Abstract

We demonstrate the formation of stress-induced long period gratings (LPGs) in fluid-filled photonic bandgap fiber (PBGF). Based on our experimental results, simulations, and theoretical understanding of LPGs, we identify coupling to a guided LP11-like mode of the core and lossy LP1x-like modes of cladding microstructure for a single grating period. The periodic modal properties of PBGFs allow for coupling to the same mode at multiple wavelengths without being near a dispersion turning point. Simulations identify inherent differences in the modal structure of even and odd bands.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
  12. J. Kim, G.-J. Kong, U.-C. Paek, K. S. Lee and B. H. Lee, "Demonstration of an Ultra-Wide Wavelength Tunable Band Rejection Filter Implemented with Photonic Crystal Fiber," IEICE Trans. Electron. E88, 920-924 (2005).
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    [CrossRef]

2005

J. Kim, G.-J. Kong, U.-C. Paek, K. S. Lee and B. H. Lee, "Demonstration of an Ultra-Wide Wavelength Tunable Band Rejection Filter Implemented with Photonic Crystal Fiber," IEICE Trans. Electron. E88, 920-924 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Wilcox, L. C. Botten, R. C. McPhedran, C. G. Poulton and C. M. de Sterke, "Modeling of defect modes in photonic crystals using the fictitious source superposition method," Phys. Rev. E 71, 056606 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Argyros, T. A. Birks, S. G. Leon-Saval, C. B. Cordeiro and P. St. Russell, "Guidance properties of low-contrast photonic bandgap fibres," Opt. Express 13, 2503-2504 (2005), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-7-2503.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

2003

2002

2000

1999

X. W. Shu, X. M. Zhu, Q. L. Wang, S. Jiang, W. Shi, Z. J. Huang and D. X. Huang, "Dual resonant peaks of LP0,15 cladding mode in long-period gratings," Electron. Lett. 35, 649-651 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. J. Eggleton, P. S. Westbrook, R. S. Windeler, S. Spälter and T. A. Strasser, "Grating resonances in air-silica microstructured optical fibers," Opt. Lett. 24, 1460-1462 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1996

1994

C. D. Poole, J. M. Wiesenfeld, D. J. Digiovanni and A. M. Vengsarkar, "Optical Fiber-Based Dispersion Compensation Using Higher-Order Modes Near Cutoff," J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 1746-1758 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1989

1984

Abeeluck, A. K.

Argyros, A.

Bergano, N. S.

Bhatia, V.

V. Bhatia and A. M. Vengsarkar, "Optical fiber long-period grating sensors," Opt. Lett. 21, 692-694 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan and J. E. Sipe, "Long Period Fiber Gratings as Band Rejection Filters," J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58-65 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Biancalana, F.

Birks, T. A.

Bjarklev, A.

Botten, L. C.

Brooks, J. L.

Burdge, G. L.

Chong, H. J.

Cordeiro, C. B.

Davidson, C. R.

de Sterke, C. M.

Diez, A.

Digiovanni, D. J.

C. D. Poole, J. M. Wiesenfeld, D. J. Digiovanni and A. M. Vengsarkar, "Optical Fiber-Based Dispersion Compensation Using Higher-Order Modes Near Cutoff," J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 1746-1758 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Dobb, H.

H. Dobb, K. Kalli and D. J. Webb, "Temperature-insensitive long period grating sensors in photonic crystal fibre," Electron. Lett. 40, 657-658 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dunn, S. C.

Eggleton, B. J.

Erdogan, T.

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan and J. E. Sipe, "Long Period Fiber Gratings as Band Rejection Filters," J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58-65 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Feinberg, J.

Fevrier, S.

G. Humbert, A. Malki, S. Fevrier, P. Roy and D. Pagnoux, "Electric arc-induced long-period gratings in Ge-free air-silica microstructure fibres," Electron. Lett. 39, 349-350 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Folkenberg, J. R.

Garth, S. J.

Grubsky, V.

Headley, C.

Huang, D. X.

X. W. Shu, X. M. Zhu, Q. L. Wang, S. Jiang, W. Shi, Z. J. Huang and D. X. Huang, "Dual resonant peaks of LP0,15 cladding mode in long-period gratings," Electron. Lett. 35, 649-651 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Huang, Z. J.

X. W. Shu, X. M. Zhu, Q. L. Wang, S. Jiang, W. Shi, Z. J. Huang and D. X. Huang, "Dual resonant peaks of LP0,15 cladding mode in long-period gratings," Electron. Lett. 35, 649-651 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Humbert, G.

G. Humbert, A. Malki, S. Fevrier, P. Roy and D. Pagnoux, "Electric arc-induced long-period gratings in Ge-free air-silica microstructure fibres," Electron. Lett. 39, 349-350 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, S.

X. W. Shu, X. M. Zhu, Q. L. Wang, S. Jiang, W. Shi, Z. J. Huang and D. X. Huang, "Dual resonant peaks of LP0,15 cladding mode in long-period gratings," Electron. Lett. 35, 649-651 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Joly, N.

Judkins, J. B.

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan and J. E. Sipe, "Long Period Fiber Gratings as Band Rejection Filters," J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58-65 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Vengsarkar, J. R. Pedrazzani, J. B. Judkins, P. J. Lemaire, N. S. Bergano and C. R. Davidson, "Long-period fiber-grating-based gain equalizers," Opt. Lett. 21, 336-338 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kakarantzas, G.

Kalli, K.

H. Dobb, K. Kalli and D. J. Webb, "Temperature-insensitive long period grating sensors in photonic crystal fibre," Electron. Lett. 40, 657-658 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kerbage, C.

Kim, J.

J. Kim, G.-J. Kong, U.-C. Paek, K. S. Lee and B. H. Lee, "Demonstration of an Ultra-Wide Wavelength Tunable Band Rejection Filter Implemented with Photonic Crystal Fiber," IEICE Trans. Electron. E88, 920-924 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. C.

Knight, J. C.

Kong, G.-J.

J. Kim, G.-J. Kong, U.-C. Paek, K. S. Lee and B. H. Lee, "Demonstration of an Ultra-Wide Wavelength Tunable Band Rejection Filter Implemented with Photonic Crystal Fiber," IEICE Trans. Electron. E88, 920-924 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kuhlmey, B. T.

Lee, B. H.

J. Kim, G.-J. Kong, U.-C. Paek, K. S. Lee and B. H. Lee, "Demonstration of an Ultra-Wide Wavelength Tunable Band Rejection Filter Implemented with Photonic Crystal Fiber," IEICE Trans. Electron. E88, 920-924 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Lim, K. S. Lee, J. C. Kim and B. H. Lee, "Tunable fiber gratings fabricated in photonic crystal fiber by use of mechanical pressure," Opt. Lett. 29, 331-333 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, K. S.

J. Kim, G.-J. Kong, U.-C. Paek, K. S. Lee and B. H. Lee, "Demonstration of an Ultra-Wide Wavelength Tunable Band Rejection Filter Implemented with Photonic Crystal Fiber," IEICE Trans. Electron. E88, 920-924 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Lim, K. S. Lee, J. C. Kim and B. H. Lee, "Tunable fiber gratings fabricated in photonic crystal fiber by use of mechanical pressure," Opt. Lett. 29, 331-333 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lemaire, P. J.

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan and J. E. Sipe, "Long Period Fiber Gratings as Band Rejection Filters," J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58-65 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Vengsarkar, J. R. Pedrazzani, J. B. Judkins, P. J. Lemaire, N. S. Bergano and C. R. Davidson, "Long-period fiber-grating-based gain equalizers," Opt. Lett. 21, 336-338 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leon-Saval, S. G.

Lim, J. H.

Litchinitser, N. M.

Lu, C.

Malki, A.

G. Humbert, A. Malki, S. Fevrier, P. Roy and D. Pagnoux, "Electric arc-induced long-period gratings in Ge-free air-silica microstructure fibres," Electron. Lett. 39, 349-350 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mangan, B. J.

Maystre, D.

McPhedran, R. C.

Miyake, Y.

Morishita, K.

Nielsen, M. D.

Paek, U.-C.

J. Kim, G.-J. Kong, U.-C. Paek, K. S. Lee and B. H. Lee, "Demonstration of an Ultra-Wide Wavelength Tunable Band Rejection Filter Implemented with Photonic Crystal Fiber," IEICE Trans. Electron. E88, 920-924 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pagnoux, D.

G. Humbert, A. Malki, S. Fevrier, P. Roy and D. Pagnoux, "Electric arc-induced long-period gratings in Ge-free air-silica microstructure fibres," Electron. Lett. 39, 349-350 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Pedrazzani, J. R.

Poole, C. D.

C. D. Poole, J. M. Wiesenfeld, D. J. Digiovanni and A. M. Vengsarkar, "Optical Fiber-Based Dispersion Compensation Using Higher-Order Modes Near Cutoff," J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 1746-1758 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Poulton, C. G.

S. Wilcox, L. C. Botten, R. C. McPhedran, C. G. Poulton and C. M. de Sterke, "Modeling of defect modes in photonic crystals using the fictitious source superposition method," Phys. Rev. E 71, 056606 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ramachandran, S.

Rao, M. K.

Reeves, W. H.

Renversez, G.

Roy, P.

G. Humbert, A. Malki, S. Fevrier, P. Roy and D. Pagnoux, "Electric arc-induced long-period gratings in Ge-free air-silica microstructure fibres," Electron. Lett. 39, 349-350 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Russell, P. St. J.

Shaw, H. J.

Shi, W.

X. W. Shu, X. M. Zhu, Q. L. Wang, S. Jiang, W. Shi, Z. J. Huang and D. X. Huang, "Dual resonant peaks of LP0,15 cladding mode in long-period gratings," Electron. Lett. 35, 649-651 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Shu, X. W.

X. W. Shu, X. M. Zhu, Q. L. Wang, S. Jiang, W. Shi, Z. J. Huang and D. X. Huang, "Dual resonant peaks of LP0,15 cladding mode in long-period gratings," Electron. Lett. 35, 649-651 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Shum, P.

Sipe, J. E.

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan and J. E. Sipe, "Long Period Fiber Gratings as Band Rejection Filters," J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58-65 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Spälter, S.

St. Russell, P.

Strasser, T. A.

Usner, B.

Vengsarkar, A. M.

A. M. Vengsarkar, J. R. Pedrazzani, J. B. Judkins, P. J. Lemaire, N. S. Bergano and C. R. Davidson, "Long-period fiber-grating-based gain equalizers," Opt. Lett. 21, 336-338 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan and J. E. Sipe, "Long Period Fiber Gratings as Band Rejection Filters," J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58-65 (1996).
[CrossRef]

V. Bhatia and A. M. Vengsarkar, "Optical fiber long-period grating sensors," Opt. Lett. 21, 692-694 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. D. Poole, J. M. Wiesenfeld, D. J. Digiovanni and A. M. Vengsarkar, "Optical Fiber-Based Dispersion Compensation Using Higher-Order Modes Near Cutoff," J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 1746-1758 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Vienne, G.

Wadsworth, W. J.

Wang, Q. L.

X. W. Shu, X. M. Zhu, Q. L. Wang, S. Jiang, W. Shi, Z. J. Huang and D. X. Huang, "Dual resonant peaks of LP0,15 cladding mode in long-period gratings," Electron. Lett. 35, 649-651 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Z. Y.

Webb, D. J.

H. Dobb, K. Kalli and D. J. Webb, "Temperature-insensitive long period grating sensors in photonic crystal fibre," Electron. Lett. 40, 657-658 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Westbrook, P. S.

White, C. A.

White, T. P.

Wiesenfeld, J. M.

C. D. Poole, J. M. Wiesenfeld, D. J. Digiovanni and A. M. Vengsarkar, "Optical Fiber-Based Dispersion Compensation Using Higher-Order Modes Near Cutoff," J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 1746-1758 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Wilcox, S.

S. Wilcox, L. C. Botten, R. C. McPhedran, C. G. Poulton and C. M. de Sterke, "Modeling of defect modes in photonic crystals using the fictitious source superposition method," Phys. Rev. E 71, 056606 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Windeler, R. S.

Yan, M.

Youngquist, R. C.

Zhu, X. M.

X. W. Shu, X. M. Zhu, Q. L. Wang, S. Jiang, W. Shi, Z. J. Huang and D. X. Huang, "Dual resonant peaks of LP0,15 cladding mode in long-period gratings," Electron. Lett. 35, 649-651 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, Y.

Appl. Opt.

Electron. Lett.

H. Dobb, K. Kalli and D. J. Webb, "Temperature-insensitive long period grating sensors in photonic crystal fibre," Electron. Lett. 40, 657-658 (2004).
[CrossRef]

X. W. Shu, X. M. Zhu, Q. L. Wang, S. Jiang, W. Shi, Z. J. Huang and D. X. Huang, "Dual resonant peaks of LP0,15 cladding mode in long-period gratings," Electron. Lett. 35, 649-651 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. Humbert, A. Malki, S. Fevrier, P. Roy and D. Pagnoux, "Electric arc-induced long-period gratings in Ge-free air-silica microstructure fibres," Electron. Lett. 39, 349-350 (2003).
[CrossRef]

IEICE Trans. Electron.

J. Kim, G.-J. Kong, U.-C. Paek, K. S. Lee and B. H. Lee, "Demonstration of an Ultra-Wide Wavelength Tunable Band Rejection Filter Implemented with Photonic Crystal Fiber," IEICE Trans. Electron. E88, 920-924 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

B. J. Eggleton, P. S. Westbrook, C. A. White, C. Kerbage, R. S. Windeler and G. L. Burdge, "Cladding-mode-resonances in air-silica microstructure optical fibers," J. Lightwave Technol. 18, 1084-1100 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. Morishita and Y. Miyake, "Fabrication and resonance wavelengths of long-period gratings written in a pure-silica photonic crystal fiber by the glass structure change," J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 625-630 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan and J. E. Sipe, "Long Period Fiber Gratings as Band Rejection Filters," J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58-65 (1996).
[CrossRef]

C. D. Poole, J. M. Wiesenfeld, D. J. Digiovanni and A. M. Vengsarkar, "Optical Fiber-Based Dispersion Compensation Using Higher-Order Modes Near Cutoff," J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 1746-1758 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Nature

J. C. Knight, "Photonic crystal fibres," Nature 424, 847-851 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Z. Y. Wang and S. Ramachandran, "Ultrasensitive long-period fiber gratings for broadband modulators and sensors," Opt. Lett. 28, 2458-2460 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Kakarantzas, T. A. Birks and P. St. J. Russell, "Structural long-period gratings in photonic crystal fibers," Opt. Lett. 27, 1013-15 (2002).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic diagram of solid core PBGF with mechanically-induced LPG which couples the fundamental core mode to an antisymmetric higher order mode of the fiber. Shaded vertical boxes indicate stressed regions of the fiber. In the PBGF cross-section at left of diagram, gray corresponds to high index regions and white corresponds to low index regions.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Transmission spectrum through length of 10 cm PBGF with no grating (black) and with a grating (red) induced by periodic stress. (b) Schematic diagram of experimental embodiment of mechanical stress grating.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Grating growth in the 4th , 5th, and 6th transmission bands for increasing applied pressure. Data in normalized with respect to transmission with no applied pressure. The grating growth at the resonances near 1250 and 1200 nm are measured using 0.2 nm resolution on the OSA, other resonances are measured using 2 nm resolution.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Transmission spectrum through length of 10 cm PBGF with no grating (black) and with a grating (red and blue) induced by periodic stress. In the red curve, there is a slight bend of the fiber at the clamp beyond the grating region which strips out the HOMs; in the blue curve, this bend is minimized.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Transmission spectrum of PBGF LPG (black line, left axis) and numerically simulated phase matching curves (colored lines, right axis) between fundamental and LP1x-like modes. Blue and red lines correspond to LP11- and LP12-like modes of the microstructure, respectively, and green line corresponds to LP11-like mode of the core. Vertical lines show that the phase matching curves cross the Λ=660 μm line at wavelengths extremely close to the measured resonances.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Simulated transverse mode profiles of HOMs coupled by the PBGF LPG at (a) 855 nm, (b) 985 nm, (c) 1205 nm, and (d) 1250 nm. Modes (a) and (c) are LP12-like modes of the microstructure, mode (b) is a LP11-like mode of the core, and mode (d) is a LP11-like mode of the microstructure. All plots correspond to the real part of Hy of the TM-like mode.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Simulated transverse mode profiles of LP11- and LP12-like HOMs of the microstructure in the 5th transmission band (985 nm).

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