Abstract

We present a novel air-bridge subwavelength grating reflector with very high reflectivity be used as a top mirror in a VCSEL structure. We explain the design method, model the structure using both RCWA and FDTD, and predict the characteristics of a Fabry-Perot structure built with this reflector. We describe the fabrication of the suspended grating.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
  6. C. F. R. Mateus, M. C. Y. Huang, D. Yunfei, A. R. Neureuther, C. J. Chang-Hasnain, “Ultrabroadband mirror using low-index cladded subwavelength grating,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett., 16, 518 (2004).
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    [CrossRef]
  9. M. Maute, G. Bohm, M.-C. Amann, B. Kgel, H. Halbritter, P. Meissner , “Long-wavelength tunable vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers and the influence of coupled cavities,” Opt. Express 13, 8008–8014 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  11. G. Piazza, K. Castelino, A. P. Pisano, C. J. Chang-Hasnain, “Design of a monolithic piezoelectrically actuated microelectromechanical tunable vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser,” Opt. Lett., 30, 896 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  13. M. Arai, T. Kondo, A. Onomura, A. Matsutani, T. Miyamoto, F. Koyama, “Multiple-wavelength GaInAs-GaAs vertical cavity surface emitting laser array with extended wavelength span,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., 9, 1367 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  16. A. Karim, P. Abraham, D. Lofgreen, Y. J. Chiu, J. Piprek, J. Bowers, “Wafer-bonded 1.55 μm vertical cavity laser arrays for wavelength division multiplexing,” Electron. Lett. 37, 431 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  17. D. W. Peters, S. A. Kemme, G. R. Hadley, “Effect of finite grating, waveguide width, and end-facet geometry on resonant subwavelength grating reflectivity,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A, 21, 981 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  18. R. Petit, L. C. Botten, “Electromagnetic theory of gratings” (Springer-Verlag, Berlin; New York, 1980).
  19. M. Neviere, E. Popov, “Light Propagation in Periodic Media, Differential Theory and Design” (Marcel Dekker Inc., New York, 2004).
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    [CrossRef]
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2005

2004

D. W. Peters, S. A. Kemme, G. R. Hadley, “Effect of finite grating, waveguide width, and end-facet geometry on resonant subwavelength grating reflectivity,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A, 21, 981 (2004).
[CrossRef]

W. Nakagawa, Y. Fainman, “Tunable optical nanocavity based on modulation of near-field coupling between subwavelength periodic nanostructures,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., 10, 478 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. F. R. Mateus, M. C. Y. Huang, L. Chen, C. J. Chang-Hasnain, Y. Suzuki, “Broad-band mirror (1.12–1.62 μm) using a subwavelength grating,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett., 16, 1676 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. F. R. Mateus, M. C. Y. Huang, D. Yunfei, A. R. Neureuther, C. J. Chang-Hasnain, “Ultrabroadband mirror using low-index cladded subwavelength grating,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett., 16, 518 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

M. Lackner, G. Totschnig, F. Winter, M. Ortsiefer, M. C. Amann, R. Shau, J. Rosskopf, “Demonstration of methane spectroscopy using a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser at 1.68 μm with up to 5 MHz repetition rate,” Meas. Sci. Technol., 14, 101, (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Arai, T. Kondo, A. Onomura, A. Matsutani, T. Miyamoto, F. Koyama, “Multiple-wavelength GaInAs-GaAs vertical cavity surface emitting laser array with extended wavelength span,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., 9, 1367 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001

J. Geske, Y. L. Okuno, J. E. Bowers, V. Jayaraman, “Vertical and lateral heterogeneous integration,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 1760 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Karim, P. Abraham, D. Lofgreen, Y. J. Chiu, J. Piprek, J. Bowers, “Wafer-bonded 1.55 μm vertical cavity laser arrays for wavelength division multiplexing,” Electron. Lett. 37, 431 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

Y. Kai, Z. Yuxin, X. D. Huang, C. P. Hains, C. Julian, “Monolithic oxide-confined multiple-wavelength vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser arrays with a 57-nm wavelength grading range using an oxidized upper Bragg mirror,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett., 12, 377 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Chang-Hasnain, “Tunable VCSEL,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., 6, 978 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

W. Peidong, P. Tayebati, D. Vakhshoori, L. Chih-Cheng, M. Azimi, R. N. Sacks, “Half-symmetric cavity microelectromechanically tunable vertical cavity surface emitting lasers with single spatial mode operating near 950 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 897 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997

1996

Y. Wupen, G. S. Li, C. J. Chang-Hasnain, “Multiple-wavelength vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser arrays with a record wavelength span,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett., 8, 4 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1986

Abraham, P.

A. Karim, P. Abraham, D. Lofgreen, Y. J. Chiu, J. Piprek, J. Bowers, “Wafer-bonded 1.55 μm vertical cavity laser arrays for wavelength division multiplexing,” Electron. Lett. 37, 431 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Amann, M. C.

M. Lackner, G. Totschnig, F. Winter, M. Ortsiefer, M. C. Amann, R. Shau, J. Rosskopf, “Demonstration of methane spectroscopy using a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser at 1.68 μm with up to 5 MHz repetition rate,” Meas. Sci. Technol., 14, 101, (2003).
[CrossRef]

Amann, M.-C.

Arai, M.

M. Arai, T. Kondo, A. Onomura, A. Matsutani, T. Miyamoto, F. Koyama, “Multiple-wavelength GaInAs-GaAs vertical cavity surface emitting laser array with extended wavelength span,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., 9, 1367 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Azimi, M.

W. Peidong, P. Tayebati, D. Vakhshoori, L. Chih-Cheng, M. Azimi, R. N. Sacks, “Half-symmetric cavity microelectromechanically tunable vertical cavity surface emitting lasers with single spatial mode operating near 950 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 897 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bohm, G.

Botten, L. C.

R. Petit, L. C. Botten, “Electromagnetic theory of gratings” (Springer-Verlag, Berlin; New York, 1980).

Bowers, J.

A. Karim, P. Abraham, D. Lofgreen, Y. J. Chiu, J. Piprek, J. Bowers, “Wafer-bonded 1.55 μm vertical cavity laser arrays for wavelength division multiplexing,” Electron. Lett. 37, 431 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bowers, J. E.

J. Geske, Y. L. Okuno, J. E. Bowers, V. Jayaraman, “Vertical and lateral heterogeneous integration,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 1760 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Cao, H.

A. S. P. Chang, H. Cao, S. Y. Chou, “Optically tuned subwavelength resonant grating filter with bacteri-orhodopsin overlayer,” in Lasers and Electro-Optics Society Annual Meeting (LEOS03, 2003), p. 411.

Castelino, K.

Chang, A. S. P.

A. S. P. Chang, H. Cao, S. Y. Chou, “Optically tuned subwavelength resonant grating filter with bacteri-orhodopsin overlayer,” in Lasers and Electro-Optics Society Annual Meeting (LEOS03, 2003), p. 411.

Chang-Hasnain, C. J.

G. Piazza, K. Castelino, A. P. Pisano, C. J. Chang-Hasnain, “Design of a monolithic piezoelectrically actuated microelectromechanical tunable vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser,” Opt. Lett., 30, 896 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. F. R. Mateus, M. C. Y. Huang, L. Chen, C. J. Chang-Hasnain, Y. Suzuki, “Broad-band mirror (1.12–1.62 μm) using a subwavelength grating,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett., 16, 1676 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. F. R. Mateus, M. C. Y. Huang, D. Yunfei, A. R. Neureuther, C. J. Chang-Hasnain, “Ultrabroadband mirror using low-index cladded subwavelength grating,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett., 16, 518 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Chang-Hasnain, “Tunable VCSEL,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., 6, 978 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Y. Wupen, G. S. Li, C. J. Chang-Hasnain, “Multiple-wavelength vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser arrays with a record wavelength span,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett., 8, 4 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Chen, L.

C. F. R. Mateus, M. C. Y. Huang, L. Chen, C. J. Chang-Hasnain, Y. Suzuki, “Broad-band mirror (1.12–1.62 μm) using a subwavelength grating,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett., 16, 1676 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, C. C.

Chih-Cheng, L.

W. Peidong, P. Tayebati, D. Vakhshoori, L. Chih-Cheng, M. Azimi, R. N. Sacks, “Half-symmetric cavity microelectromechanically tunable vertical cavity surface emitting lasers with single spatial mode operating near 950 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 897 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chiu, Y. J.

A. Karim, P. Abraham, D. Lofgreen, Y. J. Chiu, J. Piprek, J. Bowers, “Wafer-bonded 1.55 μm vertical cavity laser arrays for wavelength division multiplexing,” Electron. Lett. 37, 431 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chou, H. P.

Chou, S. Y.

A. S. P. Chang, H. Cao, S. Y. Chou, “Optically tuned subwavelength resonant grating filter with bacteri-orhodopsin overlayer,” in Lasers and Electro-Optics Society Annual Meeting (LEOS03, 2003), p. 411.

Fainman, Y.

W. Nakagawa, Y. Fainman, “Tunable optical nanocavity based on modulation of near-field coupling between subwavelength periodic nanostructures,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., 10, 478 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Tyan, A. A. Salvekar, H. P. Chou, C. C. Cheng, A. Scherer, P. C. Sun, F. Xu, Y. Fainman, “Design, fabrication, and characterization of form-birefringent multilayer polarizing beam splitter,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 1627 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Gaylord, T. K.

Geske, J.

J. Geske, Y. L. Okuno, J. E. Bowers, V. Jayaraman, “Vertical and lateral heterogeneous integration,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 1760 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hadley, G. R.

Hagness, S. C.

A. Taflove, S. C. Hagness, “Computational electrodynamics : the finite-difference time-domain method. Boston” (Artech House, 2000).

Hains, C. P.

Y. Kai, Z. Yuxin, X. D. Huang, C. P. Hains, C. Julian, “Monolithic oxide-confined multiple-wavelength vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser arrays with a 57-nm wavelength grading range using an oxidized upper Bragg mirror,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett., 12, 377 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Halbritter, H.

Huang, M. C. Y.

C. F. R. Mateus, M. C. Y. Huang, L. Chen, C. J. Chang-Hasnain, Y. Suzuki, “Broad-band mirror (1.12–1.62 μm) using a subwavelength grating,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett., 16, 1676 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. F. R. Mateus, M. C. Y. Huang, D. Yunfei, A. R. Neureuther, C. J. Chang-Hasnain, “Ultrabroadband mirror using low-index cladded subwavelength grating,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett., 16, 518 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Huang, X. D.

Y. Kai, Z. Yuxin, X. D. Huang, C. P. Hains, C. Julian, “Monolithic oxide-confined multiple-wavelength vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser arrays with a 57-nm wavelength grading range using an oxidized upper Bragg mirror,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett., 12, 377 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Iwata, K.

Jayaraman, V.

J. Geske, Y. L. Okuno, J. E. Bowers, V. Jayaraman, “Vertical and lateral heterogeneous integration,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 1760 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Julian, C.

Y. Kai, Z. Yuxin, X. D. Huang, C. P. Hains, C. Julian, “Monolithic oxide-confined multiple-wavelength vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser arrays with a 57-nm wavelength grading range using an oxidized upper Bragg mirror,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett., 12, 377 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kai, Y.

Y. Kai, Z. Yuxin, X. D. Huang, C. P. Hains, C. Julian, “Monolithic oxide-confined multiple-wavelength vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser arrays with a 57-nm wavelength grading range using an oxidized upper Bragg mirror,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett., 12, 377 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Karim, A.

A. Karim, P. Abraham, D. Lofgreen, Y. J. Chiu, J. Piprek, J. Bowers, “Wafer-bonded 1.55 μm vertical cavity laser arrays for wavelength division multiplexing,” Electron. Lett. 37, 431 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kemme, S. A.

Kgel, B.

Kikuta, H.

Kondo, T.

M. Arai, T. Kondo, A. Onomura, A. Matsutani, T. Miyamoto, F. Koyama, “Multiple-wavelength GaInAs-GaAs vertical cavity surface emitting laser array with extended wavelength span,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., 9, 1367 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Koyama, F.

M. Arai, T. Kondo, A. Onomura, A. Matsutani, T. Miyamoto, F. Koyama, “Multiple-wavelength GaInAs-GaAs vertical cavity surface emitting laser array with extended wavelength span,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., 9, 1367 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lackner, M.

M. Lackner, G. Totschnig, F. Winter, M. Ortsiefer, M. C. Amann, R. Shau, J. Rosskopf, “Demonstration of methane spectroscopy using a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser at 1.68 μm with up to 5 MHz repetition rate,” Meas. Sci. Technol., 14, 101, (2003).
[CrossRef]

Li, G. S.

Y. Wupen, G. S. Li, C. J. Chang-Hasnain, “Multiple-wavelength vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser arrays with a record wavelength span,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett., 8, 4 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Li, Lifeng

Lofgreen, D.

A. Karim, P. Abraham, D. Lofgreen, Y. J. Chiu, J. Piprek, J. Bowers, “Wafer-bonded 1.55 μm vertical cavity laser arrays for wavelength division multiplexing,” Electron. Lett. 37, 431 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Mateus, C. F. R.

C. F. R. Mateus, M. C. Y. Huang, D. Yunfei, A. R. Neureuther, C. J. Chang-Hasnain, “Ultrabroadband mirror using low-index cladded subwavelength grating,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett., 16, 518 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. F. R. Mateus, M. C. Y. Huang, L. Chen, C. J. Chang-Hasnain, Y. Suzuki, “Broad-band mirror (1.12–1.62 μm) using a subwavelength grating,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett., 16, 1676 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Matsutani, A.

M. Arai, T. Kondo, A. Onomura, A. Matsutani, T. Miyamoto, F. Koyama, “Multiple-wavelength GaInAs-GaAs vertical cavity surface emitting laser array with extended wavelength span,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., 9, 1367 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Maute, M.

Meissner, P.

Miyamoto, T.

M. Arai, T. Kondo, A. Onomura, A. Matsutani, T. Miyamoto, F. Koyama, “Multiple-wavelength GaInAs-GaAs vertical cavity surface emitting laser array with extended wavelength span,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., 9, 1367 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Moharam, M. G.

Nakagawa, W.

W. Nakagawa, Y. Fainman, “Tunable optical nanocavity based on modulation of near-field coupling between subwavelength periodic nanostructures,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., 10, 478 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Neureuther, A. R.

C. F. R. Mateus, M. C. Y. Huang, D. Yunfei, A. R. Neureuther, C. J. Chang-Hasnain, “Ultrabroadband mirror using low-index cladded subwavelength grating,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett., 16, 518 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Neviere, M.

M. Neviere, E. Popov, “Light Propagation in Periodic Media, Differential Theory and Design” (Marcel Dekker Inc., New York, 2004).

Ohira, Y.

Okuno, Y. L.

J. Geske, Y. L. Okuno, J. E. Bowers, V. Jayaraman, “Vertical and lateral heterogeneous integration,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 1760 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Onomura, A.

M. Arai, T. Kondo, A. Onomura, A. Matsutani, T. Miyamoto, F. Koyama, “Multiple-wavelength GaInAs-GaAs vertical cavity surface emitting laser array with extended wavelength span,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., 9, 1367 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ortsiefer, M.

M. Lackner, G. Totschnig, F. Winter, M. Ortsiefer, M. C. Amann, R. Shau, J. Rosskopf, “Demonstration of methane spectroscopy using a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser at 1.68 μm with up to 5 MHz repetition rate,” Meas. Sci. Technol., 14, 101, (2003).
[CrossRef]

Peidong, W.

W. Peidong, P. Tayebati, D. Vakhshoori, L. Chih-Cheng, M. Azimi, R. N. Sacks, “Half-symmetric cavity microelectromechanically tunable vertical cavity surface emitting lasers with single spatial mode operating near 950 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 897 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Peters, D. W.

Petit, R.

R. Petit, L. C. Botten, “Electromagnetic theory of gratings” (Springer-Verlag, Berlin; New York, 1980).

Piazza, G.

Piprek, J.

A. Karim, P. Abraham, D. Lofgreen, Y. J. Chiu, J. Piprek, J. Bowers, “Wafer-bonded 1.55 μm vertical cavity laser arrays for wavelength division multiplexing,” Electron. Lett. 37, 431 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Pisano, A. P.

Popov, E.

M. Neviere, E. Popov, “Light Propagation in Periodic Media, Differential Theory and Design” (Marcel Dekker Inc., New York, 2004).

Rosskopf, J.

M. Lackner, G. Totschnig, F. Winter, M. Ortsiefer, M. C. Amann, R. Shau, J. Rosskopf, “Demonstration of methane spectroscopy using a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser at 1.68 μm with up to 5 MHz repetition rate,” Meas. Sci. Technol., 14, 101, (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sacks, R. N.

W. Peidong, P. Tayebati, D. Vakhshoori, L. Chih-Cheng, M. Azimi, R. N. Sacks, “Half-symmetric cavity microelectromechanically tunable vertical cavity surface emitting lasers with single spatial mode operating near 950 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 897 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Salvekar, A. A.

Scherer, A.

Shau, R.

M. Lackner, G. Totschnig, F. Winter, M. Ortsiefer, M. C. Amann, R. Shau, J. Rosskopf, “Demonstration of methane spectroscopy using a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser at 1.68 μm with up to 5 MHz repetition rate,” Meas. Sci. Technol., 14, 101, (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sun, P. C.

Suzuki, Y.

C. F. R. Mateus, M. C. Y. Huang, L. Chen, C. J. Chang-Hasnain, Y. Suzuki, “Broad-band mirror (1.12–1.62 μm) using a subwavelength grating,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett., 16, 1676 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Taflove, A.

A. Taflove, S. C. Hagness, “Computational electrodynamics : the finite-difference time-domain method. Boston” (Artech House, 2000).

Tayebati, P.

W. Peidong, P. Tayebati, D. Vakhshoori, L. Chih-Cheng, M. Azimi, R. N. Sacks, “Half-symmetric cavity microelectromechanically tunable vertical cavity surface emitting lasers with single spatial mode operating near 950 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 897 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Totschnig, G.

M. Lackner, G. Totschnig, F. Winter, M. Ortsiefer, M. C. Amann, R. Shau, J. Rosskopf, “Demonstration of methane spectroscopy using a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser at 1.68 μm with up to 5 MHz repetition rate,” Meas. Sci. Technol., 14, 101, (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tyan, R. C.

Vakhshoori, D.

W. Peidong, P. Tayebati, D. Vakhshoori, L. Chih-Cheng, M. Azimi, R. N. Sacks, “Half-symmetric cavity microelectromechanically tunable vertical cavity surface emitting lasers with single spatial mode operating near 950 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 897 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Winter, F.

M. Lackner, G. Totschnig, F. Winter, M. Ortsiefer, M. C. Amann, R. Shau, J. Rosskopf, “Demonstration of methane spectroscopy using a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser at 1.68 μm with up to 5 MHz repetition rate,” Meas. Sci. Technol., 14, 101, (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wupen, Y.

Y. Wupen, G. S. Li, C. J. Chang-Hasnain, “Multiple-wavelength vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser arrays with a record wavelength span,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett., 8, 4 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Xu, F.

Yunfei, D.

C. F. R. Mateus, M. C. Y. Huang, D. Yunfei, A. R. Neureuther, C. J. Chang-Hasnain, “Ultrabroadband mirror using low-index cladded subwavelength grating,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett., 16, 518 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yuxin, Z.

Y. Kai, Z. Yuxin, X. D. Huang, C. P. Hains, C. Julian, “Monolithic oxide-confined multiple-wavelength vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser arrays with a 57-nm wavelength grading range using an oxidized upper Bragg mirror,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett., 12, 377 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

W. Peidong, P. Tayebati, D. Vakhshoori, L. Chih-Cheng, M. Azimi, R. N. Sacks, “Half-symmetric cavity microelectromechanically tunable vertical cavity surface emitting lasers with single spatial mode operating near 950 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 897 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Geske, Y. L. Okuno, J. E. Bowers, V. Jayaraman, “Vertical and lateral heterogeneous integration,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 1760 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett.

A. Karim, P. Abraham, D. Lofgreen, Y. J. Chiu, J. Piprek, J. Bowers, “Wafer-bonded 1.55 μm vertical cavity laser arrays for wavelength division multiplexing,” Electron. Lett. 37, 431 (2001).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

M. Arai, T. Kondo, A. Onomura, A. Matsutani, T. Miyamoto, F. Koyama, “Multiple-wavelength GaInAs-GaAs vertical cavity surface emitting laser array with extended wavelength span,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., 9, 1367 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Chang-Hasnain, “Tunable VCSEL,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., 6, 978 (2000).
[CrossRef]

W. Nakagawa, Y. Fainman, “Tunable optical nanocavity based on modulation of near-field coupling between subwavelength periodic nanostructures,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., 10, 478 (2004).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett.

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