Abstract

A method for directly measuring water-leaving radiance using an above-water sensor with a domed cover painted flat black has been proposed. In order to confirm the validity of the result of this method, field experiments have been conducted in Katagami Bay. Radiances measured by this method are slightly less than those obtained from the vertical profile of the upwelling radiance in the sea. This can be attributed to self-shading due to the shape of the instrument used in this study. The advantages of the proposed method are that it does not require empirical processes and minimizes manual procedures after measurements.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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2004

A. Tanaka, M. Kishino, R. Doerffer, H. Schiller, T. Oishi, and T. Kubota, "Development of a neural network algorithm for retrieving concentrations of chlorophyll, suspended matter and yellow substance from radiance data of the ocean color and temperature scanner," J. Oceanogr. 60, 519-530 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Leathers, T. V. Downes, and C. D. Mobley, "Self-shading correction for oceanographic upwelling radiometers," Opt. Express 12, 4709-4718 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001

2000

1999

C. D. Mobley, "Estimation of the remote-sensing reflectance from above-surface measurements," Appl. Opt. 38, 7442-7455 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Carder, F. R. Chen, Z. P. Lee, S. K. Hawes, and D. Kamykowski, "Semianalytic moderate-resolution imaging spectrometer algorithms for chlorophyll a and absorption with bio-optical domains based on nitratedepletion temperature," J. Geophys. Res. 104, 5403-5421 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. Fougnie, R. Frouin, P. Lecomte, and P.-Y. Deschamps, "Reduction of skylight reflection effects in the abovewater measurement of diffuse marine reflectance," Appl. Opt. 38, 3844-3856 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

H. Fukushima, A. Higurashi, Y. Mitomi, T. Nakajima, T. Noguchi, T. Tanaka, and M. Toratani, "Correction of atmospheric effect on ADEOS/OCTS ocean color data: Algorithm description and evaluation of its performance," J. Oceanogr. 54, 417-430 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Kishino, T. Ishimaru, K. Furuya, T. Oishi, and K. Kawasaki, "In-water algorithms for ADEOS/OCTS," J. Oceanogr. 54, 431-436 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, and C. McClain, "Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS," J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24937-24953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

M. Kishino, J. Ishizaka, S. Saitoh, Y. Senga, and M. Utashima, "Verification plan of ocean color and temperature scanner atmospheric correction and phytoplankton pigment by moored optical buoy system," J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17197-17207 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Ishizaka, I. Asanuma, N. Ebuchi, H. Fukushima, H. Kawamura, K. Kawasaki, M. Kishino, M. Kubota, H. Masuko, S. Matsumura, S. Saitoh, Y. Senga, M. Shimanuki, N. Tomii, and M. Utashima, "Time series of physical and optical parameters off Shimane, Japan, during fall of 1993: First observation by moored optical buoy system for ADEOS data verification," J. Oceanogr. 53, 245-258 (1997).

1995

1993

K. L. Carder, P. Reinersman, R. F. Chen, F. Muller-Karger, C. O. Davis, and M. Hamilton, "AVIRIS calibration and application in coastal oceanic environments," Remote Sens. Environ. 44, 205-216 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992

H. R. Gordon and K. Ding, "Self-shading of in-water optical instruments," Limnol. Oceanogr. 37, 491-500 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1985

K. L. Carder, and R. G. Steward, "A remote-sensing reflectance model of a red tide dinoflagellate off West Florida," Limnol. Oceanogr. 30, 286-298 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1980

H. R. Gordon and D. K. Clark, "Atmospheric effects in the remote sensing of phytoplankton pigments," Boundary Layer Meteol. 18, 299-313 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1954

C. Cox, and W. Munk, "Measurement of the roughness of the sea surface from photographs of the sun’s glitter," J. Opt. Am. Soc. 44, 838-850 (1954).
[CrossRef]

Asanuma, I.

J. Ishizaka, I. Asanuma, N. Ebuchi, H. Fukushima, H. Kawamura, K. Kawasaki, M. Kishino, M. Kubota, H. Masuko, S. Matsumura, S. Saitoh, Y. Senga, M. Shimanuki, N. Tomii, and M. Utashima, "Time series of physical and optical parameters off Shimane, Japan, during fall of 1993: First observation by moored optical buoy system for ADEOS data verification," J. Oceanogr. 53, 245-258 (1997).

Carder, K. L.

K. L. Carder, F. R. Chen, Z. P. Lee, S. K. Hawes, and D. Kamykowski, "Semianalytic moderate-resolution imaging spectrometer algorithms for chlorophyll a and absorption with bio-optical domains based on nitratedepletion temperature," J. Geophys. Res. 104, 5403-5421 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, and C. McClain, "Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS," J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24937-24953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Carder, P. Reinersman, R. F. Chen, F. Muller-Karger, C. O. Davis, and M. Hamilton, "AVIRIS calibration and application in coastal oceanic environments," Remote Sens. Environ. 44, 205-216 (1993).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Carder, and R. G. Steward, "A remote-sensing reflectance model of a red tide dinoflagellate off West Florida," Limnol. Oceanogr. 30, 286-298 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Chen, F. R.

K. L. Carder, F. R. Chen, Z. P. Lee, S. K. Hawes, and D. Kamykowski, "Semianalytic moderate-resolution imaging spectrometer algorithms for chlorophyll a and absorption with bio-optical domains based on nitratedepletion temperature," J. Geophys. Res. 104, 5403-5421 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chen, R. F.

K. L. Carder, P. Reinersman, R. F. Chen, F. Muller-Karger, C. O. Davis, and M. Hamilton, "AVIRIS calibration and application in coastal oceanic environments," Remote Sens. Environ. 44, 205-216 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Clark, D. K.

H. R. Gordon and D. K. Clark, "Atmospheric effects in the remote sensing of phytoplankton pigments," Boundary Layer Meteol. 18, 299-313 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Cox, C.

C. Cox, and W. Munk, "Measurement of the roughness of the sea surface from photographs of the sun’s glitter," J. Opt. Am. Soc. 44, 838-850 (1954).
[CrossRef]

Davis, C. O.

K. L. Carder, P. Reinersman, R. F. Chen, F. Muller-Karger, C. O. Davis, and M. Hamilton, "AVIRIS calibration and application in coastal oceanic environments," Remote Sens. Environ. 44, 205-216 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Deschamps, P.-Y.

Ding, K.

H. R. Gordon and K. Ding, "Self-shading of in-water optical instruments," Limnol. Oceanogr. 37, 491-500 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Doerffer, R.

A. Tanaka, M. Kishino, R. Doerffer, H. Schiller, T. Oishi, and T. Kubota, "Development of a neural network algorithm for retrieving concentrations of chlorophyll, suspended matter and yellow substance from radiance data of the ocean color and temperature scanner," J. Oceanogr. 60, 519-530 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Downes, T. V.

Ebuchi, N.

J. Ishizaka, I. Asanuma, N. Ebuchi, H. Fukushima, H. Kawamura, K. Kawasaki, M. Kishino, M. Kubota, H. Masuko, S. Matsumura, S. Saitoh, Y. Senga, M. Shimanuki, N. Tomii, and M. Utashima, "Time series of physical and optical parameters off Shimane, Japan, during fall of 1993: First observation by moored optical buoy system for ADEOS data verification," J. Oceanogr. 53, 245-258 (1997).

Ferrari, G. M.

Fougnie, B.

Frouin, R.

Fukushima, H.

H. Fukushima, A. Higurashi, Y. Mitomi, T. Nakajima, T. Noguchi, T. Tanaka, and M. Toratani, "Correction of atmospheric effect on ADEOS/OCTS ocean color data: Algorithm description and evaluation of its performance," J. Oceanogr. 54, 417-430 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Ishizaka, I. Asanuma, N. Ebuchi, H. Fukushima, H. Kawamura, K. Kawasaki, M. Kishino, M. Kubota, H. Masuko, S. Matsumura, S. Saitoh, Y. Senga, M. Shimanuki, N. Tomii, and M. Utashima, "Time series of physical and optical parameters off Shimane, Japan, during fall of 1993: First observation by moored optical buoy system for ADEOS data verification," J. Oceanogr. 53, 245-258 (1997).

Furuya, K.

M. Kishino, T. Ishimaru, K. Furuya, T. Oishi, and K. Kawasaki, "In-water algorithms for ADEOS/OCTS," J. Oceanogr. 54, 431-436 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Garver, S. A.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, and C. McClain, "Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS," J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24937-24953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gordon, H. R.

H. R. Gordon and K. Ding, "Self-shading of in-water optical instruments," Limnol. Oceanogr. 37, 491-500 (1992).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon and D. K. Clark, "Atmospheric effects in the remote sensing of phytoplankton pigments," Boundary Layer Meteol. 18, 299-313 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Hamilton, M.

K. L. Carder, P. Reinersman, R. F. Chen, F. Muller-Karger, C. O. Davis, and M. Hamilton, "AVIRIS calibration and application in coastal oceanic environments," Remote Sens. Environ. 44, 205-216 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hawes, S. K.

K. L. Carder, F. R. Chen, Z. P. Lee, S. K. Hawes, and D. Kamykowski, "Semianalytic moderate-resolution imaging spectrometer algorithms for chlorophyll a and absorption with bio-optical domains based on nitratedepletion temperature," J. Geophys. Res. 104, 5403-5421 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Higurashi, A.

H. Fukushima, A. Higurashi, Y. Mitomi, T. Nakajima, T. Noguchi, T. Tanaka, and M. Toratani, "Correction of atmospheric effect on ADEOS/OCTS ocean color data: Algorithm description and evaluation of its performance," J. Oceanogr. 54, 417-430 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ishimaru, T.

M. Kishino, T. Ishimaru, K. Furuya, T. Oishi, and K. Kawasaki, "In-water algorithms for ADEOS/OCTS," J. Oceanogr. 54, 431-436 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ishizaka, J.

J. Ishizaka, I. Asanuma, N. Ebuchi, H. Fukushima, H. Kawamura, K. Kawasaki, M. Kishino, M. Kubota, H. Masuko, S. Matsumura, S. Saitoh, Y. Senga, M. Shimanuki, N. Tomii, and M. Utashima, "Time series of physical and optical parameters off Shimane, Japan, during fall of 1993: First observation by moored optical buoy system for ADEOS data verification," J. Oceanogr. 53, 245-258 (1997).

M. Kishino, J. Ishizaka, S. Saitoh, Y. Senga, and M. Utashima, "Verification plan of ocean color and temperature scanner atmospheric correction and phytoplankton pigment by moored optical buoy system," J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17197-17207 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kahru, M.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, and C. McClain, "Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS," J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24937-24953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kamykowski, D.

K. L. Carder, F. R. Chen, Z. P. Lee, S. K. Hawes, and D. Kamykowski, "Semianalytic moderate-resolution imaging spectrometer algorithms for chlorophyll a and absorption with bio-optical domains based on nitratedepletion temperature," J. Geophys. Res. 104, 5403-5421 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kawamura, H.

J. Ishizaka, I. Asanuma, N. Ebuchi, H. Fukushima, H. Kawamura, K. Kawasaki, M. Kishino, M. Kubota, H. Masuko, S. Matsumura, S. Saitoh, Y. Senga, M. Shimanuki, N. Tomii, and M. Utashima, "Time series of physical and optical parameters off Shimane, Japan, during fall of 1993: First observation by moored optical buoy system for ADEOS data verification," J. Oceanogr. 53, 245-258 (1997).

Kawasaki, K.

M. Kishino, T. Ishimaru, K. Furuya, T. Oishi, and K. Kawasaki, "In-water algorithms for ADEOS/OCTS," J. Oceanogr. 54, 431-436 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Ishizaka, I. Asanuma, N. Ebuchi, H. Fukushima, H. Kawamura, K. Kawasaki, M. Kishino, M. Kubota, H. Masuko, S. Matsumura, S. Saitoh, Y. Senga, M. Shimanuki, N. Tomii, and M. Utashima, "Time series of physical and optical parameters off Shimane, Japan, during fall of 1993: First observation by moored optical buoy system for ADEOS data verification," J. Oceanogr. 53, 245-258 (1997).

Kim, H.-C.

S.-J. Yoo, J.-S. Park, and H.-C. Kim, "Validation of ocean color algorithm in the Ulleung Basin, East/Japan Sea," J. Koea Soc. Remote Sens. 16, 315-325 (2000).

Kishino, M.

A. Tanaka, M. Kishino, R. Doerffer, H. Schiller, T. Oishi, and T. Kubota, "Development of a neural network algorithm for retrieving concentrations of chlorophyll, suspended matter and yellow substance from radiance data of the ocean color and temperature scanner," J. Oceanogr. 60, 519-530 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Kishino, T. Ishimaru, K. Furuya, T. Oishi, and K. Kawasaki, "In-water algorithms for ADEOS/OCTS," J. Oceanogr. 54, 431-436 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Ishizaka, I. Asanuma, N. Ebuchi, H. Fukushima, H. Kawamura, K. Kawasaki, M. Kishino, M. Kubota, H. Masuko, S. Matsumura, S. Saitoh, Y. Senga, M. Shimanuki, N. Tomii, and M. Utashima, "Time series of physical and optical parameters off Shimane, Japan, during fall of 1993: First observation by moored optical buoy system for ADEOS data verification," J. Oceanogr. 53, 245-258 (1997).

M. Kishino, J. Ishizaka, S. Saitoh, Y. Senga, and M. Utashima, "Verification plan of ocean color and temperature scanner atmospheric correction and phytoplankton pigment by moored optical buoy system," J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17197-17207 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kubota, M.

J. Ishizaka, I. Asanuma, N. Ebuchi, H. Fukushima, H. Kawamura, K. Kawasaki, M. Kishino, M. Kubota, H. Masuko, S. Matsumura, S. Saitoh, Y. Senga, M. Shimanuki, N. Tomii, and M. Utashima, "Time series of physical and optical parameters off Shimane, Japan, during fall of 1993: First observation by moored optical buoy system for ADEOS data verification," J. Oceanogr. 53, 245-258 (1997).

Kubota, T.

A. Tanaka, M. Kishino, R. Doerffer, H. Schiller, T. Oishi, and T. Kubota, "Development of a neural network algorithm for retrieving concentrations of chlorophyll, suspended matter and yellow substance from radiance data of the ocean color and temperature scanner," J. Oceanogr. 60, 519-530 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Leathers, R. A.

Lecomte, P.

Lee, Z. P.

K. L. Carder, F. R. Chen, Z. P. Lee, S. K. Hawes, and D. Kamykowski, "Semianalytic moderate-resolution imaging spectrometer algorithms for chlorophyll a and absorption with bio-optical domains based on nitratedepletion temperature," J. Geophys. Res. 104, 5403-5421 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Maritorena, S.

D. A. Siegel, M. Wang, S. Maritorena, and W. Robinson, "Atmospheric correction of satellite ocean color imagery: the black pixel assumption," Appl. Opt. 39, 3582-3591 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, and C. McClain, "Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS," J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24937-24953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Masuko, H.

J. Ishizaka, I. Asanuma, N. Ebuchi, H. Fukushima, H. Kawamura, K. Kawasaki, M. Kishino, M. Kubota, H. Masuko, S. Matsumura, S. Saitoh, Y. Senga, M. Shimanuki, N. Tomii, and M. Utashima, "Time series of physical and optical parameters off Shimane, Japan, during fall of 1993: First observation by moored optical buoy system for ADEOS data verification," J. Oceanogr. 53, 245-258 (1997).

Matsumura, S.

J. Ishizaka, I. Asanuma, N. Ebuchi, H. Fukushima, H. Kawamura, K. Kawasaki, M. Kishino, M. Kubota, H. Masuko, S. Matsumura, S. Saitoh, Y. Senga, M. Shimanuki, N. Tomii, and M. Utashima, "Time series of physical and optical parameters off Shimane, Japan, during fall of 1993: First observation by moored optical buoy system for ADEOS data verification," J. Oceanogr. 53, 245-258 (1997).

McClain, C.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, and C. McClain, "Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS," J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24937-24953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mitchell, B. G.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, and C. McClain, "Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS," J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24937-24953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mitomi, Y.

H. Fukushima, A. Higurashi, Y. Mitomi, T. Nakajima, T. Noguchi, T. Tanaka, and M. Toratani, "Correction of atmospheric effect on ADEOS/OCTS ocean color data: Algorithm description and evaluation of its performance," J. Oceanogr. 54, 417-430 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mobley, C. D.

Muller-Karger, F.

K. L. Carder, P. Reinersman, R. F. Chen, F. Muller-Karger, C. O. Davis, and M. Hamilton, "AVIRIS calibration and application in coastal oceanic environments," Remote Sens. Environ. 44, 205-216 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Munk, W.

C. Cox, and W. Munk, "Measurement of the roughness of the sea surface from photographs of the sun’s glitter," J. Opt. Am. Soc. 44, 838-850 (1954).
[CrossRef]

Nakajima, T.

H. Fukushima, A. Higurashi, Y. Mitomi, T. Nakajima, T. Noguchi, T. Tanaka, and M. Toratani, "Correction of atmospheric effect on ADEOS/OCTS ocean color data: Algorithm description and evaluation of its performance," J. Oceanogr. 54, 417-430 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Noguchi, T.

H. Fukushima, A. Higurashi, Y. Mitomi, T. Nakajima, T. Noguchi, T. Tanaka, and M. Toratani, "Correction of atmospheric effect on ADEOS/OCTS ocean color data: Algorithm description and evaluation of its performance," J. Oceanogr. 54, 417-430 (1998).
[CrossRef]

O’Reilly, J. E.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, and C. McClain, "Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS," J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24937-24953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Oishi, T.

A. Tanaka, M. Kishino, R. Doerffer, H. Schiller, T. Oishi, and T. Kubota, "Development of a neural network algorithm for retrieving concentrations of chlorophyll, suspended matter and yellow substance from radiance data of the ocean color and temperature scanner," J. Oceanogr. 60, 519-530 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Kishino, T. Ishimaru, K. Furuya, T. Oishi, and K. Kawasaki, "In-water algorithms for ADEOS/OCTS," J. Oceanogr. 54, 431-436 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Park, J.-S.

S.-J. Yoo, J.-S. Park, and H.-C. Kim, "Validation of ocean color algorithm in the Ulleung Basin, East/Japan Sea," J. Koea Soc. Remote Sens. 16, 315-325 (2000).

Piskozub, J.

Reinersman, P.

K. L. Carder, P. Reinersman, R. F. Chen, F. Muller-Karger, C. O. Davis, and M. Hamilton, "AVIRIS calibration and application in coastal oceanic environments," Remote Sens. Environ. 44, 205-216 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Robinson, I. S.

Robinson, W.

Saitoh, S.

M. Kishino, J. Ishizaka, S. Saitoh, Y. Senga, and M. Utashima, "Verification plan of ocean color and temperature scanner atmospheric correction and phytoplankton pigment by moored optical buoy system," J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17197-17207 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Ishizaka, I. Asanuma, N. Ebuchi, H. Fukushima, H. Kawamura, K. Kawasaki, M. Kishino, M. Kubota, H. Masuko, S. Matsumura, S. Saitoh, Y. Senga, M. Shimanuki, N. Tomii, and M. Utashima, "Time series of physical and optical parameters off Shimane, Japan, during fall of 1993: First observation by moored optical buoy system for ADEOS data verification," J. Oceanogr. 53, 245-258 (1997).

Schiller, H.

A. Tanaka, M. Kishino, R. Doerffer, H. Schiller, T. Oishi, and T. Kubota, "Development of a neural network algorithm for retrieving concentrations of chlorophyll, suspended matter and yellow substance from radiance data of the ocean color and temperature scanner," J. Oceanogr. 60, 519-530 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Schwarz, J. N.

Senga, Y.

J. Ishizaka, I. Asanuma, N. Ebuchi, H. Fukushima, H. Kawamura, K. Kawasaki, M. Kishino, M. Kubota, H. Masuko, S. Matsumura, S. Saitoh, Y. Senga, M. Shimanuki, N. Tomii, and M. Utashima, "Time series of physical and optical parameters off Shimane, Japan, during fall of 1993: First observation by moored optical buoy system for ADEOS data verification," J. Oceanogr. 53, 245-258 (1997).

M. Kishino, J. Ishizaka, S. Saitoh, Y. Senga, and M. Utashima, "Verification plan of ocean color and temperature scanner atmospheric correction and phytoplankton pigment by moored optical buoy system," J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17197-17207 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Shimanuki, M.

J. Ishizaka, I. Asanuma, N. Ebuchi, H. Fukushima, H. Kawamura, K. Kawasaki, M. Kishino, M. Kubota, H. Masuko, S. Matsumura, S. Saitoh, Y. Senga, M. Shimanuki, N. Tomii, and M. Utashima, "Time series of physical and optical parameters off Shimane, Japan, during fall of 1993: First observation by moored optical buoy system for ADEOS data verification," J. Oceanogr. 53, 245-258 (1997).

Siegel, D. A.

D. A. Siegel, M. Wang, S. Maritorena, and W. Robinson, "Atmospheric correction of satellite ocean color imagery: the black pixel assumption," Appl. Opt. 39, 3582-3591 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, and C. McClain, "Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS," J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24937-24953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Steward, R. G.

K. L. Carder, and R. G. Steward, "A remote-sensing reflectance model of a red tide dinoflagellate off West Florida," Limnol. Oceanogr. 30, 286-298 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, A.

A. Tanaka, M. Kishino, R. Doerffer, H. Schiller, T. Oishi, and T. Kubota, "Development of a neural network algorithm for retrieving concentrations of chlorophyll, suspended matter and yellow substance from radiance data of the ocean color and temperature scanner," J. Oceanogr. 60, 519-530 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, T.

H. Fukushima, A. Higurashi, Y. Mitomi, T. Nakajima, T. Noguchi, T. Tanaka, and M. Toratani, "Correction of atmospheric effect on ADEOS/OCTS ocean color data: Algorithm description and evaluation of its performance," J. Oceanogr. 54, 417-430 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tomii, N.

J. Ishizaka, I. Asanuma, N. Ebuchi, H. Fukushima, H. Kawamura, K. Kawasaki, M. Kishino, M. Kubota, H. Masuko, S. Matsumura, S. Saitoh, Y. Senga, M. Shimanuki, N. Tomii, and M. Utashima, "Time series of physical and optical parameters off Shimane, Japan, during fall of 1993: First observation by moored optical buoy system for ADEOS data verification," J. Oceanogr. 53, 245-258 (1997).

Toratani, M.

H. Fukushima, A. Higurashi, Y. Mitomi, T. Nakajima, T. Noguchi, T. Tanaka, and M. Toratani, "Correction of atmospheric effect on ADEOS/OCTS ocean color data: Algorithm description and evaluation of its performance," J. Oceanogr. 54, 417-430 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Utashima, M.

M. Kishino, J. Ishizaka, S. Saitoh, Y. Senga, and M. Utashima, "Verification plan of ocean color and temperature scanner atmospheric correction and phytoplankton pigment by moored optical buoy system," J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17197-17207 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Ishizaka, I. Asanuma, N. Ebuchi, H. Fukushima, H. Kawamura, K. Kawasaki, M. Kishino, M. Kubota, H. Masuko, S. Matsumura, S. Saitoh, Y. Senga, M. Shimanuki, N. Tomii, and M. Utashima, "Time series of physical and optical parameters off Shimane, Japan, during fall of 1993: First observation by moored optical buoy system for ADEOS data verification," J. Oceanogr. 53, 245-258 (1997).

Wang, M.

Weeks, A. R.

Yoo, S.-J.

S.-J. Yoo, J.-S. Park, and H.-C. Kim, "Validation of ocean color algorithm in the Ulleung Basin, East/Japan Sea," J. Koea Soc. Remote Sens. 16, 315-325 (2000).

Zibordi, G.

Appl. Opt.

Boundary Layer Meteol.

H. R. Gordon and D. K. Clark, "Atmospheric effects in the remote sensing of phytoplankton pigments," Boundary Layer Meteol. 18, 299-313 (1980).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res.

M. Kishino, J. Ishizaka, S. Saitoh, Y. Senga, and M. Utashima, "Verification plan of ocean color and temperature scanner atmospheric correction and phytoplankton pigment by moored optical buoy system," J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17197-17207 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, and C. McClain, "Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS," J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24937-24953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Carder, F. R. Chen, Z. P. Lee, S. K. Hawes, and D. Kamykowski, "Semianalytic moderate-resolution imaging spectrometer algorithms for chlorophyll a and absorption with bio-optical domains based on nitratedepletion temperature," J. Geophys. Res. 104, 5403-5421 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Koea Soc. Remote Sens.

S.-J. Yoo, J.-S. Park, and H.-C. Kim, "Validation of ocean color algorithm in the Ulleung Basin, East/Japan Sea," J. Koea Soc. Remote Sens. 16, 315-325 (2000).

J. Oceanogr.

A. Tanaka, M. Kishino, R. Doerffer, H. Schiller, T. Oishi, and T. Kubota, "Development of a neural network algorithm for retrieving concentrations of chlorophyll, suspended matter and yellow substance from radiance data of the ocean color and temperature scanner," J. Oceanogr. 60, 519-530 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Ishizaka, I. Asanuma, N. Ebuchi, H. Fukushima, H. Kawamura, K. Kawasaki, M. Kishino, M. Kubota, H. Masuko, S. Matsumura, S. Saitoh, Y. Senga, M. Shimanuki, N. Tomii, and M. Utashima, "Time series of physical and optical parameters off Shimane, Japan, during fall of 1993: First observation by moored optical buoy system for ADEOS data verification," J. Oceanogr. 53, 245-258 (1997).

H. Fukushima, A. Higurashi, Y. Mitomi, T. Nakajima, T. Noguchi, T. Tanaka, and M. Toratani, "Correction of atmospheric effect on ADEOS/OCTS ocean color data: Algorithm description and evaluation of its performance," J. Oceanogr. 54, 417-430 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Kishino, T. Ishimaru, K. Furuya, T. Oishi, and K. Kawasaki, "In-water algorithms for ADEOS/OCTS," J. Oceanogr. 54, 431-436 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Am. Soc.

C. Cox, and W. Munk, "Measurement of the roughness of the sea surface from photographs of the sun’s glitter," J. Opt. Am. Soc. 44, 838-850 (1954).
[CrossRef]

Limnol. Oceanogr.

K. L. Carder, and R. G. Steward, "A remote-sensing reflectance model of a red tide dinoflagellate off West Florida," Limnol. Oceanogr. 30, 286-298 (1985).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon and K. Ding, "Self-shading of in-water optical instruments," Limnol. Oceanogr. 37, 491-500 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Remote Sens. Environ.

K. L. Carder, P. Reinersman, R. F. Chen, F. Muller-Karger, C. O. Davis, and M. Hamilton, "AVIRIS calibration and application in coastal oceanic environments," Remote Sens. Environ. 44, 205-216 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Other

H. R. Gordon, R. W. Austin, D. K. Clark, W. A. Hobis, and C. S. Yentsch, "Ocean color measurements," in Satellite Oceanic Remote Sensing, B. Saltzman, ed. (Academic Press, San Diego, Calif., 1985), pp. 297-333.

C. D. Mobley, Light and Water: Radiative Transfer in Natural Waters (Academic Press, San Diego, 1994).

D. K. Clark, M. Feinholz, M. Yarbrough, B. C. Johnson, S. W. Brown, Y. S. Kim, and R. A. Barnes, "Overview of the radiometric calibration of MOBY," in Earth Observing System VI W. L. Barnes, ed., Proc. SPIE 4483, 64-76 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, R. G. Steward, T. G. Peacock, C. O. Davis, and J. L. Mueller, "Remote sensing reflectance and inherent optical properties of oceanic waters derived from above-water measurements," in Ocean Optics XIII, S. G. Ackleson and R. J. Frouin, eds., Proc. SPIE2963, 160-166 (1996).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic diagram of the proposed domed-cover method.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Location of stations for field experiments in Katagami Bay.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

L w spectra obtained by the domed-cover method (line) and from the L u profile (diamond).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Comparison of L w based on the wavelengths of PRR-800 bands. The solid line and the single dotted line represent the liner regression line and the one-to-one correspondance line, respectively.

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