Abstract

We present a systematic process of theoretical design and experimental fabrication of the large mode area and large negative dispersion photonic crystal fiber. An easily fabricated fiber structure is proposed. The influence of structure parameters deviations from the design on the chromatic dispersion are evaluated and a design rule is given. Finally our fabricated fiber and test results are demonstrated. The measured effective area of inner core mode is 40.7 μm2 which is the largest effective area of high negative dispersion photonic crystal fibers that have been experimentally fabricated. The measured peak dispersion is -666.2ps/(nm.km) and the bandwidth is 40nm.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  1. K. Thyagarajan, R. K. Varshney, P. Palai, A. K. Ghatak, and I. C. Goyal, "A novel design of a dispersion compensating fiber," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 8, 1510-1512 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  2. L. Gruner-Nielsen,S.N. Knudsen, B. Edvold,T. Veng,D. Magnussen,C.C. Larsen,and H. Damsgaard, "Dispersion compensating fibres," Opt. Fiber Technol. 6, 164-180 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J.L. Auguste, J.M. Blondy, J. Maury, J. Marcou, B. Dussardier, G. Monnom, R. Jindal, K. Thyagarajan, and B.P. Pal, "Conception, Realization, and Characterization of a Very High Negative Chromatic Dispersion Fiber, " Opt. Fiber Technol. 8, 89-105 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  4. L. Grüner-Nielsen,M. Wandel,P. Kristensen,C. Jørgensen,L.V. Jørgensen,B. Edvold,B. Pálsdóttir and D. Jakobsen, "Dispersion-Compensating Fibers," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 3566-3579 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J.C. Knight,T.A. Birks,P.St.J. Russell and D.M. Atkin, "All-silica single-mode optical fiber with photonic crystal cladding," Opt. Lett. 21,1547-1549 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. F. Gerome, J.-L. Auguste, and J.-M. Blondy, "Design of dispersion-compensating fibers based on a dual-concentric-core photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Lett. 29, 2725-2727 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. Y. Ni, L. An, J. Peng, and C. Fan, "Dual-core photonic crystal fiber for dispersion compensation," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 1516-1518 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  8. B. Zsigri,J. Laegsgaard and A. Bjarklev, "A novel photonic crystal fibre design for dispersion compensation," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 6, 717-720 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  9. A. Huttunen and P. Torma, " Optimization of dual-core and microstructure fiber geometries for dispersion compensation and large mode area," Opt. Express 13, 627-635 (2004), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-2-627.
    [CrossRef]
  10. B.J. Mangan,F. Couny,L. Farr,A. Langford,P.J. Roberts,D.P. Williams,M. Banham,M.W. Mason,D.F. Murphy,E.A.M. Brown,H. Sabert,T.A. Birks,J.C. Knight and P.St.J. Russell, "Slope-matched dispersion-compensating photonic crystal fibre, " Lasers and Electro-Optics, 2004. (CLEO). (Conference on Volume 2, 16-21 May 2004), pp.1069 - 1070.
  11. Yejin Zhang, Sigang Yang, Xiaozhou Peng, Yang Lu, Xiangfei Chen and Shizhong Xie, "Design of large effective area microstructured optical fiber for dispersion compensation," In Optics and Optoelectronics, Proc. SPIE 5950,43 (2005).
  12. J.C. Knight,T.A. Birks,R.F. Cregan,P.St.J. Russell and J.-P. de Sandro, "Large mode area photonic crystal fibre," Electron. Lett. 34, 1347-1348 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  13. M.D. Nielsen,J.R. Folkenberg and N.A. Mortensen, "Singlemode photonic crystal fibre with effective area of 600 μm2 and low bending loss," Electron. Lett. 39, 1802-1803 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  14. Martin Dybendal Nielsen,Anders Petersson,Christian Jacobsen,Harald R. Simonsen,Guillaume Vienne,Anders and Bjarklev, "All-silica photonic crystal fiber with large mode area," 28th European Conference on Optical Communication ECOC'02 (Copenhagen, Denmark, 2002).
  15. Zhaoming Zhu and Thomas G. Brown," Full-vectorial finite-difference analysis of microstructured optical fibers," Opt. Express 10, 853-864 (2002), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-10-17-853.
    [PubMed]
  16. Shangpin Guo, Feng Wu, Sacharia Albin, "Loss and dispersion analysis of microstructured fibers by finite-difference method," Opt. Express 12, 3341-3352 (2004), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-15-3341.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. GovindP. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics (Academic, New York, 2001).
  18. Niels Asger Mortensen, "Effective area of photonic crystal fibers," Opt. Express 10, 341-348 (2002), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-10-7-341.
    [PubMed]

2005 (2)

L. Grüner-Nielsen,M. Wandel,P. Kristensen,C. Jørgensen,L.V. Jørgensen,B. Edvold,B. Pálsdóttir and D. Jakobsen, "Dispersion-Compensating Fibers," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 3566-3579 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yejin Zhang, Sigang Yang, Xiaozhou Peng, Yang Lu, Xiangfei Chen and Shizhong Xie, "Design of large effective area microstructured optical fiber for dispersion compensation," In Optics and Optoelectronics, Proc. SPIE 5950,43 (2005).

2004 (5)

2003 (1)

M.D. Nielsen,J.R. Folkenberg and N.A. Mortensen, "Singlemode photonic crystal fibre with effective area of 600 μm2 and low bending loss," Electron. Lett. 39, 1802-1803 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (3)

Niels Asger Mortensen, "Effective area of photonic crystal fibers," Opt. Express 10, 341-348 (2002), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-10-7-341.
[PubMed]

Zhaoming Zhu and Thomas G. Brown," Full-vectorial finite-difference analysis of microstructured optical fibers," Opt. Express 10, 853-864 (2002), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-10-17-853.
[PubMed]

J.L. Auguste, J.M. Blondy, J. Maury, J. Marcou, B. Dussardier, G. Monnom, R. Jindal, K. Thyagarajan, and B.P. Pal, "Conception, Realization, and Characterization of a Very High Negative Chromatic Dispersion Fiber, " Opt. Fiber Technol. 8, 89-105 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

L. Gruner-Nielsen,S.N. Knudsen, B. Edvold,T. Veng,D. Magnussen,C.C. Larsen,and H. Damsgaard, "Dispersion compensating fibres," Opt. Fiber Technol. 6, 164-180 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

K. Thyagarajan, R. K. Varshney, P. Palai, A. K. Ghatak, and I. C. Goyal, "A novel design of a dispersion compensating fiber," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 8, 1510-1512 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J.C. Knight,T.A. Birks,P.St.J. Russell and D.M. Atkin, "All-silica single-mode optical fiber with photonic crystal cladding," Opt. Lett. 21,1547-1549 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

An, L.

Y. Ni, L. An, J. Peng, and C. Fan, "Dual-core photonic crystal fiber for dispersion compensation," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 1516-1518 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Atkin, D.M.

Auguste, J.L.

J.L. Auguste, J.M. Blondy, J. Maury, J. Marcou, B. Dussardier, G. Monnom, R. Jindal, K. Thyagarajan, and B.P. Pal, "Conception, Realization, and Characterization of a Very High Negative Chromatic Dispersion Fiber, " Opt. Fiber Technol. 8, 89-105 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Auguste, J.-L.

Birks, T.A.

Bjarklev, A.

B. Zsigri,J. Laegsgaard and A. Bjarklev, "A novel photonic crystal fibre design for dispersion compensation," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 6, 717-720 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Blondy, J.M.

J.L. Auguste, J.M. Blondy, J. Maury, J. Marcou, B. Dussardier, G. Monnom, R. Jindal, K. Thyagarajan, and B.P. Pal, "Conception, Realization, and Characterization of a Very High Negative Chromatic Dispersion Fiber, " Opt. Fiber Technol. 8, 89-105 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Blondy, J.-M.

Damsgaard, H.

L. Gruner-Nielsen,S.N. Knudsen, B. Edvold,T. Veng,D. Magnussen,C.C. Larsen,and H. Damsgaard, "Dispersion compensating fibres," Opt. Fiber Technol. 6, 164-180 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Dussardier, B.

J.L. Auguste, J.M. Blondy, J. Maury, J. Marcou, B. Dussardier, G. Monnom, R. Jindal, K. Thyagarajan, and B.P. Pal, "Conception, Realization, and Characterization of a Very High Negative Chromatic Dispersion Fiber, " Opt. Fiber Technol. 8, 89-105 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Edvold, B.

L. Grüner-Nielsen,M. Wandel,P. Kristensen,C. Jørgensen,L.V. Jørgensen,B. Edvold,B. Pálsdóttir and D. Jakobsen, "Dispersion-Compensating Fibers," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 3566-3579 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. Gruner-Nielsen,S.N. Knudsen, B. Edvold,T. Veng,D. Magnussen,C.C. Larsen,and H. Damsgaard, "Dispersion compensating fibres," Opt. Fiber Technol. 6, 164-180 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Fan, C.

Y. Ni, L. An, J. Peng, and C. Fan, "Dual-core photonic crystal fiber for dispersion compensation," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 1516-1518 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Folkenberg, J.R.

M.D. Nielsen,J.R. Folkenberg and N.A. Mortensen, "Singlemode photonic crystal fibre with effective area of 600 μm2 and low bending loss," Electron. Lett. 39, 1802-1803 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gerome, F.

Ghatak, A. K.

K. Thyagarajan, R. K. Varshney, P. Palai, A. K. Ghatak, and I. C. Goyal, "A novel design of a dispersion compensating fiber," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 8, 1510-1512 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Goyal, I. C.

K. Thyagarajan, R. K. Varshney, P. Palai, A. K. Ghatak, and I. C. Goyal, "A novel design of a dispersion compensating fiber," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 8, 1510-1512 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Gruner-Nielsen, L.

L. Gruner-Nielsen,S.N. Knudsen, B. Edvold,T. Veng,D. Magnussen,C.C. Larsen,and H. Damsgaard, "Dispersion compensating fibres," Opt. Fiber Technol. 6, 164-180 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Grüner-Nielsen, L.

L. Grüner-Nielsen,M. Wandel,P. Kristensen,C. Jørgensen,L.V. Jørgensen,B. Edvold,B. Pálsdóttir and D. Jakobsen, "Dispersion-Compensating Fibers," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 3566-3579 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Huttunen, A.

Jakobsen, D.

L. Grüner-Nielsen,M. Wandel,P. Kristensen,C. Jørgensen,L.V. Jørgensen,B. Edvold,B. Pálsdóttir and D. Jakobsen, "Dispersion-Compensating Fibers," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 3566-3579 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jindal, R.

J.L. Auguste, J.M. Blondy, J. Maury, J. Marcou, B. Dussardier, G. Monnom, R. Jindal, K. Thyagarajan, and B.P. Pal, "Conception, Realization, and Characterization of a Very High Negative Chromatic Dispersion Fiber, " Opt. Fiber Technol. 8, 89-105 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Jørgensen, C.

L. Grüner-Nielsen,M. Wandel,P. Kristensen,C. Jørgensen,L.V. Jørgensen,B. Edvold,B. Pálsdóttir and D. Jakobsen, "Dispersion-Compensating Fibers," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 3566-3579 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jørgensen, L.V.

L. Grüner-Nielsen,M. Wandel,P. Kristensen,C. Jørgensen,L.V. Jørgensen,B. Edvold,B. Pálsdóttir and D. Jakobsen, "Dispersion-Compensating Fibers," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 3566-3579 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Knight, J.C.

Knudsen, S.N.

L. Gruner-Nielsen,S.N. Knudsen, B. Edvold,T. Veng,D. Magnussen,C.C. Larsen,and H. Damsgaard, "Dispersion compensating fibres," Opt. Fiber Technol. 6, 164-180 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kristensen, P.

L. Grüner-Nielsen,M. Wandel,P. Kristensen,C. Jørgensen,L.V. Jørgensen,B. Edvold,B. Pálsdóttir and D. Jakobsen, "Dispersion-Compensating Fibers," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 3566-3579 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Laegsgaard, J.

B. Zsigri,J. Laegsgaard and A. Bjarklev, "A novel photonic crystal fibre design for dispersion compensation," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 6, 717-720 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Larsen, C.C.

L. Gruner-Nielsen,S.N. Knudsen, B. Edvold,T. Veng,D. Magnussen,C.C. Larsen,and H. Damsgaard, "Dispersion compensating fibres," Opt. Fiber Technol. 6, 164-180 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Magnussen, D.

L. Gruner-Nielsen,S.N. Knudsen, B. Edvold,T. Veng,D. Magnussen,C.C. Larsen,and H. Damsgaard, "Dispersion compensating fibres," Opt. Fiber Technol. 6, 164-180 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Marcou, J.

J.L. Auguste, J.M. Blondy, J. Maury, J. Marcou, B. Dussardier, G. Monnom, R. Jindal, K. Thyagarajan, and B.P. Pal, "Conception, Realization, and Characterization of a Very High Negative Chromatic Dispersion Fiber, " Opt. Fiber Technol. 8, 89-105 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Maury, J.

J.L. Auguste, J.M. Blondy, J. Maury, J. Marcou, B. Dussardier, G. Monnom, R. Jindal, K. Thyagarajan, and B.P. Pal, "Conception, Realization, and Characterization of a Very High Negative Chromatic Dispersion Fiber, " Opt. Fiber Technol. 8, 89-105 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Monnom, G.

J.L. Auguste, J.M. Blondy, J. Maury, J. Marcou, B. Dussardier, G. Monnom, R. Jindal, K. Thyagarajan, and B.P. Pal, "Conception, Realization, and Characterization of a Very High Negative Chromatic Dispersion Fiber, " Opt. Fiber Technol. 8, 89-105 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mortensen, N.A.

M.D. Nielsen,J.R. Folkenberg and N.A. Mortensen, "Singlemode photonic crystal fibre with effective area of 600 μm2 and low bending loss," Electron. Lett. 39, 1802-1803 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ni, Y.

Y. Ni, L. An, J. Peng, and C. Fan, "Dual-core photonic crystal fiber for dispersion compensation," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 1516-1518 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nielsen, M.D.

M.D. Nielsen,J.R. Folkenberg and N.A. Mortensen, "Singlemode photonic crystal fibre with effective area of 600 μm2 and low bending loss," Electron. Lett. 39, 1802-1803 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Pal, B.P.

J.L. Auguste, J.M. Blondy, J. Maury, J. Marcou, B. Dussardier, G. Monnom, R. Jindal, K. Thyagarajan, and B.P. Pal, "Conception, Realization, and Characterization of a Very High Negative Chromatic Dispersion Fiber, " Opt. Fiber Technol. 8, 89-105 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Palai, P.

K. Thyagarajan, R. K. Varshney, P. Palai, A. K. Ghatak, and I. C. Goyal, "A novel design of a dispersion compensating fiber," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 8, 1510-1512 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Pálsdóttir, B.

L. Grüner-Nielsen,M. Wandel,P. Kristensen,C. Jørgensen,L.V. Jørgensen,B. Edvold,B. Pálsdóttir and D. Jakobsen, "Dispersion-Compensating Fibers," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 3566-3579 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Peng, J.

Y. Ni, L. An, J. Peng, and C. Fan, "Dual-core photonic crystal fiber for dispersion compensation," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 1516-1518 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Russell, P.St.J.

Thyagarajan, K.

J.L. Auguste, J.M. Blondy, J. Maury, J. Marcou, B. Dussardier, G. Monnom, R. Jindal, K. Thyagarajan, and B.P. Pal, "Conception, Realization, and Characterization of a Very High Negative Chromatic Dispersion Fiber, " Opt. Fiber Technol. 8, 89-105 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. Thyagarajan, R. K. Varshney, P. Palai, A. K. Ghatak, and I. C. Goyal, "A novel design of a dispersion compensating fiber," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 8, 1510-1512 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Torma, P.

Varshney, R. K.

K. Thyagarajan, R. K. Varshney, P. Palai, A. K. Ghatak, and I. C. Goyal, "A novel design of a dispersion compensating fiber," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 8, 1510-1512 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Veng, T.

L. Gruner-Nielsen,S.N. Knudsen, B. Edvold,T. Veng,D. Magnussen,C.C. Larsen,and H. Damsgaard, "Dispersion compensating fibres," Opt. Fiber Technol. 6, 164-180 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wandel, M.

L. Grüner-Nielsen,M. Wandel,P. Kristensen,C. Jørgensen,L.V. Jørgensen,B. Edvold,B. Pálsdóttir and D. Jakobsen, "Dispersion-Compensating Fibers," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 3566-3579 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zsigri, B.

B. Zsigri,J. Laegsgaard and A. Bjarklev, "A novel photonic crystal fibre design for dispersion compensation," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 6, 717-720 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

M.D. Nielsen,J.R. Folkenberg and N.A. Mortensen, "Singlemode photonic crystal fibre with effective area of 600 μm2 and low bending loss," Electron. Lett. 39, 1802-1803 (2003).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

L. Grüner-Nielsen,M. Wandel,P. Kristensen,C. Jørgensen,L.V. Jørgensen,B. Edvold,B. Pálsdóttir and D. Jakobsen, "Dispersion-Compensating Fibers," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 3566-3579 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (2)

K. Thyagarajan, R. K. Varshney, P. Palai, A. K. Ghatak, and I. C. Goyal, "A novel design of a dispersion compensating fiber," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 8, 1510-1512 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ni, L. An, J. Peng, and C. Fan, "Dual-core photonic crystal fiber for dispersion compensation," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 1516-1518 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. (1)

B. Zsigri,J. Laegsgaard and A. Bjarklev, "A novel photonic crystal fibre design for dispersion compensation," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 6, 717-720 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Fiber Technol. (2)

L. Gruner-Nielsen,S.N. Knudsen, B. Edvold,T. Veng,D. Magnussen,C.C. Larsen,and H. Damsgaard, "Dispersion compensating fibres," Opt. Fiber Technol. 6, 164-180 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J.L. Auguste, J.M. Blondy, J. Maury, J. Marcou, B. Dussardier, G. Monnom, R. Jindal, K. Thyagarajan, and B.P. Pal, "Conception, Realization, and Characterization of a Very High Negative Chromatic Dispersion Fiber, " Opt. Fiber Technol. 8, 89-105 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Proc. SPIE (1)

Yejin Zhang, Sigang Yang, Xiaozhou Peng, Yang Lu, Xiangfei Chen and Shizhong Xie, "Design of large effective area microstructured optical fiber for dispersion compensation," In Optics and Optoelectronics, Proc. SPIE 5950,43 (2005).

Other (4)

J.C. Knight,T.A. Birks,R.F. Cregan,P.St.J. Russell and J.-P. de Sandro, "Large mode area photonic crystal fibre," Electron. Lett. 34, 1347-1348 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Martin Dybendal Nielsen,Anders Petersson,Christian Jacobsen,Harald R. Simonsen,Guillaume Vienne,Anders and Bjarklev, "All-silica photonic crystal fiber with large mode area," 28th European Conference on Optical Communication ECOC'02 (Copenhagen, Denmark, 2002).

B.J. Mangan,F. Couny,L. Farr,A. Langford,P.J. Roberts,D.P. Williams,M. Banham,M.W. Mason,D.F. Murphy,E.A.M. Brown,H. Sabert,T.A. Birks,J.C. Knight and P.St.J. Russell, "Slope-matched dispersion-compensating photonic crystal fibre, " Lasers and Electro-Optics, 2004. (CLEO). (Conference on Volume 2, 16-21 May 2004), pp.1069 - 1070.

GovindP. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics (Academic, New York, 2001).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

The dispersion of DCF proposed in reference [6] versus the radius of outer ring smaller holes.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Cross section of large mode area DCPCF

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Chromatic dispersion of DCPCF versus wavelength

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

The chromatic dispersion versus holes diameter with the fixed lattice constant Λ=6.65μm and refractive index of doped inner core

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

The chromatic dispersion versus lattice constant with the fixed d/Λ=0.45

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

The chromatic dispersion versus the refractive index of doped inner core

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

(a) Microscope image of the experimentally drawing high negative dispersion photonic crystal fiber. (b) measured near field around phase matching wavelength displayed as density plot using Photon Kinetics 2500 Optical Fiber Analysis System.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Measurement results (a) the dots are the measured relative group delay values and the solid line is the fitting result. (b) the calculated spectral dispersion of the fiber according to the fitting relative group delay data.

Equations (2)

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D ( λ ) = λ c d 2 n eff ( λ ) d λ 2
A eff = 2 π [ 0 I ( r ) rdr ] 2 I ( r ) 2 rdr

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