Abstract

An all-optical AND gate based on optically induced nonlinear polarization rotation of a probe light in a bulk semiconductor optical amplifier is realized at a bit rate of 2.5Gbit/s. By operating the AND gate in an up and inverted wavelength conversion scheme, the extinction ratio is improved by 8dB compared with previously published work.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. M. J. Connelly, Semiconductor Optical Amplifiers (Kluwer Academic Publishers, Boston, 2002), Chap.7 and references therein.
  2. L. Q. Guo, and M. J. Connelly, "Demonstration of birefringence in a bulk semiconductor optical amplifier and its application to all-optical wavelength conversion," in Technical Digest: Symposium on Optical Fiber Measurements 2004, P. A. Williams, and G. W. Day, ed. (NIST, Boulder, Colo., 2004), pp. 167-170.
  3. L. Q. Guo, and M. J. Connelly, "Signal-induced birefringence and dichroism in a tensile-strained bulk semiconductor optical amplifier and its application to wavelength conversion," J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 4037-4045 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  4. C. S. Wong, and H. K. Tsang, "Polarization-independent wavelength conversion at 10 Gb/s using birefringence switching in a semiconductor optical amplifier," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 87-89 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  5. H. Soto, J. D. Topomondzob, D. Erasmeb, and M. Castro, "All-optical NOR gates with two and three input logic signals based on cross-polarization modulation in a semiconductor optical amplifier," Opt. Commun. 28, 243-247 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  6. L. Q. Guo, and M. J. Connelly, "All-optical AND gate using nonlinear polarization rotation in a bulk semiconductor optical amplifier," in Technical Digest: Optical Amplifiers and Their Applications 2005 (The Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 2005), Pres. no.: SuB9.
  7. B. E. A. Saleh, and M. C. Teich, Fundamentals of Photonics (John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1991), Chap. 19.
    [CrossRef]
  8. D. C. Hutchings, J. S. Aitchison, and J. M. Arnold, "Nonlinear refractive coupling and vector solitons in anisotropic cubic media," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 869-879 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  9. S. Diez, C. Schmidt, R. Ludwig, H. G. Weber, P. Doussiere, and T. Ducellier, "Effect of birefringence in a bulk semiconductor optical amplifier on four-wave mixing," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 212-214 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  10. H. Soto, D. Erasme, and G. Guekos, "Cross-polarization modulation in semiconductor optical amplifiers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 970-972 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  11. K. Obermann, S. Kindt, D. Breuer, K. Petermann, C. Schmidt, S. Diez, and H. G. Weber, "Noise characteristics of semiconductor-optical amplifiers used for wavelength conversion via cross-gain and cross-phase modulation," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 312-314 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  12. E. L. Wooten, K. M. Kissa, A. Yi-Yan, E. J. Murphy, D. A. Lafaw, P. F. Hallemeier, D. Maack, D. V. Attanasio, D. J. Fritz, G. J. McBrien, and D. E. Bossi, "A review of lithium niobate modulator for fiber-optic communications systems," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 69-82 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  13. J. M. Wiesenfeld, A. H. Gnauck, G. Raybon, and U. Koren, "High-speed multiple-quantum-well optical power amplifier," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 708-711 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  14. J. Jacquet, P. Brosson, A. Olivier, A. Perales, A. Bodere, and D. Leclerc, "Carrier-induced differential refractive index in GaInAsP-GaInAs separate confinement multiquantum well lasers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2, 620-622 (1990).
    [CrossRef]

2005

2003

C. S. Wong, and H. K. Tsang, "Polarization-independent wavelength conversion at 10 Gb/s using birefringence switching in a semiconductor optical amplifier," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 87-89 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Soto, J. D. Topomondzob, D. Erasmeb, and M. Castro, "All-optical NOR gates with two and three input logic signals based on cross-polarization modulation in a semiconductor optical amplifier," Opt. Commun. 28, 243-247 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2000

E. L. Wooten, K. M. Kissa, A. Yi-Yan, E. J. Murphy, D. A. Lafaw, P. F. Hallemeier, D. Maack, D. V. Attanasio, D. J. Fritz, G. J. McBrien, and D. E. Bossi, "A review of lithium niobate modulator for fiber-optic communications systems," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 69-82 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

H. Soto, D. Erasme, and G. Guekos, "Cross-polarization modulation in semiconductor optical amplifiers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 970-972 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

S. Diez, C. Schmidt, R. Ludwig, H. G. Weber, P. Doussiere, and T. Ducellier, "Effect of birefringence in a bulk semiconductor optical amplifier on four-wave mixing," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 212-214 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

K. Obermann, S. Kindt, D. Breuer, K. Petermann, C. Schmidt, S. Diez, and H. G. Weber, "Noise characteristics of semiconductor-optical amplifiers used for wavelength conversion via cross-gain and cross-phase modulation," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 312-314 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. C. Hutchings, J. S. Aitchison, and J. M. Arnold, "Nonlinear refractive coupling and vector solitons in anisotropic cubic media," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 869-879 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1992

J. M. Wiesenfeld, A. H. Gnauck, G. Raybon, and U. Koren, "High-speed multiple-quantum-well optical power amplifier," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 708-711 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1990

J. Jacquet, P. Brosson, A. Olivier, A. Perales, A. Bodere, and D. Leclerc, "Carrier-induced differential refractive index in GaInAsP-GaInAs separate confinement multiquantum well lasers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2, 620-622 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Aitchison, J. S.

Arnold, J. M.

Attanasio, D. V.

E. L. Wooten, K. M. Kissa, A. Yi-Yan, E. J. Murphy, D. A. Lafaw, P. F. Hallemeier, D. Maack, D. V. Attanasio, D. J. Fritz, G. J. McBrien, and D. E. Bossi, "A review of lithium niobate modulator for fiber-optic communications systems," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 69-82 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bodere, A.

J. Jacquet, P. Brosson, A. Olivier, A. Perales, A. Bodere, and D. Leclerc, "Carrier-induced differential refractive index in GaInAsP-GaInAs separate confinement multiquantum well lasers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2, 620-622 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Bossi, D. E.

E. L. Wooten, K. M. Kissa, A. Yi-Yan, E. J. Murphy, D. A. Lafaw, P. F. Hallemeier, D. Maack, D. V. Attanasio, D. J. Fritz, G. J. McBrien, and D. E. Bossi, "A review of lithium niobate modulator for fiber-optic communications systems," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 69-82 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Breuer, D.

K. Obermann, S. Kindt, D. Breuer, K. Petermann, C. Schmidt, S. Diez, and H. G. Weber, "Noise characteristics of semiconductor-optical amplifiers used for wavelength conversion via cross-gain and cross-phase modulation," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 312-314 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Brosson, P.

J. Jacquet, P. Brosson, A. Olivier, A. Perales, A. Bodere, and D. Leclerc, "Carrier-induced differential refractive index in GaInAsP-GaInAs separate confinement multiquantum well lasers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2, 620-622 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Castro, M.

H. Soto, J. D. Topomondzob, D. Erasmeb, and M. Castro, "All-optical NOR gates with two and three input logic signals based on cross-polarization modulation in a semiconductor optical amplifier," Opt. Commun. 28, 243-247 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Connelly, M. J.

Diez, S.

S. Diez, C. Schmidt, R. Ludwig, H. G. Weber, P. Doussiere, and T. Ducellier, "Effect of birefringence in a bulk semiconductor optical amplifier on four-wave mixing," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 212-214 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. Obermann, S. Kindt, D. Breuer, K. Petermann, C. Schmidt, S. Diez, and H. G. Weber, "Noise characteristics of semiconductor-optical amplifiers used for wavelength conversion via cross-gain and cross-phase modulation," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 312-314 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Doussiere, P.

S. Diez, C. Schmidt, R. Ludwig, H. G. Weber, P. Doussiere, and T. Ducellier, "Effect of birefringence in a bulk semiconductor optical amplifier on four-wave mixing," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 212-214 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ducellier, T.

S. Diez, C. Schmidt, R. Ludwig, H. G. Weber, P. Doussiere, and T. Ducellier, "Effect of birefringence in a bulk semiconductor optical amplifier on four-wave mixing," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 212-214 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Erasme, D.

H. Soto, D. Erasme, and G. Guekos, "Cross-polarization modulation in semiconductor optical amplifiers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 970-972 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Erasmeb, D.

H. Soto, J. D. Topomondzob, D. Erasmeb, and M. Castro, "All-optical NOR gates with two and three input logic signals based on cross-polarization modulation in a semiconductor optical amplifier," Opt. Commun. 28, 243-247 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fritz, D. J.

E. L. Wooten, K. M. Kissa, A. Yi-Yan, E. J. Murphy, D. A. Lafaw, P. F. Hallemeier, D. Maack, D. V. Attanasio, D. J. Fritz, G. J. McBrien, and D. E. Bossi, "A review of lithium niobate modulator for fiber-optic communications systems," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 69-82 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gnauck, A. H.

J. M. Wiesenfeld, A. H. Gnauck, G. Raybon, and U. Koren, "High-speed multiple-quantum-well optical power amplifier," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 708-711 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Guekos, G.

H. Soto, D. Erasme, and G. Guekos, "Cross-polarization modulation in semiconductor optical amplifiers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 970-972 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Guo, L. Q.

Hallemeier, P. F.

E. L. Wooten, K. M. Kissa, A. Yi-Yan, E. J. Murphy, D. A. Lafaw, P. F. Hallemeier, D. Maack, D. V. Attanasio, D. J. Fritz, G. J. McBrien, and D. E. Bossi, "A review of lithium niobate modulator for fiber-optic communications systems," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 69-82 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hutchings, D. C.

Jacquet, J.

J. Jacquet, P. Brosson, A. Olivier, A. Perales, A. Bodere, and D. Leclerc, "Carrier-induced differential refractive index in GaInAsP-GaInAs separate confinement multiquantum well lasers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2, 620-622 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Kindt, S.

K. Obermann, S. Kindt, D. Breuer, K. Petermann, C. Schmidt, S. Diez, and H. G. Weber, "Noise characteristics of semiconductor-optical amplifiers used for wavelength conversion via cross-gain and cross-phase modulation," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 312-314 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kissa, K. M.

E. L. Wooten, K. M. Kissa, A. Yi-Yan, E. J. Murphy, D. A. Lafaw, P. F. Hallemeier, D. Maack, D. V. Attanasio, D. J. Fritz, G. J. McBrien, and D. E. Bossi, "A review of lithium niobate modulator for fiber-optic communications systems," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 69-82 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Koren, U.

J. M. Wiesenfeld, A. H. Gnauck, G. Raybon, and U. Koren, "High-speed multiple-quantum-well optical power amplifier," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 708-711 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Lafaw, D. A.

E. L. Wooten, K. M. Kissa, A. Yi-Yan, E. J. Murphy, D. A. Lafaw, P. F. Hallemeier, D. Maack, D. V. Attanasio, D. J. Fritz, G. J. McBrien, and D. E. Bossi, "A review of lithium niobate modulator for fiber-optic communications systems," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 69-82 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Leclerc, D.

J. Jacquet, P. Brosson, A. Olivier, A. Perales, A. Bodere, and D. Leclerc, "Carrier-induced differential refractive index in GaInAsP-GaInAs separate confinement multiquantum well lasers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2, 620-622 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Ludwig, R.

S. Diez, C. Schmidt, R. Ludwig, H. G. Weber, P. Doussiere, and T. Ducellier, "Effect of birefringence in a bulk semiconductor optical amplifier on four-wave mixing," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 212-214 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Maack, D.

E. L. Wooten, K. M. Kissa, A. Yi-Yan, E. J. Murphy, D. A. Lafaw, P. F. Hallemeier, D. Maack, D. V. Attanasio, D. J. Fritz, G. J. McBrien, and D. E. Bossi, "A review of lithium niobate modulator for fiber-optic communications systems," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 69-82 (2000).
[CrossRef]

McBrien, G. J.

E. L. Wooten, K. M. Kissa, A. Yi-Yan, E. J. Murphy, D. A. Lafaw, P. F. Hallemeier, D. Maack, D. V. Attanasio, D. J. Fritz, G. J. McBrien, and D. E. Bossi, "A review of lithium niobate modulator for fiber-optic communications systems," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 69-82 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Murphy, E. J.

E. L. Wooten, K. M. Kissa, A. Yi-Yan, E. J. Murphy, D. A. Lafaw, P. F. Hallemeier, D. Maack, D. V. Attanasio, D. J. Fritz, G. J. McBrien, and D. E. Bossi, "A review of lithium niobate modulator for fiber-optic communications systems," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 69-82 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Obermann, K.

K. Obermann, S. Kindt, D. Breuer, K. Petermann, C. Schmidt, S. Diez, and H. G. Weber, "Noise characteristics of semiconductor-optical amplifiers used for wavelength conversion via cross-gain and cross-phase modulation," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 312-314 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Olivier, A.

J. Jacquet, P. Brosson, A. Olivier, A. Perales, A. Bodere, and D. Leclerc, "Carrier-induced differential refractive index in GaInAsP-GaInAs separate confinement multiquantum well lasers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2, 620-622 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Perales, A.

J. Jacquet, P. Brosson, A. Olivier, A. Perales, A. Bodere, and D. Leclerc, "Carrier-induced differential refractive index in GaInAsP-GaInAs separate confinement multiquantum well lasers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2, 620-622 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Petermann, K.

K. Obermann, S. Kindt, D. Breuer, K. Petermann, C. Schmidt, S. Diez, and H. G. Weber, "Noise characteristics of semiconductor-optical amplifiers used for wavelength conversion via cross-gain and cross-phase modulation," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 312-314 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Raybon, G.

J. M. Wiesenfeld, A. H. Gnauck, G. Raybon, and U. Koren, "High-speed multiple-quantum-well optical power amplifier," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 708-711 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, C.

S. Diez, C. Schmidt, R. Ludwig, H. G. Weber, P. Doussiere, and T. Ducellier, "Effect of birefringence in a bulk semiconductor optical amplifier on four-wave mixing," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 212-214 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. Obermann, S. Kindt, D. Breuer, K. Petermann, C. Schmidt, S. Diez, and H. G. Weber, "Noise characteristics of semiconductor-optical amplifiers used for wavelength conversion via cross-gain and cross-phase modulation," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 312-314 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Soto, H.

H. Soto, J. D. Topomondzob, D. Erasmeb, and M. Castro, "All-optical NOR gates with two and three input logic signals based on cross-polarization modulation in a semiconductor optical amplifier," Opt. Commun. 28, 243-247 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Soto, D. Erasme, and G. Guekos, "Cross-polarization modulation in semiconductor optical amplifiers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 970-972 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Topomondzob, J. D.

H. Soto, J. D. Topomondzob, D. Erasmeb, and M. Castro, "All-optical NOR gates with two and three input logic signals based on cross-polarization modulation in a semiconductor optical amplifier," Opt. Commun. 28, 243-247 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tsang, H. K.

C. S. Wong, and H. K. Tsang, "Polarization-independent wavelength conversion at 10 Gb/s using birefringence switching in a semiconductor optical amplifier," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 87-89 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Weber, H. G.

S. Diez, C. Schmidt, R. Ludwig, H. G. Weber, P. Doussiere, and T. Ducellier, "Effect of birefringence in a bulk semiconductor optical amplifier on four-wave mixing," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 212-214 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. Obermann, S. Kindt, D. Breuer, K. Petermann, C. Schmidt, S. Diez, and H. G. Weber, "Noise characteristics of semiconductor-optical amplifiers used for wavelength conversion via cross-gain and cross-phase modulation," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 312-314 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wiesenfeld, J. M.

J. M. Wiesenfeld, A. H. Gnauck, G. Raybon, and U. Koren, "High-speed multiple-quantum-well optical power amplifier," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 708-711 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Wong, C. S.

C. S. Wong, and H. K. Tsang, "Polarization-independent wavelength conversion at 10 Gb/s using birefringence switching in a semiconductor optical amplifier," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 87-89 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wooten, E. L.

E. L. Wooten, K. M. Kissa, A. Yi-Yan, E. J. Murphy, D. A. Lafaw, P. F. Hallemeier, D. Maack, D. V. Attanasio, D. J. Fritz, G. J. McBrien, and D. E. Bossi, "A review of lithium niobate modulator for fiber-optic communications systems," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 69-82 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Yi-Yan, A.

E. L. Wooten, K. M. Kissa, A. Yi-Yan, E. J. Murphy, D. A. Lafaw, P. F. Hallemeier, D. Maack, D. V. Attanasio, D. J. Fritz, G. J. McBrien, and D. E. Bossi, "A review of lithium niobate modulator for fiber-optic communications systems," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 69-82 (2000).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

E. L. Wooten, K. M. Kissa, A. Yi-Yan, E. J. Murphy, D. A. Lafaw, P. F. Hallemeier, D. Maack, D. V. Attanasio, D. J. Fritz, G. J. McBrien, and D. E. Bossi, "A review of lithium niobate modulator for fiber-optic communications systems," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 69-82 (2000).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

J. M. Wiesenfeld, A. H. Gnauck, G. Raybon, and U. Koren, "High-speed multiple-quantum-well optical power amplifier," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 708-711 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Jacquet, P. Brosson, A. Olivier, A. Perales, A. Bodere, and D. Leclerc, "Carrier-induced differential refractive index in GaInAsP-GaInAs separate confinement multiquantum well lasers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2, 620-622 (1990).
[CrossRef]

S. Diez, C. Schmidt, R. Ludwig, H. G. Weber, P. Doussiere, and T. Ducellier, "Effect of birefringence in a bulk semiconductor optical amplifier on four-wave mixing," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 212-214 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. Soto, D. Erasme, and G. Guekos, "Cross-polarization modulation in semiconductor optical amplifiers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 970-972 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. Obermann, S. Kindt, D. Breuer, K. Petermann, C. Schmidt, S. Diez, and H. G. Weber, "Noise characteristics of semiconductor-optical amplifiers used for wavelength conversion via cross-gain and cross-phase modulation," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 312-314 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Wong, and H. K. Tsang, "Polarization-independent wavelength conversion at 10 Gb/s using birefringence switching in a semiconductor optical amplifier," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 87-89 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Opt. Commun.

H. Soto, J. D. Topomondzob, D. Erasmeb, and M. Castro, "All-optical NOR gates with two and three input logic signals based on cross-polarization modulation in a semiconductor optical amplifier," Opt. Commun. 28, 243-247 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Other

L. Q. Guo, and M. J. Connelly, "All-optical AND gate using nonlinear polarization rotation in a bulk semiconductor optical amplifier," in Technical Digest: Optical Amplifiers and Their Applications 2005 (The Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 2005), Pres. no.: SuB9.

B. E. A. Saleh, and M. C. Teich, Fundamentals of Photonics (John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1991), Chap. 19.
[CrossRef]

M. J. Connelly, Semiconductor Optical Amplifiers (Kluwer Academic Publishers, Boston, 2002), Chap.7 and references therein.

L. Q. Guo, and M. J. Connelly, "Demonstration of birefringence in a bulk semiconductor optical amplifier and its application to all-optical wavelength conversion," in Technical Digest: Symposium on Optical Fiber Measurements 2004, P. A. Williams, and G. W. Day, ed. (NIST, Boulder, Colo., 2004), pp. 167-170.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Principle of optical AND gate by XPolM in a counter-propagation scheme, and the truth table.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental setup for optical AND gate by XPolM. PC: polarization controller; BPF: band pass filter; ODL: optical delay line; EDFA: erbium-doped fiber amplifier.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Optical AND operation. The time scale is 400ps/div. “Output data A” is AND operation using inverted, up-conversion scheme, showing much improve extinction ratio; while “output data B” is AND operation using non-inverted schemes (optical trace is taken from Ref. [6]), showing fluctuations in logic “0” state.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Optical traces displayed on the digital communications analyzer with the values of Q-factor and extinction ratio for optical trace A in Fig. 3. (a) 200ps/div; (b) 800ps/div.

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