Abstract

We report a detailed physical characterization of a novel array of organic distributed feedback microcavity lasers possessing a high ratio between the quality factor Q of the resonant cavity and its volume V. The optical microcavity was obtained by confining self-organized mesophases doped with fluorescent guest molecules into holographically patterned polymeric microchannels. The liquid crystal microchannels act as mirror-less cavity lasers, where the emitted laser light propagates along the liquid crystal helical axis behaving as Bragg resonator. This miniaturization process allows us to obtain a micro-laser array possessing an ultralow lasing threshold (25nJ/pulse) while having directional control on the lasing emission, a fine wavelength tunability and the control over the emission intensity.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
  3. O. Painter, R. K. Lee, A. Scherer, A. Yariv, J. D. O'Brien, P. D. Dapkus and I. Kim, "Two-Dimensional Photonic Band-Gap Defect Mode Laser," Science 284, 1819 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  4. E. Yablonovitch, "Inhibited spontaneous emission in solid-state physics and electronics, "Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2059 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. John, "Strong localization of photons in certain disordered dielectric superlattices," Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2486 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  6. W. Cao, A. Munoz, P. Palffy-Muhoray and B. Taheri, "Lasing in a three-dimensional photonic crystal of the liquid crystal blue phase II" Nature Mat. 1, 111 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. Schmidtke, W. Stille, H. Finkelmann and S.T. Kim, "Laser Emission in a Dye Doped Cholesteric Polymer Network," Adv. Mat. 14, 746 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. Schmidtke and W. Stille, "Fluorescence of a dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystal film in the region of the stop band: theory and experiment," Eur. Phys. J. B 31, 179 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  9. R. C. McPhedran, L. C. Botten, J. McOrist, A. A. Asatryan, C. M. de Sterke and N. A. Nicorovici, "Density of states functions for photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. E 69, 016609 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  10. V.I. Kopp, Z.Q. Zhang and A.Z. Genack, "Large Coherence Area Thin-Film Photonic Stop-Band Lasers, " Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1753 (2001).
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  14. V. Barna, S. Ferjani, A. De Luca, R. Caputo, N. Scaramuzza, C. Versace and G. Strangi, "Band-Edge and Defect Modes Lasing Due to Confinement of Helixed Liquid Crystals in Cylindrical Microcavities," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 221108 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  15. M. Ozaki, M. Kasano, D. Ganzke,W. Haase, and K. Yoshino"Mirrorless Lasing in a Dye-Doped Ferroelectric Liquid Crystal"Adv. Mater. 14, 306 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
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  18. R. Caputo, L. De Sio, A. V. Sukhov, A. Veltri and C. Umeton, "Development of new kind of holographic grating made of liquid crystal films separated by slices of polymeric material" Opt. Lett 29, 1261 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
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2005 (1)

V. Barna, S. Ferjani, A. De Luca, R. Caputo, N. Scaramuzza, C. Versace and G. Strangi, "Band-Edge and Defect Modes Lasing Due to Confinement of Helixed Liquid Crystals in Cylindrical Microcavities," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 221108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (3)

T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane and K. J. Vahalaa, "Demonstration of ultra-high-Q small mode volume toroid microcavities on a chip," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 25 (2004).

R. Caputo, L. De Sio, A. V. Sukhov, A. Veltri and C. Umeton, "Development of new kind of holographic grating made of liquid crystal films separated by slices of polymeric material" Opt. Lett 29, 1261 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. C. McPhedran, L. C. Botten, J. McOrist, A. A. Asatryan, C. M. de Sterke and N. A. Nicorovici, "Density of states functions for photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. E 69, 016609 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

J. Schmidtke and W. Stille, "Fluorescence of a dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystal film in the region of the stop band: theory and experiment," Eur. Phys. J. B 31, 179 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (4)

M. Ozaki, M. Kasano, D. Ganzke,W. Haase, and K. Yoshino"Mirrorless Lasing in a Dye-Doped Ferroelectric Liquid Crystal"Adv. Mater. 14, 306 (2002).
[CrossRef]

W. Cao, A. Munoz, P. Palffy-Muhoray and B. Taheri, "Lasing in a three-dimensional photonic crystal of the liquid crystal blue phase II" Nature Mat. 1, 111 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Schmidtke, W. Stille, H. Finkelmann and S.T. Kim, "Laser Emission in a Dye Doped Cholesteric Polymer Network," Adv. Mat. 14, 746 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Spillane, T. J. Kippenberg and K. J. Vahala, "Ultralow-threshold Raman laser using a spherical dielectric microcavity," Nature 415, 621 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

V.I. Kopp, Z.Q. Zhang and A.Z. Genack, "Large Coherence Area Thin-Film Photonic Stop-Band Lasers, " Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1753 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

O. Painter, R. K. Lee, A. Scherer, A. Yariv, J. D. O'Brien, P. D. Dapkus and I. Kim, "Two-Dimensional Photonic Band-Gap Defect Mode Laser," Science 284, 1819 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1987 (2)

E. Yablonovitch, "Inhibited spontaneous emission in solid-state physics and electronics, "Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2059 (1987).
[CrossRef]

S. John, "Strong localization of photons in certain disordered dielectric superlattices," Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2486 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1971 (1)

H. Kogelnik and C.V. Shank, "Stimulated Emission in a Periodic Structure," Appl. Phys. Lett. 18, 152 (1971).
[CrossRef]

1946 (1)

E. M. Purcell, H. C. Torrey, and R. V. Pound, "Resonance Absorption by Nuclear Magnetic Moments in a Solid," Phys. Rev. 69, 681 (1946).

Asatryan, A. A.

R. C. McPhedran, L. C. Botten, J. McOrist, A. A. Asatryan, C. M. de Sterke and N. A. Nicorovici, "Density of states functions for photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. E 69, 016609 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Barna, V.

V. Barna, S. Ferjani, A. De Luca, R. Caputo, N. Scaramuzza, C. Versace and G. Strangi, "Band-Edge and Defect Modes Lasing Due to Confinement of Helixed Liquid Crystals in Cylindrical Microcavities," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 221108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Botten, L. C.

R. C. McPhedran, L. C. Botten, J. McOrist, A. A. Asatryan, C. M. de Sterke and N. A. Nicorovici, "Density of states functions for photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. E 69, 016609 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cao, W.

W. Cao, A. Munoz, P. Palffy-Muhoray and B. Taheri, "Lasing in a three-dimensional photonic crystal of the liquid crystal blue phase II" Nature Mat. 1, 111 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Caputo, R.

V. Barna, S. Ferjani, A. De Luca, R. Caputo, N. Scaramuzza, C. Versace and G. Strangi, "Band-Edge and Defect Modes Lasing Due to Confinement of Helixed Liquid Crystals in Cylindrical Microcavities," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 221108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Caputo, L. De Sio, A. V. Sukhov, A. Veltri and C. Umeton, "Development of new kind of holographic grating made of liquid crystal films separated by slices of polymeric material" Opt. Lett 29, 1261 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dapkus, P. D.

O. Painter, R. K. Lee, A. Scherer, A. Yariv, J. D. O'Brien, P. D. Dapkus and I. Kim, "Two-Dimensional Photonic Band-Gap Defect Mode Laser," Science 284, 1819 (1999).
[CrossRef]

De Luca, A.

V. Barna, S. Ferjani, A. De Luca, R. Caputo, N. Scaramuzza, C. Versace and G. Strangi, "Band-Edge and Defect Modes Lasing Due to Confinement of Helixed Liquid Crystals in Cylindrical Microcavities," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 221108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

De Sio, L.

R. Caputo, L. De Sio, A. V. Sukhov, A. Veltri and C. Umeton, "Development of new kind of holographic grating made of liquid crystal films separated by slices of polymeric material" Opt. Lett 29, 1261 (2004).
[CrossRef]

de Sterke, C. M.

R. C. McPhedran, L. C. Botten, J. McOrist, A. A. Asatryan, C. M. de Sterke and N. A. Nicorovici, "Density of states functions for photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. E 69, 016609 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ferjani, S.

V. Barna, S. Ferjani, A. De Luca, R. Caputo, N. Scaramuzza, C. Versace and G. Strangi, "Band-Edge and Defect Modes Lasing Due to Confinement of Helixed Liquid Crystals in Cylindrical Microcavities," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 221108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Finkelmann, H.

J. Schmidtke, W. Stille, H. Finkelmann and S.T. Kim, "Laser Emission in a Dye Doped Cholesteric Polymer Network," Adv. Mat. 14, 746 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ganzke, D.

M. Ozaki, M. Kasano, D. Ganzke,W. Haase, and K. Yoshino"Mirrorless Lasing in a Dye-Doped Ferroelectric Liquid Crystal"Adv. Mater. 14, 306 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Genack, A.Z.

V.I. Kopp, Z.Q. Zhang and A.Z. Genack, "Large Coherence Area Thin-Film Photonic Stop-Band Lasers, " Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1753 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Haase, W.

M. Ozaki, M. Kasano, D. Ganzke,W. Haase, and K. Yoshino"Mirrorless Lasing in a Dye-Doped Ferroelectric Liquid Crystal"Adv. Mater. 14, 306 (2002).
[CrossRef]

John, S.

S. John, "Strong localization of photons in certain disordered dielectric superlattices," Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2486 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Kasano, M.

M. Ozaki, M. Kasano, D. Ganzke,W. Haase, and K. Yoshino"Mirrorless Lasing in a Dye-Doped Ferroelectric Liquid Crystal"Adv. Mater. 14, 306 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kim, I.

O. Painter, R. K. Lee, A. Scherer, A. Yariv, J. D. O'Brien, P. D. Dapkus and I. Kim, "Two-Dimensional Photonic Band-Gap Defect Mode Laser," Science 284, 1819 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S.T.

J. Schmidtke, W. Stille, H. Finkelmann and S.T. Kim, "Laser Emission in a Dye Doped Cholesteric Polymer Network," Adv. Mat. 14, 746 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kippenberg, T. J.

T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane and K. J. Vahalaa, "Demonstration of ultra-high-Q small mode volume toroid microcavities on a chip," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 25 (2004).

S. Spillane, T. J. Kippenberg and K. J. Vahala, "Ultralow-threshold Raman laser using a spherical dielectric microcavity," Nature 415, 621 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kogelnik, H.

H. Kogelnik and C.V. Shank, "Stimulated Emission in a Periodic Structure," Appl. Phys. Lett. 18, 152 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Kopp, V.I.

V.I. Kopp, Z.Q. Zhang and A.Z. Genack, "Large Coherence Area Thin-Film Photonic Stop-Band Lasers, " Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1753 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lee, R. K.

O. Painter, R. K. Lee, A. Scherer, A. Yariv, J. D. O'Brien, P. D. Dapkus and I. Kim, "Two-Dimensional Photonic Band-Gap Defect Mode Laser," Science 284, 1819 (1999).
[CrossRef]

McOrist, J.

R. C. McPhedran, L. C. Botten, J. McOrist, A. A. Asatryan, C. M. de Sterke and N. A. Nicorovici, "Density of states functions for photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. E 69, 016609 (2004).
[CrossRef]

McPhedran, R. C.

R. C. McPhedran, L. C. Botten, J. McOrist, A. A. Asatryan, C. M. de Sterke and N. A. Nicorovici, "Density of states functions for photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. E 69, 016609 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Munoz, A.

W. Cao, A. Munoz, P. Palffy-Muhoray and B. Taheri, "Lasing in a three-dimensional photonic crystal of the liquid crystal blue phase II" Nature Mat. 1, 111 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nicorovici, N. A.

R. C. McPhedran, L. C. Botten, J. McOrist, A. A. Asatryan, C. M. de Sterke and N. A. Nicorovici, "Density of states functions for photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. E 69, 016609 (2004).
[CrossRef]

O'Brien, J. D.

O. Painter, R. K. Lee, A. Scherer, A. Yariv, J. D. O'Brien, P. D. Dapkus and I. Kim, "Two-Dimensional Photonic Band-Gap Defect Mode Laser," Science 284, 1819 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ozaki, M.

M. Ozaki, M. Kasano, D. Ganzke,W. Haase, and K. Yoshino"Mirrorless Lasing in a Dye-Doped Ferroelectric Liquid Crystal"Adv. Mater. 14, 306 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Painter, O.

O. Painter, R. K. Lee, A. Scherer, A. Yariv, J. D. O'Brien, P. D. Dapkus and I. Kim, "Two-Dimensional Photonic Band-Gap Defect Mode Laser," Science 284, 1819 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Palffy-Muhoray, P.

W. Cao, A. Munoz, P. Palffy-Muhoray and B. Taheri, "Lasing in a three-dimensional photonic crystal of the liquid crystal blue phase II" Nature Mat. 1, 111 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Pound, R. V.

E. M. Purcell, H. C. Torrey, and R. V. Pound, "Resonance Absorption by Nuclear Magnetic Moments in a Solid," Phys. Rev. 69, 681 (1946).

Purcell, E. M.

E. M. Purcell, H. C. Torrey, and R. V. Pound, "Resonance Absorption by Nuclear Magnetic Moments in a Solid," Phys. Rev. 69, 681 (1946).

Scaramuzza, N.

V. Barna, S. Ferjani, A. De Luca, R. Caputo, N. Scaramuzza, C. Versace and G. Strangi, "Band-Edge and Defect Modes Lasing Due to Confinement of Helixed Liquid Crystals in Cylindrical Microcavities," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 221108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Scherer, A.

O. Painter, R. K. Lee, A. Scherer, A. Yariv, J. D. O'Brien, P. D. Dapkus and I. Kim, "Two-Dimensional Photonic Band-Gap Defect Mode Laser," Science 284, 1819 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Schmidtke, J.

J. Schmidtke and W. Stille, "Fluorescence of a dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystal film in the region of the stop band: theory and experiment," Eur. Phys. J. B 31, 179 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Schmidtke, W. Stille, H. Finkelmann and S.T. Kim, "Laser Emission in a Dye Doped Cholesteric Polymer Network," Adv. Mat. 14, 746 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Shank, C.V.

H. Kogelnik and C.V. Shank, "Stimulated Emission in a Periodic Structure," Appl. Phys. Lett. 18, 152 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Spillane, S.

S. Spillane, T. J. Kippenberg and K. J. Vahala, "Ultralow-threshold Raman laser using a spherical dielectric microcavity," Nature 415, 621 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Spillane, S. M.

T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane and K. J. Vahalaa, "Demonstration of ultra-high-Q small mode volume toroid microcavities on a chip," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 25 (2004).

Stille, W.

J. Schmidtke and W. Stille, "Fluorescence of a dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystal film in the region of the stop band: theory and experiment," Eur. Phys. J. B 31, 179 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Schmidtke, W. Stille, H. Finkelmann and S.T. Kim, "Laser Emission in a Dye Doped Cholesteric Polymer Network," Adv. Mat. 14, 746 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Strangi, G.

V. Barna, S. Ferjani, A. De Luca, R. Caputo, N. Scaramuzza, C. Versace and G. Strangi, "Band-Edge and Defect Modes Lasing Due to Confinement of Helixed Liquid Crystals in Cylindrical Microcavities," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 221108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sukhov, A. V.

R. Caputo, L. De Sio, A. V. Sukhov, A. Veltri and C. Umeton, "Development of new kind of holographic grating made of liquid crystal films separated by slices of polymeric material" Opt. Lett 29, 1261 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Taheri, B.

W. Cao, A. Munoz, P. Palffy-Muhoray and B. Taheri, "Lasing in a three-dimensional photonic crystal of the liquid crystal blue phase II" Nature Mat. 1, 111 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Torrey, H. C.

E. M. Purcell, H. C. Torrey, and R. V. Pound, "Resonance Absorption by Nuclear Magnetic Moments in a Solid," Phys. Rev. 69, 681 (1946).

Umeton, C.

R. Caputo, L. De Sio, A. V. Sukhov, A. Veltri and C. Umeton, "Development of new kind of holographic grating made of liquid crystal films separated by slices of polymeric material" Opt. Lett 29, 1261 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Vahala, K. J.

S. Spillane, T. J. Kippenberg and K. J. Vahala, "Ultralow-threshold Raman laser using a spherical dielectric microcavity," Nature 415, 621 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Vahalaa, K. J.

T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane and K. J. Vahalaa, "Demonstration of ultra-high-Q small mode volume toroid microcavities on a chip," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 25 (2004).

Veltri, A.

R. Caputo, L. De Sio, A. V. Sukhov, A. Veltri and C. Umeton, "Development of new kind of holographic grating made of liquid crystal films separated by slices of polymeric material" Opt. Lett 29, 1261 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Versace, C.

V. Barna, S. Ferjani, A. De Luca, R. Caputo, N. Scaramuzza, C. Versace and G. Strangi, "Band-Edge and Defect Modes Lasing Due to Confinement of Helixed Liquid Crystals in Cylindrical Microcavities," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 221108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yablonovitch, E.

E. Yablonovitch, "Inhibited spontaneous emission in solid-state physics and electronics, "Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2059 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Yariv, A.

O. Painter, R. K. Lee, A. Scherer, A. Yariv, J. D. O'Brien, P. D. Dapkus and I. Kim, "Two-Dimensional Photonic Band-Gap Defect Mode Laser," Science 284, 1819 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yoshino, K.

M. Ozaki, M. Kasano, D. Ganzke,W. Haase, and K. Yoshino"Mirrorless Lasing in a Dye-Doped Ferroelectric Liquid Crystal"Adv. Mater. 14, 306 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Z.Q.

V.I. Kopp, Z.Q. Zhang and A.Z. Genack, "Large Coherence Area Thin-Film Photonic Stop-Band Lasers, " Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1753 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mat. (1)

J. Schmidtke, W. Stille, H. Finkelmann and S.T. Kim, "Laser Emission in a Dye Doped Cholesteric Polymer Network," Adv. Mat. 14, 746 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (1)

M. Ozaki, M. Kasano, D. Ganzke,W. Haase, and K. Yoshino"Mirrorless Lasing in a Dye-Doped Ferroelectric Liquid Crystal"Adv. Mater. 14, 306 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

V. Barna, S. Ferjani, A. De Luca, R. Caputo, N. Scaramuzza, C. Versace and G. Strangi, "Band-Edge and Defect Modes Lasing Due to Confinement of Helixed Liquid Crystals in Cylindrical Microcavities," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 221108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Kogelnik and C.V. Shank, "Stimulated Emission in a Periodic Structure," Appl. Phys. Lett. 18, 152 (1971).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane and K. J. Vahalaa, "Demonstration of ultra-high-Q small mode volume toroid microcavities on a chip," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 25 (2004).

Eur. Phys. J. B (1)

J. Schmidtke and W. Stille, "Fluorescence of a dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystal film in the region of the stop band: theory and experiment," Eur. Phys. J. B 31, 179 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

S. Spillane, T. J. Kippenberg and K. J. Vahala, "Ultralow-threshold Raman laser using a spherical dielectric microcavity," Nature 415, 621 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nature Mat. (1)

W. Cao, A. Munoz, P. Palffy-Muhoray and B. Taheri, "Lasing in a three-dimensional photonic crystal of the liquid crystal blue phase II" Nature Mat. 1, 111 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett (1)

R. Caputo, L. De Sio, A. V. Sukhov, A. Veltri and C. Umeton, "Development of new kind of holographic grating made of liquid crystal films separated by slices of polymeric material" Opt. Lett 29, 1261 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. (1)

E. M. Purcell, H. C. Torrey, and R. V. Pound, "Resonance Absorption by Nuclear Magnetic Moments in a Solid," Phys. Rev. 69, 681 (1946).

Phys. Rev. E (1)

R. C. McPhedran, L. C. Botten, J. McOrist, A. A. Asatryan, C. M. de Sterke and N. A. Nicorovici, "Density of states functions for photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. E 69, 016609 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

V.I. Kopp, Z.Q. Zhang and A.Z. Genack, "Large Coherence Area Thin-Film Photonic Stop-Band Lasers, " Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1753 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. Yablonovitch, "Inhibited spontaneous emission in solid-state physics and electronics, "Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2059 (1987).
[CrossRef]

S. John, "Strong localization of photons in certain disordered dielectric superlattices," Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2486 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

O. Painter, R. K. Lee, A. Scherer, A. Yariv, J. D. O'Brien, P. D. Dapkus and I. Kim, "Two-Dimensional Photonic Band-Gap Defect Mode Laser," Science 284, 1819 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Other (6)

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<other>. G. Strangi, V. Barna, R. Caputo, A. de Luca, C. Versace, N. Scaramuzza, C. Umeton, R..Bartolino and G.Price, "Color Tunable Distributed Feedback Organic Micro-Cavity Laser," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 063903 (2005). Editor ‘s choice for Virtual Journal of Nanoscale Science and Technology 11, 8 (2005).</other>

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