primary mirror of the LAT (large azimuthal telescope) by the Hartmann method during its manufacture," Sov. J. Opt. Technol. 44, 127-129 (1977).
  6. H.-S. Yang, Y.-W. Lee, J.-B. Song, and I.-W. Lee, "Null Hartmann test for the fabrication of large aspheric surfaces," Opt. Exp., 1839-1847 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. J. Pfund, N. Lindlein, and J. Schwider, "Misalignment effects of the Shack-Hartmann sensor," Appl. Opt. 37, 22-27 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. Pfund, N. Lindlein, and J. Schwider, "Nonnull testing of rotationally symmetric aspheres: a systematic error assessment," Appl. Opt. 40, 439-446 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  9. T. M. Jeong, M. Menon, and G. Yoon, "Measurement of wave-front aberration in soft contact lenses by use of a Shack-Hartmsnn wave-front sensor," Appl. Opt. 44, 4523-4527 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. R. Diaz-Uribe, and M. Campos-Garcia, "Null-screen testing of fast convex aspheric surfaces," Appl. Opt. 39, 2670-2677 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. Campos-Garcia, R. Diaz-Uribe, and F. Granados-Agustin, "Testing fast aspheric convex surfaces with a linear array of sources," Appl. Opt. 43, 6255-6264 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. W. H. Southwell, "Wavefront estimation fromm wavefront slope measurements," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 70, 998-1006 (1980).
    [CrossRef]

2005

2004

2001

2000

1998

1980

1977

V. A. Zverev, S. A. Rodionov, M. N. Sokol'skii, and V. V. Usoskin, "Testing of the primary mirror of the LAT (large azimuthal telescope) by the Hartmann method during its manufacture," Sov. J. Opt. Technol. 44, 127-129 (1977).

Burge, J.

Campos-Garcia, M.

Diaz-Uribe, R.

Granados-Agustin, F.

Jeong, T. M.

Kim, S.S.

Kim, T. H.

Lee, Y. W.

Lindlein, N.

Menon, M.

Pfund, J.

Rodionov, S. A.

V. A. Zverev, S. A. Rodionov, M. N. Sokol'skii, and V. V. Usoskin, "Testing of the primary mirror of the LAT (large azimuthal telescope) by the Hartmann method during its manufacture," Sov. J. Opt. Technol. 44, 127-129 (1977).

Schwider, J.

Sokol'skii, M. N.

V. A. Zverev, S. A. Rodionov, M. N. Sokol'skii, and V. V. Usoskin, "Testing of the primary mirror of the LAT (large azimuthal telescope) by the Hartmann method during its manufacture," Sov. J. Opt. Technol. 44, 127-129 (1977).

Southwell, W. H.

Usoskin, V. V.

V. A. Zverev, S. A. Rodionov, M. N. Sokol'skii, and V. V. Usoskin, "Testing of the primary mirror of the LAT (large azimuthal telescope) by the Hartmann method during its manufacture," Sov. J. Opt. Technol. 44, 127-129 (1977).

Yoon, G.

Zverev, V. A.

V. A. Zverev, S. A. Rodionov, M. N. Sokol'skii, and V. V. Usoskin, "Testing of the primary mirror of the LAT (large azimuthal telescope) by the Hartmann method during its manufacture," Sov. J. Opt. Technol. 44, 127-129 (1977).

Appl. Opt.

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

Sov. J. Opt. Technol.

V. A. Zverev, S. A. Rodionov, M. N. Sokol'skii, and V. V. Usoskin, "Testing of the primary mirror of the LAT (large azimuthal telescope) by the Hartmann method during its manufacture," Sov. J. Opt. Technol. 44, 127-129 (1977).

Other

H.-S. Yang, Y.-W. Lee, J.-B. Song, and I.-W. Lee, "Null Hartmann test for the fabrication of large aspheric surfaces," Opt. Exp., 1839-1847 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Malacara, "Null tests using compensators," in Optical shop testing (Wiley, New York, 1992), Ch. 12.

D. Malacara, "Hartmann and other screen tests," in Optical shop testing (Wiley, New York, 1992), Ch. 10.

J. H. Burge, "Fizeau interferometry for large convex surfaces," in Optical manufacturing and testing, V.J.Doherty, and H.P.Stahl, eds., Proc. SPIE 2536, 127-138 (1995).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Optical layout for the measurement of small aspheric surface.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

The asphericity of the surface. Wave means 633 nm.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a). Wave front error of the test setup and (b) its slope in radian.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Measurement result of high precision doublet using a Hartmann sensor as the doublet is defocused. The reference was generated at defocus of 20 mm. (a) rms WFE measured (b) residual error after linear fitting.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) CGH as an ideal surface, (b) Test surface to be measured.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Surface error measured by 3-D profiler, UA3P from Panasonic Co.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Reference generated by measuring CGH. Spot in circle A is the closest to the boundary of sub-aperture. Circle B is the measurement area of test surface.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Measurement result of test surface (a) WFE of the beam expander, and (b) surface profile of the test surface (z-unit is micrometer).

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Measurement result after intentional misalignment of beam expander (a) WFE of the beam expander, and (b) surface profile of the test surface (z-unit is micrometer).

Equations (1)

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f ( W x ) max = S 2 1.22 λf d

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