Abstract

This investigation experimentally demonstrates the dynamic characteristics of quantum dot vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (QD VCSEL) without and with light injection. The QD VCSEL is fully doped structure on GaAs substrate and operates in the 1.3 μm optical communication wavelength. The eye diagram, frequency response, and intermodulation distortion are presented. We also demonstrate that the frequency response enhancement by light injection technique allows us to improve the performance of subcarrier multiplexed system.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  1. H. C. Kuo, Y. H. Chang, Y. A. Chang, F. I. Lai, J. T. Chu, M. N. Tsai, and S. C. Wang, "Single-mode 1.27 μm InGaAs: Sb-GaAs-GaAsP quantum well vertical cavity surface emitting lasers," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 121-126 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  2. Y. H. Chang, H. C. Kuo, F. I. Lai, Y. A. Chang, C. Y. Lu, L. H. Laih, and S. C. Wang, "Fabrication and characteristics of high-speed oxide-confined VCSELs using InGaAsP-InGaP strain-compensated MQWs," J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 2828-2833 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  3. H. P. Yang, Y. H. Chang, F. I. Lai, H. C. Yu, Y. J. Hsu, G. Lin, R. S. Hsiao, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, and J. Y. Chi, "Singlemode InAs quantum dot photonic crystal VCSELs," Electron. Lett. 41, 1130-1132 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  4. Y. H. Chang, G. Lin, H. C. Kuo, J. Y. Chi, and S. C. Wang, "Singlemode monolithically quantum-dot vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser in 1.3 µm with side-mode suppression ratio > 30dB," IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society 2005 Annual Meeting (LEOS 2005), Paper No. TuAA4, 400 401 (2005).
  5. V. M. Ustinov, N. A. Maleev, A. R. Kovsh, and A. E. Zhukov, "Quantum dot VCSELs," Phys. Status Solidi A 202, 396-402 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  6. N. N. Ledentsov, "Long-wavelength quantum-dot lasers on GaAs substrates: from media to device concepts," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 1015-1024 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  7. X. Zhao, M. Moewe, L. Chrostowski, C. H. Chang, R. Shau, M. Ortsiefer, M. C. Amann, C. J. Chang-Hasnain, "28 GHz optical injection-locked 1.55 µm VCSELs," Electron. Lett. 40, 476-478 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  8. H. C. Yu, S. J. Chang, Y. K. Su, C. P. Sung, Y. W. Lin, H. P. Yang, C. Y. Huang, J. M. Wang, "A simple method for fabrication of high speed vertical cavity surface emitting lasers," Mater. Sci. Eng. B 106, 101-104 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  9. W. I. Way, Broadband Hybrid Fiber/Coax Access System Technologies (Academic Press, San Diego, 1999).

2005 (3)

H. C. Kuo, Y. H. Chang, Y. A. Chang, F. I. Lai, J. T. Chu, M. N. Tsai, and S. C. Wang, "Single-mode 1.27 μm InGaAs: Sb-GaAs-GaAsP quantum well vertical cavity surface emitting lasers," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 121-126 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. P. Yang, Y. H. Chang, F. I. Lai, H. C. Yu, Y. J. Hsu, G. Lin, R. S. Hsiao, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, and J. Y. Chi, "Singlemode InAs quantum dot photonic crystal VCSELs," Electron. Lett. 41, 1130-1132 (2005).
[CrossRef]

V. M. Ustinov, N. A. Maleev, A. R. Kovsh, and A. E. Zhukov, "Quantum dot VCSELs," Phys. Status Solidi A 202, 396-402 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (3)

Y. H. Chang, H. C. Kuo, F. I. Lai, Y. A. Chang, C. Y. Lu, L. H. Laih, and S. C. Wang, "Fabrication and characteristics of high-speed oxide-confined VCSELs using InGaAsP-InGaP strain-compensated MQWs," J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 2828-2833 (2004).
[CrossRef]

X. Zhao, M. Moewe, L. Chrostowski, C. H. Chang, R. Shau, M. Ortsiefer, M. C. Amann, C. J. Chang-Hasnain, "28 GHz optical injection-locked 1.55 µm VCSELs," Electron. Lett. 40, 476-478 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. C. Yu, S. J. Chang, Y. K. Su, C. P. Sung, Y. W. Lin, H. P. Yang, C. Y. Huang, J. M. Wang, "A simple method for fabrication of high speed vertical cavity surface emitting lasers," Mater. Sci. Eng. B 106, 101-104 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

N. N. Ledentsov, "Long-wavelength quantum-dot lasers on GaAs substrates: from media to device concepts," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 1015-1024 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Amann, M. C.

X. Zhao, M. Moewe, L. Chrostowski, C. H. Chang, R. Shau, M. Ortsiefer, M. C. Amann, C. J. Chang-Hasnain, "28 GHz optical injection-locked 1.55 µm VCSELs," Electron. Lett. 40, 476-478 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chang, C. H.

X. Zhao, M. Moewe, L. Chrostowski, C. H. Chang, R. Shau, M. Ortsiefer, M. C. Amann, C. J. Chang-Hasnain, "28 GHz optical injection-locked 1.55 µm VCSELs," Electron. Lett. 40, 476-478 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chang, S. J.

H. C. Yu, S. J. Chang, Y. K. Su, C. P. Sung, Y. W. Lin, H. P. Yang, C. Y. Huang, J. M. Wang, "A simple method for fabrication of high speed vertical cavity surface emitting lasers," Mater. Sci. Eng. B 106, 101-104 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chang, Y. A.

H. C. Kuo, Y. H. Chang, Y. A. Chang, F. I. Lai, J. T. Chu, M. N. Tsai, and S. C. Wang, "Single-mode 1.27 μm InGaAs: Sb-GaAs-GaAsP quantum well vertical cavity surface emitting lasers," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 121-126 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Chang, H. C. Kuo, F. I. Lai, Y. A. Chang, C. Y. Lu, L. H. Laih, and S. C. Wang, "Fabrication and characteristics of high-speed oxide-confined VCSELs using InGaAsP-InGaP strain-compensated MQWs," J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 2828-2833 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chang, Y. H.

H. P. Yang, Y. H. Chang, F. I. Lai, H. C. Yu, Y. J. Hsu, G. Lin, R. S. Hsiao, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, and J. Y. Chi, "Singlemode InAs quantum dot photonic crystal VCSELs," Electron. Lett. 41, 1130-1132 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. C. Kuo, Y. H. Chang, Y. A. Chang, F. I. Lai, J. T. Chu, M. N. Tsai, and S. C. Wang, "Single-mode 1.27 μm InGaAs: Sb-GaAs-GaAsP quantum well vertical cavity surface emitting lasers," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 121-126 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Chang, H. C. Kuo, F. I. Lai, Y. A. Chang, C. Y. Lu, L. H. Laih, and S. C. Wang, "Fabrication and characteristics of high-speed oxide-confined VCSELs using InGaAsP-InGaP strain-compensated MQWs," J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 2828-2833 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chang-Hasnain, C. J.

X. Zhao, M. Moewe, L. Chrostowski, C. H. Chang, R. Shau, M. Ortsiefer, M. C. Amann, C. J. Chang-Hasnain, "28 GHz optical injection-locked 1.55 µm VCSELs," Electron. Lett. 40, 476-478 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chi, J. Y.

H. P. Yang, Y. H. Chang, F. I. Lai, H. C. Yu, Y. J. Hsu, G. Lin, R. S. Hsiao, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, and J. Y. Chi, "Singlemode InAs quantum dot photonic crystal VCSELs," Electron. Lett. 41, 1130-1132 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chrostowski, L.

X. Zhao, M. Moewe, L. Chrostowski, C. H. Chang, R. Shau, M. Ortsiefer, M. C. Amann, C. J. Chang-Hasnain, "28 GHz optical injection-locked 1.55 µm VCSELs," Electron. Lett. 40, 476-478 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chu, J. T.

H. C. Kuo, Y. H. Chang, Y. A. Chang, F. I. Lai, J. T. Chu, M. N. Tsai, and S. C. Wang, "Single-mode 1.27 μm InGaAs: Sb-GaAs-GaAsP quantum well vertical cavity surface emitting lasers," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 121-126 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hsiao, R. S.

H. P. Yang, Y. H. Chang, F. I. Lai, H. C. Yu, Y. J. Hsu, G. Lin, R. S. Hsiao, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, and J. Y. Chi, "Singlemode InAs quantum dot photonic crystal VCSELs," Electron. Lett. 41, 1130-1132 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hsu, Y. J.

H. P. Yang, Y. H. Chang, F. I. Lai, H. C. Yu, Y. J. Hsu, G. Lin, R. S. Hsiao, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, and J. Y. Chi, "Singlemode InAs quantum dot photonic crystal VCSELs," Electron. Lett. 41, 1130-1132 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Huang, C. Y.

H. C. Yu, S. J. Chang, Y. K. Su, C. P. Sung, Y. W. Lin, H. P. Yang, C. Y. Huang, J. M. Wang, "A simple method for fabrication of high speed vertical cavity surface emitting lasers," Mater. Sci. Eng. B 106, 101-104 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kovsh, A. R.

V. M. Ustinov, N. A. Maleev, A. R. Kovsh, and A. E. Zhukov, "Quantum dot VCSELs," Phys. Status Solidi A 202, 396-402 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, H. C.

H. P. Yang, Y. H. Chang, F. I. Lai, H. C. Yu, Y. J. Hsu, G. Lin, R. S. Hsiao, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, and J. Y. Chi, "Singlemode InAs quantum dot photonic crystal VCSELs," Electron. Lett. 41, 1130-1132 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. C. Kuo, Y. H. Chang, Y. A. Chang, F. I. Lai, J. T. Chu, M. N. Tsai, and S. C. Wang, "Single-mode 1.27 μm InGaAs: Sb-GaAs-GaAsP quantum well vertical cavity surface emitting lasers," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 121-126 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Chang, H. C. Kuo, F. I. Lai, Y. A. Chang, C. Y. Lu, L. H. Laih, and S. C. Wang, "Fabrication and characteristics of high-speed oxide-confined VCSELs using InGaAsP-InGaP strain-compensated MQWs," J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 2828-2833 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lai, F. I.

H. C. Kuo, Y. H. Chang, Y. A. Chang, F. I. Lai, J. T. Chu, M. N. Tsai, and S. C. Wang, "Single-mode 1.27 μm InGaAs: Sb-GaAs-GaAsP quantum well vertical cavity surface emitting lasers," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 121-126 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. P. Yang, Y. H. Chang, F. I. Lai, H. C. Yu, Y. J. Hsu, G. Lin, R. S. Hsiao, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, and J. Y. Chi, "Singlemode InAs quantum dot photonic crystal VCSELs," Electron. Lett. 41, 1130-1132 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Chang, H. C. Kuo, F. I. Lai, Y. A. Chang, C. Y. Lu, L. H. Laih, and S. C. Wang, "Fabrication and characteristics of high-speed oxide-confined VCSELs using InGaAsP-InGaP strain-compensated MQWs," J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 2828-2833 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Laih, L. H.

Ledentsov, N. N.

N. N. Ledentsov, "Long-wavelength quantum-dot lasers on GaAs substrates: from media to device concepts," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 1015-1024 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lin, G.

H. P. Yang, Y. H. Chang, F. I. Lai, H. C. Yu, Y. J. Hsu, G. Lin, R. S. Hsiao, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, and J. Y. Chi, "Singlemode InAs quantum dot photonic crystal VCSELs," Electron. Lett. 41, 1130-1132 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lin, Y. W.

H. C. Yu, S. J. Chang, Y. K. Su, C. P. Sung, Y. W. Lin, H. P. Yang, C. Y. Huang, J. M. Wang, "A simple method for fabrication of high speed vertical cavity surface emitting lasers," Mater. Sci. Eng. B 106, 101-104 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lu, C. Y.

Maleev, N. A.

V. M. Ustinov, N. A. Maleev, A. R. Kovsh, and A. E. Zhukov, "Quantum dot VCSELs," Phys. Status Solidi A 202, 396-402 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Moewe, M.

X. Zhao, M. Moewe, L. Chrostowski, C. H. Chang, R. Shau, M. Ortsiefer, M. C. Amann, C. J. Chang-Hasnain, "28 GHz optical injection-locked 1.55 µm VCSELs," Electron. Lett. 40, 476-478 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ortsiefer, M.

X. Zhao, M. Moewe, L. Chrostowski, C. H. Chang, R. Shau, M. Ortsiefer, M. C. Amann, C. J. Chang-Hasnain, "28 GHz optical injection-locked 1.55 µm VCSELs," Electron. Lett. 40, 476-478 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Shau, R.

X. Zhao, M. Moewe, L. Chrostowski, C. H. Chang, R. Shau, M. Ortsiefer, M. C. Amann, C. J. Chang-Hasnain, "28 GHz optical injection-locked 1.55 µm VCSELs," Electron. Lett. 40, 476-478 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Su, Y. K.

H. C. Yu, S. J. Chang, Y. K. Su, C. P. Sung, Y. W. Lin, H. P. Yang, C. Y. Huang, J. M. Wang, "A simple method for fabrication of high speed vertical cavity surface emitting lasers," Mater. Sci. Eng. B 106, 101-104 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sung, C. P.

H. C. Yu, S. J. Chang, Y. K. Su, C. P. Sung, Y. W. Lin, H. P. Yang, C. Y. Huang, J. M. Wang, "A simple method for fabrication of high speed vertical cavity surface emitting lasers," Mater. Sci. Eng. B 106, 101-104 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, M. N.

H. C. Kuo, Y. H. Chang, Y. A. Chang, F. I. Lai, J. T. Chu, M. N. Tsai, and S. C. Wang, "Single-mode 1.27 μm InGaAs: Sb-GaAs-GaAsP quantum well vertical cavity surface emitting lasers," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 121-126 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ustinov, V. M.

V. M. Ustinov, N. A. Maleev, A. R. Kovsh, and A. E. Zhukov, "Quantum dot VCSELs," Phys. Status Solidi A 202, 396-402 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J. M.

H. C. Yu, S. J. Chang, Y. K. Su, C. P. Sung, Y. W. Lin, H. P. Yang, C. Y. Huang, J. M. Wang, "A simple method for fabrication of high speed vertical cavity surface emitting lasers," Mater. Sci. Eng. B 106, 101-104 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wang, S. C.

H. P. Yang, Y. H. Chang, F. I. Lai, H. C. Yu, Y. J. Hsu, G. Lin, R. S. Hsiao, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, and J. Y. Chi, "Singlemode InAs quantum dot photonic crystal VCSELs," Electron. Lett. 41, 1130-1132 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. C. Kuo, Y. H. Chang, Y. A. Chang, F. I. Lai, J. T. Chu, M. N. Tsai, and S. C. Wang, "Single-mode 1.27 μm InGaAs: Sb-GaAs-GaAsP quantum well vertical cavity surface emitting lasers," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 121-126 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Chang, H. C. Kuo, F. I. Lai, Y. A. Chang, C. Y. Lu, L. H. Laih, and S. C. Wang, "Fabrication and characteristics of high-speed oxide-confined VCSELs using InGaAsP-InGaP strain-compensated MQWs," J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 2828-2833 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yang, H. P.

H. P. Yang, Y. H. Chang, F. I. Lai, H. C. Yu, Y. J. Hsu, G. Lin, R. S. Hsiao, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, and J. Y. Chi, "Singlemode InAs quantum dot photonic crystal VCSELs," Electron. Lett. 41, 1130-1132 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. C. Yu, S. J. Chang, Y. K. Su, C. P. Sung, Y. W. Lin, H. P. Yang, C. Y. Huang, J. M. Wang, "A simple method for fabrication of high speed vertical cavity surface emitting lasers," Mater. Sci. Eng. B 106, 101-104 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yu, H. C.

H. P. Yang, Y. H. Chang, F. I. Lai, H. C. Yu, Y. J. Hsu, G. Lin, R. S. Hsiao, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, and J. Y. Chi, "Singlemode InAs quantum dot photonic crystal VCSELs," Electron. Lett. 41, 1130-1132 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. C. Yu, S. J. Chang, Y. K. Su, C. P. Sung, Y. W. Lin, H. P. Yang, C. Y. Huang, J. M. Wang, "A simple method for fabrication of high speed vertical cavity surface emitting lasers," Mater. Sci. Eng. B 106, 101-104 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, X.

X. Zhao, M. Moewe, L. Chrostowski, C. H. Chang, R. Shau, M. Ortsiefer, M. C. Amann, C. J. Chang-Hasnain, "28 GHz optical injection-locked 1.55 µm VCSELs," Electron. Lett. 40, 476-478 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zhukov, A. E.

V. M. Ustinov, N. A. Maleev, A. R. Kovsh, and A. E. Zhukov, "Quantum dot VCSELs," Phys. Status Solidi A 202, 396-402 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (2)

H. P. Yang, Y. H. Chang, F. I. Lai, H. C. Yu, Y. J. Hsu, G. Lin, R. S. Hsiao, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, and J. Y. Chi, "Singlemode InAs quantum dot photonic crystal VCSELs," Electron. Lett. 41, 1130-1132 (2005).
[CrossRef]

X. Zhao, M. Moewe, L. Chrostowski, C. H. Chang, R. Shau, M. Ortsiefer, M. C. Amann, C. J. Chang-Hasnain, "28 GHz optical injection-locked 1.55 µm VCSELs," Electron. Lett. 40, 476-478 (2004).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (2)

N. N. Ledentsov, "Long-wavelength quantum-dot lasers on GaAs substrates: from media to device concepts," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 1015-1024 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. C. Kuo, Y. H. Chang, Y. A. Chang, F. I. Lai, J. T. Chu, M. N. Tsai, and S. C. Wang, "Single-mode 1.27 μm InGaAs: Sb-GaAs-GaAsP quantum well vertical cavity surface emitting lasers," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 121-126 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Mater. Sci. Eng. B (1)

H. C. Yu, S. J. Chang, Y. K. Su, C. P. Sung, Y. W. Lin, H. P. Yang, C. Y. Huang, J. M. Wang, "A simple method for fabrication of high speed vertical cavity surface emitting lasers," Mater. Sci. Eng. B 106, 101-104 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Status Solidi A (1)

V. M. Ustinov, N. A. Maleev, A. R. Kovsh, and A. E. Zhukov, "Quantum dot VCSELs," Phys. Status Solidi A 202, 396-402 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

W. I. Way, Broadband Hybrid Fiber/Coax Access System Technologies (Academic Press, San Diego, 1999).

Y. H. Chang, G. Lin, H. C. Kuo, J. Y. Chi, and S. C. Wang, "Singlemode monolithically quantum-dot vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser in 1.3 µm with side-mode suppression ratio > 30dB," IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society 2005 Annual Meeting (LEOS 2005), Paper No. TuAA4, 400 401 (2005).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Schematic diagram of quantum dot VCSEL (b) Output spectra of quantum dot VCSEL.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Frequency response and eye diagram of quantum dot VCSEL.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Frequency response of quantum dot VCSEL with light injection. (DFB: DFB laser, VA: variable optical attenuator, C: optical circulator, PC: polarization controller)

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Experimental setup for the quantum dot VCSEL without and with light injection in a subcarrier multiplexed system. (PG: pattern generator, LPF: low pass filter, RFA: RF amplifier, PD: photodetector)

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

7-GHz 50-Mb/s data signal at point A (a) without light injection (b) with light injection.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Received eye diagrams of 50-Mb/s signal.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Experimental setup for measuring the third-order intermodulation distortion (IMD3) of quantum dot VCSEL without and with light injection.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

IMD3 of quantum dot VCSEL without and with light injection.

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