Abstract

Experimental demonstration of the frequency shift of photonic bandgaps due to refractive index scaling using D2O-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fibers is presented. The results confirm a simple scaling law for bandgaps in fibers in which the low-index medium is varied.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, "Single-mode photonic band gap guidance of light in air.," Science 285,1537-1539 (1999)
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. F. Benabid, J. C. Knight, G. Antonopoulos, and P. St. J. Russell, "Stimulated Raman scattering in hydrogen-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber," Science 298, 399-402 (2002)
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. F. Benabid, G. Antonopoulos, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, "Stokes amplification regimes in quasi-CW pumped hydrogen-filled hollow-core PCF," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 21390314 (2005)
    [CrossRef]
  4. F. Benabid, J. C. Knight, and P. S. J. Russell, "Particle levitation and guidance in hollow-core photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Express 10,1195-1203 (2002), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-10-21-1195
    [PubMed]
  5. T. A. Birks, D. M. Bird, T. D. Hedley, J. M. Pottage, and P. S. J. Russell, "Scaling laws and vector effects in bandgap-guiding fibers," Opt. Express 12,69-74 (2004), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-1-69
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. G. J. Pearce, J. M. Pottage, D. M. Bird, P. J. Roberts, J. C. Knight, and P. S. Russell, "Hollow-core PCF for guidance in the mid to far infra-red," Opt. Express 13,6937-6946 (2005), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-18-6937
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. J. Riished, J. Broeng, and A. Bjarklev, "All silica photonic bandgap fiber," Presented at Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics," Paper CTuC5. Baltimore (2003)
  8. R. T. Bise, R. S. Windeler, K. S. Kranz, C. Kerbage, B. J. Eggleton, and D. J. Trevor, "Tunable photonic bandgap fiber. In Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communication Conference, pages 466-468 (2002)
  9. G. Antonopoulos, F. Benabid, T. A. Birks, D. M. Bird, G. Bouwmans, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, "Experimental demonstration of refractive index scaling in photonic bandgap fibers," In Proceedings of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Paper CThHH1. San Francisco (2004)
  10. A. C. Tam and K. N. Patel, "Optical absorption of light and heavy water by laser optoacoustic spectroscopy", App.Opt,  18, 3348-3358 (1979)
    [CrossRef]
  11. W. J. Wadsworth, N. Joly, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, F. Biancalana, and P. S. J. Russell, "Supercontinuum and four-wave mixing with Q-switched pulses in endlessly single-mode photonic crystal fibers," Opt. Express 12,299-309 (2004), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-2-299
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. J. M. Pottage, D. Bird, T. D. Hedley, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. S. J. Russell, and P. J. Roberts, "Robust photonic band gaps for hollow core guidance in PCF made from high index glass," Opt. Express 11,2854-2861 (2003), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-22-2854
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. T. D. Hedley, D. M. Bird, F. Benabid, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, "Modelling a novel hollow-core photonic crystal fiber," QLES 2003, QTuL4, Baltimore (2003)

2005

F. Benabid, G. Antonopoulos, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, "Stokes amplification regimes in quasi-CW pumped hydrogen-filled hollow-core PCF," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 21390314 (2005)
[CrossRef]

G. J. Pearce, J. M. Pottage, D. M. Bird, P. J. Roberts, J. C. Knight, and P. S. Russell, "Hollow-core PCF for guidance in the mid to far infra-red," Opt. Express 13,6937-6946 (2005), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-18-6937
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

2003

2002

F. Benabid, J. C. Knight, and P. S. J. Russell, "Particle levitation and guidance in hollow-core photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Express 10,1195-1203 (2002), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-10-21-1195
[PubMed]

F. Benabid, J. C. Knight, G. Antonopoulos, and P. St. J. Russell, "Stimulated Raman scattering in hydrogen-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber," Science 298, 399-402 (2002)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, "Single-mode photonic band gap guidance of light in air.," Science 285,1537-1539 (1999)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1979

A. C. Tam and K. N. Patel, "Optical absorption of light and heavy water by laser optoacoustic spectroscopy", App.Opt,  18, 3348-3358 (1979)
[CrossRef]

Allan, D. C.

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, "Single-mode photonic band gap guidance of light in air.," Science 285,1537-1539 (1999)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Antonopoulos, G.

F. Benabid, G. Antonopoulos, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, "Stokes amplification regimes in quasi-CW pumped hydrogen-filled hollow-core PCF," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 21390314 (2005)
[CrossRef]

F. Benabid, J. C. Knight, G. Antonopoulos, and P. St. J. Russell, "Stimulated Raman scattering in hydrogen-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber," Science 298, 399-402 (2002)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Benabid, F.

F. Benabid, G. Antonopoulos, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, "Stokes amplification regimes in quasi-CW pumped hydrogen-filled hollow-core PCF," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 21390314 (2005)
[CrossRef]

F. Benabid, J. C. Knight, G. Antonopoulos, and P. St. J. Russell, "Stimulated Raman scattering in hydrogen-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber," Science 298, 399-402 (2002)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Benabid, J. C. Knight, and P. S. J. Russell, "Particle levitation and guidance in hollow-core photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Express 10,1195-1203 (2002), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-10-21-1195
[PubMed]

Biancalana, F.

Bird, D.

Bird, D. M.

Birks, T. A.

Cregan, R. F.

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, "Single-mode photonic band gap guidance of light in air.," Science 285,1537-1539 (1999)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hedley, T. D.

Joly, N.

Knight, J. C.

G. J. Pearce, J. M. Pottage, D. M. Bird, P. J. Roberts, J. C. Knight, and P. S. Russell, "Hollow-core PCF for guidance in the mid to far infra-red," Opt. Express 13,6937-6946 (2005), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-18-6937
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Benabid, G. Antonopoulos, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, "Stokes amplification regimes in quasi-CW pumped hydrogen-filled hollow-core PCF," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 21390314 (2005)
[CrossRef]

W. J. Wadsworth, N. Joly, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, F. Biancalana, and P. S. J. Russell, "Supercontinuum and four-wave mixing with Q-switched pulses in endlessly single-mode photonic crystal fibers," Opt. Express 12,299-309 (2004), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-2-299
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Pottage, D. Bird, T. D. Hedley, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. S. J. Russell, and P. J. Roberts, "Robust photonic band gaps for hollow core guidance in PCF made from high index glass," Opt. Express 11,2854-2861 (2003), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-22-2854
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Benabid, J. C. Knight, G. Antonopoulos, and P. St. J. Russell, "Stimulated Raman scattering in hydrogen-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber," Science 298, 399-402 (2002)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Benabid, J. C. Knight, and P. S. J. Russell, "Particle levitation and guidance in hollow-core photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Express 10,1195-1203 (2002), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-10-21-1195
[PubMed]

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, "Single-mode photonic band gap guidance of light in air.," Science 285,1537-1539 (1999)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mangan, B. J.

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, "Single-mode photonic band gap guidance of light in air.," Science 285,1537-1539 (1999)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Patel, K. N.

A. C. Tam and K. N. Patel, "Optical absorption of light and heavy water by laser optoacoustic spectroscopy", App.Opt,  18, 3348-3358 (1979)
[CrossRef]

Pearce, G. J.

Pottage, J. M.

Roberts, P. J.

Russell, P. S.

Russell, P. S. J.

Russell, P. St. J.

F. Benabid, G. Antonopoulos, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, "Stokes amplification regimes in quasi-CW pumped hydrogen-filled hollow-core PCF," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 21390314 (2005)
[CrossRef]

F. Benabid, J. C. Knight, G. Antonopoulos, and P. St. J. Russell, "Stimulated Raman scattering in hydrogen-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber," Science 298, 399-402 (2002)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, "Single-mode photonic band gap guidance of light in air.," Science 285,1537-1539 (1999)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tam, A. C.

A. C. Tam and K. N. Patel, "Optical absorption of light and heavy water by laser optoacoustic spectroscopy", App.Opt,  18, 3348-3358 (1979)
[CrossRef]

Wadsworth, W. J.

Opt

A. C. Tam and K. N. Patel, "Optical absorption of light and heavy water by laser optoacoustic spectroscopy", App.Opt,  18, 3348-3358 (1979)
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Phys. Rev. Lett.

F. Benabid, G. Antonopoulos, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, "Stokes amplification regimes in quasi-CW pumped hydrogen-filled hollow-core PCF," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 21390314 (2005)
[CrossRef]

Science

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, "Single-mode photonic band gap guidance of light in air.," Science 285,1537-1539 (1999)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Benabid, J. C. Knight, G. Antonopoulos, and P. St. J. Russell, "Stimulated Raman scattering in hydrogen-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber," Science 298, 399-402 (2002)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

T. D. Hedley, D. M. Bird, F. Benabid, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, "Modelling a novel hollow-core photonic crystal fiber," QLES 2003, QTuL4, Baltimore (2003)

J. Riished, J. Broeng, and A. Bjarklev, "All silica photonic bandgap fiber," Presented at Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics," Paper CTuC5. Baltimore (2003)

R. T. Bise, R. S. Windeler, K. S. Kranz, C. Kerbage, B. J. Eggleton, and D. J. Trevor, "Tunable photonic bandgap fiber. In Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communication Conference, pages 466-468 (2002)

G. Antonopoulos, F. Benabid, T. A. Birks, D. M. Bird, G. Bouwmans, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, "Experimental demonstration of refractive index scaling in photonic bandgap fibers," In Proceedings of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Paper CThHH1. San Francisco (2004)

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Experimental set-up for the acquisition of (a) transmission spectra and (b) near-field images of the liquid-filled fibers.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Transmission spectra of the 1060 nm fiber using a SC source and (b) of the 1550 nm fiber using a tungsten lamp. The spectra were taken before and after filling the holes of the HC-PCF with liquid D2O (light and dark grey areas respectively). The vertical lines define the location of the new shifted bandgaps as predicted by the index scaling law. The arrows mark the position of the respective transmission peaks.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

CCD camera images of the near-field intensity distribution at the output end of the D2O-filled PCF. In (a) the input light is the supercontinuum light, while in (b) the input light is that of a laser diode at 633nm

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Full-vector calculations for the density of states for the photonic crystal shown at the top. The background index of the crystal was taken to be that of silica (1.46), while the index in the holes was equal to that of air (bottom left plot) and that of heavy water (bottom right)

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

2 Ψ x y + ( k 2 n 0 2 β 2 ) Ψ x y = 0 ,
v 2 = k 2 Λ 2 ( n 1 2 n 2 2 )
w 2 = Λ 2 ( β 2 k 2 n 2 2 ) ,
λ = λ 0 [ 1 N 2 1 N 0 2 ] 1 2 .

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