Abstract

In this manuscript, a GRIN (gradient index) lens rod based probe for endoscopic spectral domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) with dynamic focus tracking is presented. Current endoscopic OCT systems have a fixed focal plane or working distance. In contrast, the focus of this endoscopic OCT probe can dynamically be adjusted at a high speed (500 mm/s) without changing reference arm length to obtain high quality OCT images for contact or non-contact tissue applications, or for areas of difficult access for probes. The dynamic focusing range of the probe can be from 0 to 7.5 mm without moving the probe itself. The imaging depth is 2.8 mm and the lateral scanning range is up to 2.7 mm or 4.5 mm (determined by the diameter of different GRIN lens rods). Three dimensional imaging can be performed using this system over an area of tissue corresponding to the GRIN lens surface. The experimental results demonstrate that this GRIN lens rod based OCT system can perform a high quality non-contact in vivo imaging. This rigid OCT probe is solid and can be adapted to safely access internal organs, to perform front or side view imaging with an imaging speed of 8 frames per second, with all moving parts proximal to the GRIN lens, and has great potential for use in extremely compact OCT endoscopes for in vivo imaging in both biological research and clinical applications.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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2005

2004

F. C. McNeillie, J. Thomson and I. S. Ruddock, "The imaging properties of gradient index optical fiber," Euro. J. Phys. 25, 479-487 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. Tran, D. Mukai, M. Brenner, and Z. Chen, "In vivo endoscopic optical coherence tomography by use of a rotational microelectromechanical system probe," Opt. Lett. 29, 1236-1238 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bing Qi, A. Phillip Himmer, L. Maggie Gordon, X. D. Victor Yang, L. David Dickensheets, I. Alex Vitkin, "Dynamic Focus control in high-speed optical coherence tomography based on a microelectromechanical mirror," Opt. Commun. 232, 123-128 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002

E. Grube, U. Gerckens, L. Buellesfeld, and P. J. Fitzgerald, "Images in cardiovascular medicine. Intracoronary imaging with optical coherence tomography: a new high-resolution technology providing striking visualization in coronaty artery," Circulation 106, 2409-2410 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001

2000

S. Jäckle, N. Gladkova, F. Feldchtein, A. Terentieva, B. Brand, G. Gelikonov, V. Gelikonov, A. Sergeev, A. Fritscher-Ravens, J. Freund, U. Seitz, S. Schröder, N. Soehendra, "In Vivo Endoscopic Optical Coherence Tomography of Esophagitis, Barrett's Esophagus, and Adenocarcinoma of the Esophagus," Endoscopy 32, 750-755 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. M. Hoeling, A. D. Fernandez, R. C. Haskell, E. Huang, W. R. Myers, D. C. Petersen, S. E. Ungersma, R. Wang, M. E. Williams, "An optical coherence microscope for 3-dimensional imaging in developmental biology," Opt. Express 6, 136-146 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999

F. Lexer, C. K. Hitzenberger, W. Drexler, S. Molebny, H. Sattmann, M. Sticker and A. F. Fercher, "Dynamic coherent focus OCT with depth-independent transversal resolution," J. of Mod. Opt. 46(3), 541-553 (1999).

A. Rollins, R. Ung-arunyawee, A. Chak, C. Wong, K. Kobayashi, M. Sivak, Jr., and J. Izatt, "Real-time in vivo imaging of human gastrointestinal ultrastructure by use of endoscopic optical coherence tomographywith a novel efficient interferometerdesign," Opt. Lett. 24, 1358-1360 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997

1996

1993

1991

H. D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Sinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1977

J. M. Schmit, S. L. Lee, K. M. Yung, "An optical coherence microscope with enhanced resolving power in thick tissue," Opt. Commun. 142, 203-207 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Aharma, A.

Bing Qi,

Bing Qi, A. Phillip Himmer, L. Maggie Gordon, X. D. Victor Yang, L. David Dickensheets, I. Alex Vitkin, "Dynamic Focus control in high-speed optical coherence tomography based on a microelectromechanical mirror," Opt. Commun. 232, 123-128 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Boppart, S. A.

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, J. G. Fujimoto, "In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography," Science 276, 2037-2039 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bouma, B. E.

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, J. G. Fujimoto, "In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography," Science 276, 2037-2039 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brand, B.

S. Jäckle, N. Gladkova, F. Feldchtein, A. Terentieva, B. Brand, G. Gelikonov, V. Gelikonov, A. Sergeev, A. Fritscher-Ravens, J. Freund, U. Seitz, S. Schröder, N. Soehendra, "In Vivo Endoscopic Optical Coherence Tomography of Esophagitis, Barrett's Esophagus, and Adenocarcinoma of the Esophagus," Endoscopy 32, 750-755 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brenner, M.

Brezinski, M. E.

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, J. G. Fujimoto, "In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography," Science 276, 2037-2039 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Buellesfeld, L.

E. Grube, U. Gerckens, L. Buellesfeld, and P. J. Fitzgerald, "Images in cardiovascular medicine. Intracoronary imaging with optical coherence tomography: a new high-resolution technology providing striking visualization in coronaty artery," Circulation 106, 2409-2410 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chak, A.

Chang, W.

H. D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Sinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, Z.

Chumakov, Y. P.

Cobb, M. J.

Denisenko, A. N.

Drexler, W.

F. Lexer, C. K. Hitzenberger, W. Drexler, S. Molebny, H. Sattmann, M. Sticker and A. F. Fercher, "Dynamic coherent focus OCT with depth-independent transversal resolution," J. of Mod. Opt. 46(3), 541-553 (1999).

Fedder, G. K.

Feldchtein, F.

S. Jäckle, N. Gladkova, F. Feldchtein, A. Terentieva, B. Brand, G. Gelikonov, V. Gelikonov, A. Sergeev, A. Fritscher-Ravens, J. Freund, U. Seitz, S. Schröder, N. Soehendra, "In Vivo Endoscopic Optical Coherence Tomography of Esophagitis, Barrett's Esophagus, and Adenocarcinoma of the Esophagus," Endoscopy 32, 750-755 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feldchtein, F. I.

Fercher, A. F.

F. Lexer, C. K. Hitzenberger, W. Drexler, S. Molebny, H. Sattmann, M. Sticker and A. F. Fercher, "Dynamic coherent focus OCT with depth-independent transversal resolution," J. of Mod. Opt. 46(3), 541-553 (1999).

Fernandez, A. D.

Fitzgerald, P. J.

E. Grube, U. Gerckens, L. Buellesfeld, and P. J. Fitzgerald, "Images in cardiovascular medicine. Intracoronary imaging with optical coherence tomography: a new high-resolution technology providing striking visualization in coronaty artery," Circulation 106, 2409-2410 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Flotte, T.

H. D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Sinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Freund, J.

S. Jäckle, N. Gladkova, F. Feldchtein, A. Terentieva, B. Brand, G. Gelikonov, V. Gelikonov, A. Sergeev, A. Fritscher-Ravens, J. Freund, U. Seitz, S. Schröder, N. Soehendra, "In Vivo Endoscopic Optical Coherence Tomography of Esophagitis, Barrett's Esophagus, and Adenocarcinoma of the Esophagus," Endoscopy 32, 750-755 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fritscher-Ravens, A.

S. Jäckle, N. Gladkova, F. Feldchtein, A. Terentieva, B. Brand, G. Gelikonov, V. Gelikonov, A. Sergeev, A. Fritscher-Ravens, J. Freund, U. Seitz, S. Schröder, N. Soehendra, "In Vivo Endoscopic Optical Coherence Tomography of Esophagitis, Barrett's Esophagus, and Adenocarcinoma of the Esophagus," Endoscopy 32, 750-755 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J. G.

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, J. G. Fujimoto, "In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography," Science 276, 2037-2039 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. A. Swanson, J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, D. Huang, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "In vivo retinal imaging by optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 18,1864-1866 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Sinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gelikonov, G.

S. Jäckle, N. Gladkova, F. Feldchtein, A. Terentieva, B. Brand, G. Gelikonov, V. Gelikonov, A. Sergeev, A. Fritscher-Ravens, J. Freund, U. Seitz, S. Schröder, N. Soehendra, "In Vivo Endoscopic Optical Coherence Tomography of Esophagitis, Barrett's Esophagus, and Adenocarcinoma of the Esophagus," Endoscopy 32, 750-755 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gelikonov, G. V.

Gelikonov, V.

S. Jäckle, N. Gladkova, F. Feldchtein, A. Terentieva, B. Brand, G. Gelikonov, V. Gelikonov, A. Sergeev, A. Fritscher-Ravens, J. Freund, U. Seitz, S. Schröder, N. Soehendra, "In Vivo Endoscopic Optical Coherence Tomography of Esophagitis, Barrett's Esophagus, and Adenocarcinoma of the Esophagus," Endoscopy 32, 750-755 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gelikonov, V. M.

Gerckens, U.

E. Grube, U. Gerckens, L. Buellesfeld, and P. J. Fitzgerald, "Images in cardiovascular medicine. Intracoronary imaging with optical coherence tomography: a new high-resolution technology providing striking visualization in coronaty artery," Circulation 106, 2409-2410 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gladkova, N.

S. Jäckle, N. Gladkova, F. Feldchtein, A. Terentieva, B. Brand, G. Gelikonov, V. Gelikonov, A. Sergeev, A. Fritscher-Ravens, J. Freund, U. Seitz, S. Schröder, N. Soehendra, "In Vivo Endoscopic Optical Coherence Tomography of Esophagitis, Barrett's Esophagus, and Adenocarcinoma of the Esophagus," Endoscopy 32, 750-755 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gladkova, N. D.

Gregory, K.

H. D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Sinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grube, E.

E. Grube, U. Gerckens, L. Buellesfeld, and P. J. Fitzgerald, "Images in cardiovascular medicine. Intracoronary imaging with optical coherence tomography: a new high-resolution technology providing striking visualization in coronaty artery," Circulation 106, 2409-2410 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guo, S.

Haskell, R. C.

Hee, M. R.

E. A. Swanson, J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, D. Huang, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "In vivo retinal imaging by optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 18,1864-1866 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Sinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hitzenberger, C. K.

F. Lexer, C. K. Hitzenberger, W. Drexler, S. Molebny, H. Sattmann, M. Sticker and A. F. Fercher, "Dynamic coherent focus OCT with depth-independent transversal resolution," J. of Mod. Opt. 46(3), 541-553 (1999).

Hoeling, B. M.

Huang, D.

Huang, E.

Huang, H. D.

H. D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Sinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Izatt, J.

Izatt, J. A.

Jäckle, S.

S. Jäckle, N. Gladkova, F. Feldchtein, A. Terentieva, B. Brand, G. Gelikonov, V. Gelikonov, A. Sergeev, A. Fritscher-Ravens, J. Freund, U. Seitz, S. Schröder, N. Soehendra, "In Vivo Endoscopic Optical Coherence Tomography of Esophagitis, Barrett's Esophagus, and Adenocarcinoma of the Esophagus," Endoscopy 32, 750-755 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kobayashi, K.

Kuranov, R. V.

Kuznetzova, I. A.

Lee, S. L.

J. M. Schmit, S. L. Lee, K. M. Yung, "An optical coherence microscope with enhanced resolving power in thick tissue," Opt. Commun. 142, 203-207 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Lexer, F.

F. Lexer, C. K. Hitzenberger, W. Drexler, S. Molebny, H. Sattmann, M. Sticker and A. F. Fercher, "Dynamic coherent focus OCT with depth-independent transversal resolution," J. of Mod. Opt. 46(3), 541-553 (1999).

Li, X.

Lin, C. P.

E. A. Swanson, J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, D. Huang, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "In vivo retinal imaging by optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 18,1864-1866 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Sinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, X.

McNeillie, F. C.

F. C. McNeillie, J. Thomson and I. S. Ruddock, "The imaging properties of gradient index optical fiber," Euro. J. Phys. 25, 479-487 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Molebny, S.

F. Lexer, C. K. Hitzenberger, W. Drexler, S. Molebny, H. Sattmann, M. Sticker and A. F. Fercher, "Dynamic coherent focus OCT with depth-independent transversal resolution," J. of Mod. Opt. 46(3), 541-553 (1999).

Mukai, D.

Myers, W. R.

Pan, Y.

Petersen, D. C.

Pitris, C.

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, J. G. Fujimoto, "In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography," Science 276, 2037-2039 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pochinko, V. V.

Puliafito, C. A.

E. A. Swanson, J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, D. Huang, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "In vivo retinal imaging by optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 18,1864-1866 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Sinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rollins, A.

Ruddock, I. S.

F. C. McNeillie, J. Thomson and I. S. Ruddock, "The imaging properties of gradient index optical fiber," Euro. J. Phys. 25, 479-487 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sattmann, H.

F. Lexer, C. K. Hitzenberger, W. Drexler, S. Molebny, H. Sattmann, M. Sticker and A. F. Fercher, "Dynamic coherent focus OCT with depth-independent transversal resolution," J. of Mod. Opt. 46(3), 541-553 (1999).

Schmit, J. M.

J. M. Schmit, S. L. Lee, K. M. Yung, "An optical coherence microscope with enhanced resolving power in thick tissue," Opt. Commun. 142, 203-207 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Schröder, S.

S. Jäckle, N. Gladkova, F. Feldchtein, A. Terentieva, B. Brand, G. Gelikonov, V. Gelikonov, A. Sergeev, A. Fritscher-Ravens, J. Freund, U. Seitz, S. Schröder, N. Soehendra, "In Vivo Endoscopic Optical Coherence Tomography of Esophagitis, Barrett's Esophagus, and Adenocarcinoma of the Esophagus," Endoscopy 32, 750-755 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schuman, J. S.

E. A. Swanson, J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, D. Huang, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "In vivo retinal imaging by optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 18,1864-1866 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Sinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Seitz, U.

S. Jäckle, N. Gladkova, F. Feldchtein, A. Terentieva, B. Brand, G. Gelikonov, V. Gelikonov, A. Sergeev, A. Fritscher-Ravens, J. Freund, U. Seitz, S. Schröder, N. Soehendra, "In Vivo Endoscopic Optical Coherence Tomography of Esophagitis, Barrett's Esophagus, and Adenocarcinoma of the Esophagus," Endoscopy 32, 750-755 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sergeev, A.

S. Jäckle, N. Gladkova, F. Feldchtein, A. Terentieva, B. Brand, G. Gelikonov, V. Gelikonov, A. Sergeev, A. Fritscher-Ravens, J. Freund, U. Seitz, S. Schröder, N. Soehendra, "In Vivo Endoscopic Optical Coherence Tomography of Esophagitis, Barrett's Esophagus, and Adenocarcinoma of the Esophagus," Endoscopy 32, 750-755 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sergeev, A. M.

Shakhov, A. V.

Shakhova, N. M.

Sinson, W. G.

H. D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Sinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Siva Rama Krishna, K.

Sivak, M.

Snopova, L. B.

Soehendra, N.

S. Jäckle, N. Gladkova, F. Feldchtein, A. Terentieva, B. Brand, G. Gelikonov, V. Gelikonov, A. Sergeev, A. Fritscher-Ravens, J. Freund, U. Seitz, S. Schröder, N. Soehendra, "In Vivo Endoscopic Optical Coherence Tomography of Esophagitis, Barrett's Esophagus, and Adenocarcinoma of the Esophagus," Endoscopy 32, 750-755 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Southern, J. F.

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, J. G. Fujimoto, "In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography," Science 276, 2037-2039 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sticker, M.

F. Lexer, C. K. Hitzenberger, W. Drexler, S. Molebny, H. Sattmann, M. Sticker and A. F. Fercher, "Dynamic coherent focus OCT with depth-independent transversal resolution," J. of Mod. Opt. 46(3), 541-553 (1999).

Streltzova, O. S.

Swanson, E. A.

E. A. Swanson, J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, D. Huang, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "In vivo retinal imaging by optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 18,1864-1866 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Sinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tearney, G. J.

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, J. G. Fujimoto, "In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography," Science 276, 2037-2039 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Terentieva, A.

S. Jäckle, N. Gladkova, F. Feldchtein, A. Terentieva, B. Brand, G. Gelikonov, V. Gelikonov, A. Sergeev, A. Fritscher-Ravens, J. Freund, U. Seitz, S. Schröder, N. Soehendra, "In Vivo Endoscopic Optical Coherence Tomography of Esophagitis, Barrett's Esophagus, and Adenocarcinoma of the Esophagus," Endoscopy 32, 750-755 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thomson, J.

F. C. McNeillie, J. Thomson and I. S. Ruddock, "The imaging properties of gradient index optical fiber," Euro. J. Phys. 25, 479-487 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tran, P.

Ung-arunyawee, R.

Ungersma, S. E.

Wang, R.

Williams, M. E.

Wong, C.

Xie, H.

Xie, T.

Yung, K. M.

J. M. Schmit, S. L. Lee, K. M. Yung, "An optical coherence microscope with enhanced resolving power in thick tissue," Opt. Commun. 142, 203-207 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

Asheesh Divetia, Tsung-His Hsieh, Jun Zhang, Zhongping Chen, Mark Bachman, Guann-Pyng Li, "Dynamically focused optical coherence tomography for endoscopic applications, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 103902 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Circulation

E. Grube, U. Gerckens, L. Buellesfeld, and P. J. Fitzgerald, "Images in cardiovascular medicine. Intracoronary imaging with optical coherence tomography: a new high-resolution technology providing striking visualization in coronaty artery," Circulation 106, 2409-2410 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Endoscopy

S. Jäckle, N. Gladkova, F. Feldchtein, A. Terentieva, B. Brand, G. Gelikonov, V. Gelikonov, A. Sergeev, A. Fritscher-Ravens, J. Freund, U. Seitz, S. Schröder, N. Soehendra, "In Vivo Endoscopic Optical Coherence Tomography of Esophagitis, Barrett's Esophagus, and Adenocarcinoma of the Esophagus," Endoscopy 32, 750-755 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Euro. J. Phys.

F. C. McNeillie, J. Thomson and I. S. Ruddock, "The imaging properties of gradient index optical fiber," Euro. J. Phys. 25, 479-487 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. of Mod. Opt.

F. Lexer, C. K. Hitzenberger, W. Drexler, S. Molebny, H. Sattmann, M. Sticker and A. F. Fercher, "Dynamic coherent focus OCT with depth-independent transversal resolution," J. of Mod. Opt. 46(3), 541-553 (1999).

Opt. Commun.

J. M. Schmit, S. L. Lee, K. M. Yung, "An optical coherence microscope with enhanced resolving power in thick tissue," Opt. Commun. 142, 203-207 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Bing Qi, A. Phillip Himmer, L. Maggie Gordon, X. D. Victor Yang, L. David Dickensheets, I. Alex Vitkin, "Dynamic Focus control in high-speed optical coherence tomography based on a microelectromechanical mirror," Opt. Commun. 232, 123-128 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Science

H. D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Sinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, J. G. Fujimoto, "In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography," Science 276, 2037-2039 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

W. Drexler, U. Morgner, F. X. Kärtner, C. Pitris, S. A. Bopart, X. D. Li, E. P. Ippen, and Fujimoto, "In vivo ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 24, 1221-1223 (1999).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic diagram of a GRIN lens rod based dynamic focusing 2-D spectral domain optical coherence tomography system. PM: parabolic mirror; DG: diffractive grating; RSOD: rapid-scanning optical delay line for dispersion compensation.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Diagram of image formation by a GRIN lens rod (a), objective lens focusing and focus shift (b).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Relationship between the incident focus change d1 and illuminating focus change d2 in GRIN lens rod with the diameter of 2.7 mm and length of 127 mm.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Ex vivo OCT images of a normal fresh rabbit tracheal tissue obtained by the GRIN lens rod based dynamic focus endoscopic OCT at different focus plane of d2 = 1 mm (a), 4.5 mm (b) and 8.5 mm (c), respectively. The diameter of GRIN lens: 2.7 mm; Image size: 3 mm×2.8 mm.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

In-vivo OCT image of rabbit lung obtained by a side-view GRIN lens rod based dynamic focus endoscopic FDOCT system. The diameter of GRIN lens rod: 4.58 mm; Image size: 5 mm×2.8 mm.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

OCT image of resolution target of 100 line pairs/mm obtained by the GRIN lens rod based dynamic focus endoscopic OCT, the lateral resolution of 10 μm is maintained.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

d 2 = 1 n 0 A [ sin A L + n 0 A d 1 cos A L n 0 A d 1 sin A L cos A L ]
Φ 2 f NA GL
Δ r 2 λ 0 π NA GL

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