Abstract

The second-order nonlinearity of poled-polymer during photobleaching process is monitored with second harmonic generation(SHG) intensity enhanced by surface plasmon resonance(SPR) in an attenuated total reflection (ATR) configuration. The nonlinear coefficient d33 of the poled polymer is determined by comparing the SPR enhanced second harmonic generation(SHG) intensities with that from the calibrated quartz. Experimental results show that photobleaching process has less effect on the second-order nonlinearity of a poled cross-linked polymer than that of a poled side-chain polymer.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  1. D. M. Burland, R. D. Miller, and C. A. Walsh, "Second-order nonlinearity in poled-polymer systems," Chem. Rev. 94, 31-75(1994).
    [CrossRef]
  2. K. Schmitt, C. Benecke, and M. Schadt, "Efficient second-harmonic generation in novel Cerenkov type nonlinear-optical polymer waveguides," J. Appl. Phys. 81, 11-17(1997).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. Vydra, H. Beisinghoff, T. Tschudi, and M. Eich, "Photodecay mechanisms in side chain nonlinear optical polymethacrylates," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1035-1037(1996).
    [CrossRef]
  4. T. Hattori, T. Shibata, S. Onodera, and T. Kaino, "Fabrication of refractive index grating into azo-dye-containing polymer films by irreversible photo induced bleaching," J. Appl. Phys. 87, 3240- 3244(2000).
    [CrossRef]
  5. R. S. Moshrefzadeh, D. K. Misemer, M. D. Radcliffe, C. V. Francis, and S. K. Mohapatra, "Nonuniform photobleaching of dyed polymers for optical waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 16-18(1993).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. Shibata, O. Sugihara, Y. Che, H. Fujimura, C. Egami, and N. Okamoto, "Formation of channel waveguide with grating in polymer films based on simultaneous photobleaching and embossing," Opt. Mater. 21, 495-498(2002).
    [CrossRef]
  7. D. Ganic, D. Day, and M. Gu, "Multi-level optical data storage in a photobleaching polymer using two-photon excitation under continuous wave illumination," Opt. Lasers Eng. 38, 433-437(2002).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. E. Sipe, V. C. Y. So, M. Fukui, and G. I. Stegeman, "Analysis of second-harmonic generaion at metal surfaces," Phys. Rev. B 21, 4389-4402(1980).
    [CrossRef]
  9. H. J. Simon, R. E. Benner, and J. G. Rako, "Optical second harmonic generation with surface plasmons in piezoelectric crystals," Opt. Commun. 23, 245-248(1977).
    [CrossRef]
  10. N. Bloembergen, H. J. Simon, and C. H. Lee, "Total reflection phenomena in second-harmonic generation of light," Phys. Rev. 181, 1261-1271(1969).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. Kiguchi, M. Kato, M. Okunaka, and Y. Taniguchi, "New method of measuring second harmonic generation efficiency using powder crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1933-1935(1992).
    [CrossRef]
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  13. W. P. Chen, and J. M. Chen, "Use of surface plasma waves for determination of the thickness and optical constants of thin metallic films," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 71, 189-191(1981).
    [CrossRef]
  14. J. Lu, and J. Yin, "Synthesis and characterization of photocrosslinkable, side-chain, second-order nonlinear optical poly(ester imide)s with great film-forming ability and long-term dipole orientation stability," J. Polym. Sci. Part A Polym. Chem. 41,303-312(2003).
    [CrossRef]
  15. P. D. Maker, R. W. Terhune, M. Nisenoff, and C. M. Savage, "Effects of dispersion and focusing on the production of optical harmonics," Phys. Rev. Lett. 8, 21-22(1962).
    [CrossRef]
  16. Y. Hase, K. Kumata, S. S. Kano, M. Bhashi, T. Kondo, R. Ito, and Y. Shiraki, "New method for determining the nonlinear optical coefficients of thin films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 145-146(1992).
    [CrossRef]
  17. M. Chen, L. Yu, L. R. Dalton, Y. Shi, and W. H. Steier, "New polymers with large and stable second-order nonlinear optical effects," Macromolecules 24, 5421-5428(1991).
    [CrossRef]

2003

J. Lu, and J. Yin, "Synthesis and characterization of photocrosslinkable, side-chain, second-order nonlinear optical poly(ester imide)s with great film-forming ability and long-term dipole orientation stability," J. Polym. Sci. Part A Polym. Chem. 41,303-312(2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

S. Shibata, O. Sugihara, Y. Che, H. Fujimura, C. Egami, and N. Okamoto, "Formation of channel waveguide with grating in polymer films based on simultaneous photobleaching and embossing," Opt. Mater. 21, 495-498(2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Ganic, D. Day, and M. Gu, "Multi-level optical data storage in a photobleaching polymer using two-photon excitation under continuous wave illumination," Opt. Lasers Eng. 38, 433-437(2002).
[CrossRef]

2000

T. Hattori, T. Shibata, S. Onodera, and T. Kaino, "Fabrication of refractive index grating into azo-dye-containing polymer films by irreversible photo induced bleaching," J. Appl. Phys. 87, 3240- 3244(2000).
[CrossRef]

1997

K. Schmitt, C. Benecke, and M. Schadt, "Efficient second-harmonic generation in novel Cerenkov type nonlinear-optical polymer waveguides," J. Appl. Phys. 81, 11-17(1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

J. Vydra, H. Beisinghoff, T. Tschudi, and M. Eich, "Photodecay mechanisms in side chain nonlinear optical polymethacrylates," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1035-1037(1996).
[CrossRef]

1994

D. M. Burland, R. D. Miller, and C. A. Walsh, "Second-order nonlinearity in poled-polymer systems," Chem. Rev. 94, 31-75(1994).
[CrossRef]

1993

R. S. Moshrefzadeh, D. K. Misemer, M. D. Radcliffe, C. V. Francis, and S. K. Mohapatra, "Nonuniform photobleaching of dyed polymers for optical waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 16-18(1993).
[CrossRef]

1992

Y. Hase, K. Kumata, S. S. Kano, M. Bhashi, T. Kondo, R. Ito, and Y. Shiraki, "New method for determining the nonlinear optical coefficients of thin films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 145-146(1992).
[CrossRef]

M. Kiguchi, M. Kato, M. Okunaka, and Y. Taniguchi, "New method of measuring second harmonic generation efficiency using powder crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1933-1935(1992).
[CrossRef]

1991

M. Chen, L. Yu, L. R. Dalton, Y. Shi, and W. H. Steier, "New polymers with large and stable second-order nonlinear optical effects," Macromolecules 24, 5421-5428(1991).
[CrossRef]

1981

1980

J. E. Sipe, V. C. Y. So, M. Fukui, and G. I. Stegeman, "Analysis of second-harmonic generaion at metal surfaces," Phys. Rev. B 21, 4389-4402(1980).
[CrossRef]

1977

H. J. Simon, R. E. Benner, and J. G. Rako, "Optical second harmonic generation with surface plasmons in piezoelectric crystals," Opt. Commun. 23, 245-248(1977).
[CrossRef]

1969

N. Bloembergen, H. J. Simon, and C. H. Lee, "Total reflection phenomena in second-harmonic generation of light," Phys. Rev. 181, 1261-1271(1969).
[CrossRef]

1962

P. D. Maker, R. W. Terhune, M. Nisenoff, and C. M. Savage, "Effects of dispersion and focusing on the production of optical harmonics," Phys. Rev. Lett. 8, 21-22(1962).
[CrossRef]

Beisinghoff, H.

J. Vydra, H. Beisinghoff, T. Tschudi, and M. Eich, "Photodecay mechanisms in side chain nonlinear optical polymethacrylates," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1035-1037(1996).
[CrossRef]

Benecke, C.

K. Schmitt, C. Benecke, and M. Schadt, "Efficient second-harmonic generation in novel Cerenkov type nonlinear-optical polymer waveguides," J. Appl. Phys. 81, 11-17(1997).
[CrossRef]

Benner, R. E.

H. J. Simon, R. E. Benner, and J. G. Rako, "Optical second harmonic generation with surface plasmons in piezoelectric crystals," Opt. Commun. 23, 245-248(1977).
[CrossRef]

Bhashi, M.

Y. Hase, K. Kumata, S. S. Kano, M. Bhashi, T. Kondo, R. Ito, and Y. Shiraki, "New method for determining the nonlinear optical coefficients of thin films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 145-146(1992).
[CrossRef]

Bloembergen, N.

N. Bloembergen, H. J. Simon, and C. H. Lee, "Total reflection phenomena in second-harmonic generation of light," Phys. Rev. 181, 1261-1271(1969).
[CrossRef]

Burland, D. M.

D. M. Burland, R. D. Miller, and C. A. Walsh, "Second-order nonlinearity in poled-polymer systems," Chem. Rev. 94, 31-75(1994).
[CrossRef]

Che, Y.

S. Shibata, O. Sugihara, Y. Che, H. Fujimura, C. Egami, and N. Okamoto, "Formation of channel waveguide with grating in polymer films based on simultaneous photobleaching and embossing," Opt. Mater. 21, 495-498(2002).
[CrossRef]

Chen, J. M.

Chen, M.

M. Chen, L. Yu, L. R. Dalton, Y. Shi, and W. H. Steier, "New polymers with large and stable second-order nonlinear optical effects," Macromolecules 24, 5421-5428(1991).
[CrossRef]

Chen, W. P.

Dalton, L. R.

M. Chen, L. Yu, L. R. Dalton, Y. Shi, and W. H. Steier, "New polymers with large and stable second-order nonlinear optical effects," Macromolecules 24, 5421-5428(1991).
[CrossRef]

Day, D.

D. Ganic, D. Day, and M. Gu, "Multi-level optical data storage in a photobleaching polymer using two-photon excitation under continuous wave illumination," Opt. Lasers Eng. 38, 433-437(2002).
[CrossRef]

Egami, C.

S. Shibata, O. Sugihara, Y. Che, H. Fujimura, C. Egami, and N. Okamoto, "Formation of channel waveguide with grating in polymer films based on simultaneous photobleaching and embossing," Opt. Mater. 21, 495-498(2002).
[CrossRef]

Eich, M.

J. Vydra, H. Beisinghoff, T. Tschudi, and M. Eich, "Photodecay mechanisms in side chain nonlinear optical polymethacrylates," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1035-1037(1996).
[CrossRef]

Francis, C. V.

R. S. Moshrefzadeh, D. K. Misemer, M. D. Radcliffe, C. V. Francis, and S. K. Mohapatra, "Nonuniform photobleaching of dyed polymers for optical waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 16-18(1993).
[CrossRef]

Fujimura, H.

S. Shibata, O. Sugihara, Y. Che, H. Fujimura, C. Egami, and N. Okamoto, "Formation of channel waveguide with grating in polymer films based on simultaneous photobleaching and embossing," Opt. Mater. 21, 495-498(2002).
[CrossRef]

Fukui, M.

J. E. Sipe, V. C. Y. So, M. Fukui, and G. I. Stegeman, "Analysis of second-harmonic generaion at metal surfaces," Phys. Rev. B 21, 4389-4402(1980).
[CrossRef]

Ganic, D.

D. Ganic, D. Day, and M. Gu, "Multi-level optical data storage in a photobleaching polymer using two-photon excitation under continuous wave illumination," Opt. Lasers Eng. 38, 433-437(2002).
[CrossRef]

Gu, M.

D. Ganic, D. Day, and M. Gu, "Multi-level optical data storage in a photobleaching polymer using two-photon excitation under continuous wave illumination," Opt. Lasers Eng. 38, 433-437(2002).
[CrossRef]

Hase, Y.

Y. Hase, K. Kumata, S. S. Kano, M. Bhashi, T. Kondo, R. Ito, and Y. Shiraki, "New method for determining the nonlinear optical coefficients of thin films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 145-146(1992).
[CrossRef]

Hattori, T.

T. Hattori, T. Shibata, S. Onodera, and T. Kaino, "Fabrication of refractive index grating into azo-dye-containing polymer films by irreversible photo induced bleaching," J. Appl. Phys. 87, 3240- 3244(2000).
[CrossRef]

Ito, R.

Y. Hase, K. Kumata, S. S. Kano, M. Bhashi, T. Kondo, R. Ito, and Y. Shiraki, "New method for determining the nonlinear optical coefficients of thin films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 145-146(1992).
[CrossRef]

Kaino, T.

T. Hattori, T. Shibata, S. Onodera, and T. Kaino, "Fabrication of refractive index grating into azo-dye-containing polymer films by irreversible photo induced bleaching," J. Appl. Phys. 87, 3240- 3244(2000).
[CrossRef]

Kano, S. S.

Y. Hase, K. Kumata, S. S. Kano, M. Bhashi, T. Kondo, R. Ito, and Y. Shiraki, "New method for determining the nonlinear optical coefficients of thin films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 145-146(1992).
[CrossRef]

Kato, M.

M. Kiguchi, M. Kato, M. Okunaka, and Y. Taniguchi, "New method of measuring second harmonic generation efficiency using powder crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1933-1935(1992).
[CrossRef]

Kiguchi, M.

M. Kiguchi, M. Kato, M. Okunaka, and Y. Taniguchi, "New method of measuring second harmonic generation efficiency using powder crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1933-1935(1992).
[CrossRef]

Kondo, T.

Y. Hase, K. Kumata, S. S. Kano, M. Bhashi, T. Kondo, R. Ito, and Y. Shiraki, "New method for determining the nonlinear optical coefficients of thin films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 145-146(1992).
[CrossRef]

Kumata, K.

Y. Hase, K. Kumata, S. S. Kano, M. Bhashi, T. Kondo, R. Ito, and Y. Shiraki, "New method for determining the nonlinear optical coefficients of thin films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 145-146(1992).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C. H.

N. Bloembergen, H. J. Simon, and C. H. Lee, "Total reflection phenomena in second-harmonic generation of light," Phys. Rev. 181, 1261-1271(1969).
[CrossRef]

Lu, J.

J. Lu, and J. Yin, "Synthesis and characterization of photocrosslinkable, side-chain, second-order nonlinear optical poly(ester imide)s with great film-forming ability and long-term dipole orientation stability," J. Polym. Sci. Part A Polym. Chem. 41,303-312(2003).
[CrossRef]

Maker, P. D.

P. D. Maker, R. W. Terhune, M. Nisenoff, and C. M. Savage, "Effects of dispersion and focusing on the production of optical harmonics," Phys. Rev. Lett. 8, 21-22(1962).
[CrossRef]

Miller, R. D.

D. M. Burland, R. D. Miller, and C. A. Walsh, "Second-order nonlinearity in poled-polymer systems," Chem. Rev. 94, 31-75(1994).
[CrossRef]

Misemer, D. K.

R. S. Moshrefzadeh, D. K. Misemer, M. D. Radcliffe, C. V. Francis, and S. K. Mohapatra, "Nonuniform photobleaching of dyed polymers for optical waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 16-18(1993).
[CrossRef]

Mohapatra, S. K.

R. S. Moshrefzadeh, D. K. Misemer, M. D. Radcliffe, C. V. Francis, and S. K. Mohapatra, "Nonuniform photobleaching of dyed polymers for optical waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 16-18(1993).
[CrossRef]

Moshrefzadeh, R. S.

R. S. Moshrefzadeh, D. K. Misemer, M. D. Radcliffe, C. V. Francis, and S. K. Mohapatra, "Nonuniform photobleaching of dyed polymers for optical waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 16-18(1993).
[CrossRef]

Nisenoff, M.

P. D. Maker, R. W. Terhune, M. Nisenoff, and C. M. Savage, "Effects of dispersion and focusing on the production of optical harmonics," Phys. Rev. Lett. 8, 21-22(1962).
[CrossRef]

Okamoto, N.

S. Shibata, O. Sugihara, Y. Che, H. Fujimura, C. Egami, and N. Okamoto, "Formation of channel waveguide with grating in polymer films based on simultaneous photobleaching and embossing," Opt. Mater. 21, 495-498(2002).
[CrossRef]

Okunaka, M.

M. Kiguchi, M. Kato, M. Okunaka, and Y. Taniguchi, "New method of measuring second harmonic generation efficiency using powder crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1933-1935(1992).
[CrossRef]

Onodera, S.

T. Hattori, T. Shibata, S. Onodera, and T. Kaino, "Fabrication of refractive index grating into azo-dye-containing polymer films by irreversible photo induced bleaching," J. Appl. Phys. 87, 3240- 3244(2000).
[CrossRef]

Radcliffe, M. D.

R. S. Moshrefzadeh, D. K. Misemer, M. D. Radcliffe, C. V. Francis, and S. K. Mohapatra, "Nonuniform photobleaching of dyed polymers for optical waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 16-18(1993).
[CrossRef]

Rako, J. G.

H. J. Simon, R. E. Benner, and J. G. Rako, "Optical second harmonic generation with surface plasmons in piezoelectric crystals," Opt. Commun. 23, 245-248(1977).
[CrossRef]

Savage, C. M.

P. D. Maker, R. W. Terhune, M. Nisenoff, and C. M. Savage, "Effects of dispersion and focusing on the production of optical harmonics," Phys. Rev. Lett. 8, 21-22(1962).
[CrossRef]

Schadt, M.

K. Schmitt, C. Benecke, and M. Schadt, "Efficient second-harmonic generation in novel Cerenkov type nonlinear-optical polymer waveguides," J. Appl. Phys. 81, 11-17(1997).
[CrossRef]

Schmitt, K.

K. Schmitt, C. Benecke, and M. Schadt, "Efficient second-harmonic generation in novel Cerenkov type nonlinear-optical polymer waveguides," J. Appl. Phys. 81, 11-17(1997).
[CrossRef]

Shi, Y.

M. Chen, L. Yu, L. R. Dalton, Y. Shi, and W. H. Steier, "New polymers with large and stable second-order nonlinear optical effects," Macromolecules 24, 5421-5428(1991).
[CrossRef]

Shibata, S.

S. Shibata, O. Sugihara, Y. Che, H. Fujimura, C. Egami, and N. Okamoto, "Formation of channel waveguide with grating in polymer films based on simultaneous photobleaching and embossing," Opt. Mater. 21, 495-498(2002).
[CrossRef]

Shibata, T.

T. Hattori, T. Shibata, S. Onodera, and T. Kaino, "Fabrication of refractive index grating into azo-dye-containing polymer films by irreversible photo induced bleaching," J. Appl. Phys. 87, 3240- 3244(2000).
[CrossRef]

Shiraki, Y.

Y. Hase, K. Kumata, S. S. Kano, M. Bhashi, T. Kondo, R. Ito, and Y. Shiraki, "New method for determining the nonlinear optical coefficients of thin films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 145-146(1992).
[CrossRef]

Simon, H. J.

H. J. Simon, R. E. Benner, and J. G. Rako, "Optical second harmonic generation with surface plasmons in piezoelectric crystals," Opt. Commun. 23, 245-248(1977).
[CrossRef]

N. Bloembergen, H. J. Simon, and C. H. Lee, "Total reflection phenomena in second-harmonic generation of light," Phys. Rev. 181, 1261-1271(1969).
[CrossRef]

Sipe, J. E.

J. E. Sipe, V. C. Y. So, M. Fukui, and G. I. Stegeman, "Analysis of second-harmonic generaion at metal surfaces," Phys. Rev. B 21, 4389-4402(1980).
[CrossRef]

So, V. C. Y.

J. E. Sipe, V. C. Y. So, M. Fukui, and G. I. Stegeman, "Analysis of second-harmonic generaion at metal surfaces," Phys. Rev. B 21, 4389-4402(1980).
[CrossRef]

Stegeman, G. I.

J. E. Sipe, V. C. Y. So, M. Fukui, and G. I. Stegeman, "Analysis of second-harmonic generaion at metal surfaces," Phys. Rev. B 21, 4389-4402(1980).
[CrossRef]

Steier, W. H.

M. Chen, L. Yu, L. R. Dalton, Y. Shi, and W. H. Steier, "New polymers with large and stable second-order nonlinear optical effects," Macromolecules 24, 5421-5428(1991).
[CrossRef]

Sugihara, O.

S. Shibata, O. Sugihara, Y. Che, H. Fujimura, C. Egami, and N. Okamoto, "Formation of channel waveguide with grating in polymer films based on simultaneous photobleaching and embossing," Opt. Mater. 21, 495-498(2002).
[CrossRef]

Taniguchi, Y.

M. Kiguchi, M. Kato, M. Okunaka, and Y. Taniguchi, "New method of measuring second harmonic generation efficiency using powder crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1933-1935(1992).
[CrossRef]

Terhune, R. W.

P. D. Maker, R. W. Terhune, M. Nisenoff, and C. M. Savage, "Effects of dispersion and focusing on the production of optical harmonics," Phys. Rev. Lett. 8, 21-22(1962).
[CrossRef]

Tschudi, T.

J. Vydra, H. Beisinghoff, T. Tschudi, and M. Eich, "Photodecay mechanisms in side chain nonlinear optical polymethacrylates," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1035-1037(1996).
[CrossRef]

Vydra, J.

J. Vydra, H. Beisinghoff, T. Tschudi, and M. Eich, "Photodecay mechanisms in side chain nonlinear optical polymethacrylates," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1035-1037(1996).
[CrossRef]

Walsh, C. A.

D. M. Burland, R. D. Miller, and C. A. Walsh, "Second-order nonlinearity in poled-polymer systems," Chem. Rev. 94, 31-75(1994).
[CrossRef]

Yin, J.

J. Lu, and J. Yin, "Synthesis and characterization of photocrosslinkable, side-chain, second-order nonlinear optical poly(ester imide)s with great film-forming ability and long-term dipole orientation stability," J. Polym. Sci. Part A Polym. Chem. 41,303-312(2003).
[CrossRef]

Yu, L.

M. Chen, L. Yu, L. R. Dalton, Y. Shi, and W. H. Steier, "New polymers with large and stable second-order nonlinear optical effects," Macromolecules 24, 5421-5428(1991).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

J. Vydra, H. Beisinghoff, T. Tschudi, and M. Eich, "Photodecay mechanisms in side chain nonlinear optical polymethacrylates," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1035-1037(1996).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Moshrefzadeh, D. K. Misemer, M. D. Radcliffe, C. V. Francis, and S. K. Mohapatra, "Nonuniform photobleaching of dyed polymers for optical waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 16-18(1993).
[CrossRef]

M. Kiguchi, M. Kato, M. Okunaka, and Y. Taniguchi, "New method of measuring second harmonic generation efficiency using powder crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1933-1935(1992).
[CrossRef]

Y. Hase, K. Kumata, S. S. Kano, M. Bhashi, T. Kondo, R. Ito, and Y. Shiraki, "New method for determining the nonlinear optical coefficients of thin films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 145-146(1992).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Rev.

D. M. Burland, R. D. Miller, and C. A. Walsh, "Second-order nonlinearity in poled-polymer systems," Chem. Rev. 94, 31-75(1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

K. Schmitt, C. Benecke, and M. Schadt, "Efficient second-harmonic generation in novel Cerenkov type nonlinear-optical polymer waveguides," J. Appl. Phys. 81, 11-17(1997).
[CrossRef]

T. Hattori, T. Shibata, S. Onodera, and T. Kaino, "Fabrication of refractive index grating into azo-dye-containing polymer films by irreversible photo induced bleaching," J. Appl. Phys. 87, 3240- 3244(2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

J. Polym. Sci. Part A Polym. Chem.

J. Lu, and J. Yin, "Synthesis and characterization of photocrosslinkable, side-chain, second-order nonlinear optical poly(ester imide)s with great film-forming ability and long-term dipole orientation stability," J. Polym. Sci. Part A Polym. Chem. 41,303-312(2003).
[CrossRef]

Macromolecules

M. Chen, L. Yu, L. R. Dalton, Y. Shi, and W. H. Steier, "New polymers with large and stable second-order nonlinear optical effects," Macromolecules 24, 5421-5428(1991).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

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[CrossRef]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

ATR configuration. (a) The schematic drawing for sample; (b) Theoretical mode.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Simulated SPR curves showing the reflectivity R versus angle of incident at 1.064μm; the thickness of silver film is 45nm; the refractive index the NLO polymer decreases from 1.643 to 1.413. The refractive index of prism at 1.064μm is 1.775.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

The contour of coefficient B for different kinds of NLO polymer with refractive index of n ω and Δn; Ag film, 45nm; at the SPR incidence angle, Rp=1% ; prism, ZF7; λ =1.064μm.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

The chemical structure of (NCO)2DR-19 and absorption spectrum of polyurethane

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

The chemical structure and absorption spectrum of PEI (x = 30)

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

The experimental set-up. The upper right corner is the relative spectral power distribution of UV light.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Time dependence of SHG intensity for two kinds of NLO polymer.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 The NLO coefficient d33 of two kinds of poled-polymer before and after photobleaching process.

Equations (4)

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I ( 2 ω ) 2 π N 1 c n 1 2 d 33 2 A s * 2 ( 1 R ) 2 I ( ω ) 2
A s * = 4 π K 0 { K 0 N 1 sin θ r [ ( a ) 2 ( b ) 2 ] 2 W 3 a b } W 3 N 3 ( 2 w 3 + W 3 ) ( 1 R 23 R 21 e 2 i W 2 d ) T 21 e i w 2 d T 32 e i w 3 d
d 33 p = 1 B I p ( 2 ω ) I q ( 2 ω ) I q ( ω ) I p ( ω ) d 11 q
B = A p * 2 A q * 2 ( 1 R p 1 R q ) 2

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